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					                                           Review for Semester Two Biology

                 I. DNA and Protein Synthesis
Questions                                          Answers
A. Name the scientists and their
   contributions to the discovery of DNA:
       o Griffith



        o   Hershey and Chase



        o   Avery



        o   Watson and Crick



        o   Rosalind Franklin




B.   Draw a picture of DNA replicating and
     label all the parts and enzymes.




C.   List the base pairing rule for DNA
     replication



D.   Write cornel notes on the process of
     transcription, define the purpose, where it
     takes place and the molecules and
     enzymes invovled
                                          Review for Semester Two Biology

                        I.       DNA and Protein Synthesis
Questions                                                      Answers
E. Write the base pairing rule for DNA to RNA base
   pairing rule for transcription


F.   Write the name of the Start Codon

G. Write Cornel notes listing the steps in Translation, list
   the purpose, location and molecules and enzymes
   involved.


H.   Use the mRNA chart to decode mRNA into amino
     acids for the following Codons:
                           o AGU
                           o CAA
                           o ACA
                           o UUA
                           o UAG

I.   Write the difference between a codon and an
     anticodon



                        II.      Meiosis
Questions                                         Answers

A. Draw and Label the stages of Meiosis- write
a caption as to what happens in each stage.




B. Define Gamate.
                                           Review for Semester Two Biology


C. What is the number of chromosomes in
human somatic cells and gamates?

D. Explain the process of crossing over.




                        III.     Genetics
Questions                                      Answers
   A. Define the terms:
          a. Allele

             b.   Pheotype

             c.   Genotype

             d.   Diploid

             e.   Haploid

             f.   Dominant

             g.   Recessive

             h.   Heterzygous

             i.   Homozygous


B. Explain Mendel’s Law of Segragation and
the Law of Independent Assortment




C. One-Trait Crosses: In pea plants, red
flowers are dominant over white flowers.
A heterozygous flower self pollinates.
        a. Show the Punnett’s square




         b. What is the genotypic ratio?
         c. What is the phenotypic ratio?
                                     Review for Semester Two Biology


       d. If you were putting together a
          bouquet from the offspring of
          this cross, what color will most
          of the flowers be?


D. Two-Trait Crosses: In a certain breed
of guinea pigs, straight hair (H) is a
dominant trait and curly hair (h) is
recessive. Black eyes (B) for guinea pigs
is another dominant trait while pink eyes
(b) is recessive. A breeder had a male
guinea pig that was heterozygous for both
hair and eye color and mated him with a
female with curly hair and who was
heterozygous for black eyes.

       a. Show the Punnett’s square




       b. calculate the genotypic ratio:

       c. calculate the phenotypic ratio:

       d. If curly haired, black eyed
          babies were more valuable,
          what is percentage of these
          that would result from the
          cross?

       e. And chance of straight haired,
          pink eyed?
                                           Review for Semester Two Biology

E. Consider the following order of
dominance for the trait for cattle hair:

Dominant -------------------- Recessive
      Red (HR)               Black (h)
      White(H  W)


         a. What is the gene interaction for
the alleles for red and white hair?



        b. In cattle, the genotype (HRHW)
           comes out a mixture of both
           red and white called “roan”. A
           roan cattle breeds with a
           heterozygous red cattle.
           Show the Punnett Square:


F. Complete the Punnet square for a
cross between a homozygous red-
flowered snapdragon (CRCR) and a
homozygous white-flowered snapdragon
(CrCr). Give the ratio for the phenotype
and the genoptype.
CR – red
Cr – white
CRCr – pink

    1. What happens to the phenotype of
       the heterozygotes when traits are
       inherited in an incomplete
       dominance pattern?
                                           Review for Semester Two Biology

                        IV.      Genetic Disorders
Questions                                       Answers
A.Pedigree                                      This pedigree shows the inheritance of color-blindness, sex-linked trait found on
                                                the “X” chromosome.




                                                    a. Based on the pedigree, is this train dominant or recessive?


                                                    b. What is the genotype of the mother of the colorblind girl in the F3
                                                       generation?

                                                    c. Explain why color-blindness afflicts more males than females.


    B.   Explain the difference between
         autosomal and X-linked traits.




    C.   Explain the difference between
         dominant and recessive traits.




D. Explain the difference between somatic and
germ-line mutations.




    D.   Explain the difference between
         frameshift and point mutations.
                                           Review for Semester Two Biology


E. Draw a picture showing each of the
following mutations on the gene level:
             o Deletion




              o    Duplication




              o    Inversion




              o    translocation




F. Define:

      o      gene linkage




      o      Gene Mapping




      o      Polygenic traits (give an example)




      o      Non-disjuction disorders )give an
             example)



G. Explain techniques for prenatal diagnosis of
genetic disorders
                                           Review for Semester Two Biology
H. Draw a karyotype showing a male and
down syndrome.




                        V.       Genetic Engineering
Questions                                       Answers
A. Define selective breeding, inbreeding, and
hybridization




B. Explain recombinant DNA and the tools
used to perform it.




C. Explain Cloning and the tools used to
perform it.




    E.   Explain DNA Fingerprinting and the
         tools used to perform it.




                        VI.      Evolution
Questions                                       Answers
A. Define Fitness
                                         Review for Semester Two Biology

B. Define the following:

    o    Adaptation



    o    Mutation




    o    Natural Selection




    o    Coevolution



C. What are four mechanisms of evolution?




D. Explain how genetic drift occurs.




E. Define Bottle necking.




F. Give an example of the Founders Effect.
                                            Review for Semester Two Biology

G. Explain the 3 types of Natural Selection




                         VII. Disease and Immune Response
Questions                                          Answers
   A. Explain the various defining points of
        bacteria (shape, size, stain).




    B.   Explain the difference between gram
         positive and gram negative.




    C.   Explain how bacteria grow and
         reproduce.




    D.   Draw a picture of a virus and label it.
                                              Review for Semester Two Biology

    E.   Draw a diagram of lytic infection.
         Write a caption for each part.




F. Draw a diagram of lysogenic infection.
     Write a caption for each part.
                                          Review for Semester Two Biology
G.Define the role of each cell in the immune
system.



    o    Natural Killer Cell




    o    Macrophage




    o    Interleukin




    o    Dendritic Cell




    o    T-Cell




    o    B-Cell




    o    Antibodies




    o    Lymph Nodes
                                              Review for Semester Two Biology


                         VIII. Cellular Respiration
Questions                                         Answers
A. Write the equation for cellular Respiration




B. Where does Cell Respiration take place?



C. Explain Glycolysis.



D. List how many ATP are made at each
stage of cell respiration. How many ATP are
made total?




                         IX.      Investigation and Experimentation
Questions                                         Answers
A. List the steps of the scientific method.




B. Explain the difference between the
independent variable and the dependent
variable.

				
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