Review for Semester Two Biology I. DNA and Protein Synthesis Questions Answers A. Name the scientists and their contributions to the discovery of DNA: o Griffith o Hershey and Chase o Avery o Watson and Crick o Rosalind Franklin B. Draw a picture of DNA replicating and label all the parts and enzymes. C. List the base pairing rule for DNA replication D. Write cornel notes on the process of transcription, define the purpose, where it takes place and the molecules and enzymes invovled Review for Semester Two Biology I. DNA and Protein Synthesis Questions Answers E. Write the base pairing rule for DNA to RNA base pairing rule for transcription F. Write the name of the Start Codon G. Write Cornel notes listing the steps in Translation, list the purpose, location and molecules and enzymes involved. H. Use the mRNA chart to decode mRNA into amino acids for the following Codons: o AGU o CAA o ACA o UUA o UAG I. Write the difference between a codon and an anticodon II. Meiosis Questions Answers A. Draw and Label the stages of Meiosis- write a caption as to what happens in each stage. B. Define Gamate. Review for Semester Two Biology C. What is the number of chromosomes in human somatic cells and gamates? D. Explain the process of crossing over. III. Genetics Questions Answers A. Define the terms: a. Allele b. Pheotype c. Genotype d. Diploid e. Haploid f. Dominant g. Recessive h. Heterzygous i. Homozygous B. Explain Mendel’s Law of Segragation and the Law of Independent Assortment C. One-Trait Crosses: In pea plants, red flowers are dominant over white flowers. A heterozygous flower self pollinates. a. Show the Punnett’s square b. What is the genotypic ratio? c. What is the phenotypic ratio? Review for Semester Two Biology d. If you were putting together a bouquet from the offspring of this cross, what color will most of the flowers be? D. Two-Trait Crosses: In a certain breed of guinea pigs, straight hair (H) is a dominant trait and curly hair (h) is recessive. Black eyes (B) for guinea pigs is another dominant trait while pink eyes (b) is recessive. A breeder had a male guinea pig that was heterozygous for both hair and eye color and mated him with a female with curly hair and who was heterozygous for black eyes. a. Show the Punnett’s square b. calculate the genotypic ratio: c. calculate the phenotypic ratio: d. If curly haired, black eyed babies were more valuable, what is percentage of these that would result from the cross? e. And chance of straight haired, pink eyed? Review for Semester Two Biology E. Consider the following order of dominance for the trait for cattle hair: Dominant -------------------- Recessive Red (HR) Black (h) White(H W) a. What is the gene interaction for the alleles for red and white hair? b. In cattle, the genotype (HRHW) comes out a mixture of both red and white called “roan”. A roan cattle breeds with a heterozygous red cattle. Show the Punnett Square: F. Complete the Punnet square for a cross between a homozygous red- flowered snapdragon (CRCR) and a homozygous white-flowered snapdragon (CrCr). Give the ratio for the phenotype and the genoptype. CR – red Cr – white CRCr – pink 1. What happens to the phenotype of the heterozygotes when traits are inherited in an incomplete dominance pattern? Review for Semester Two Biology IV. Genetic Disorders Questions Answers A.Pedigree This pedigree shows the inheritance of color-blindness, sex-linked trait found on the “X” chromosome. a. Based on the pedigree, is this train dominant or recessive? b. What is the genotype of the mother of the colorblind girl in the F3 generation? c. Explain why color-blindness afflicts more males than females. B. Explain the difference between autosomal and X-linked traits. C. Explain the difference between dominant and recessive traits. D. Explain the difference between somatic and germ-line mutations. D. Explain the difference between frameshift and point mutations. Review for Semester Two Biology E. Draw a picture showing each of the following mutations on the gene level: o Deletion o Duplication o Inversion o translocation F. Define: o gene linkage o Gene Mapping o Polygenic traits (give an example) o Non-disjuction disorders )give an example) G. Explain techniques for prenatal diagnosis of genetic disorders Review for Semester Two Biology H. Draw a karyotype showing a male and down syndrome. V. Genetic Engineering Questions Answers A. Define selective breeding, inbreeding, and hybridization B. Explain recombinant DNA and the tools used to perform it. C. Explain Cloning and the tools used to perform it. E. Explain DNA Fingerprinting and the tools used to perform it. VI. Evolution Questions Answers A. Define Fitness Review for Semester Two Biology B. Define the following: o Adaptation o Mutation o Natural Selection o Coevolution C. What are four mechanisms of evolution? D. Explain how genetic drift occurs. E. Define Bottle necking. F. Give an example of the Founders Effect. Review for Semester Two Biology G. Explain the 3 types of Natural Selection VII. Disease and Immune Response Questions Answers A. Explain the various defining points of bacteria (shape, size, stain). B. Explain the difference between gram positive and gram negative. C. Explain how bacteria grow and reproduce. D. Draw a picture of a virus and label it. Review for Semester Two Biology E. Draw a diagram of lytic infection. Write a caption for each part. F. Draw a diagram of lysogenic infection. Write a caption for each part. Review for Semester Two Biology G.Define the role of each cell in the immune system. o Natural Killer Cell o Macrophage o Interleukin o Dendritic Cell o T-Cell o B-Cell o Antibodies o Lymph Nodes Review for Semester Two Biology VIII. Cellular Respiration Questions Answers A. Write the equation for cellular Respiration B. Where does Cell Respiration take place? C. Explain Glycolysis. D. List how many ATP are made at each stage of cell respiration. How many ATP are made total? IX. Investigation and Experimentation Questions Answers A. List the steps of the scientific method. B. Explain the difference between the independent variable and the dependent variable.