OSHA 3220-10N 2004 WORKER SAFETY SERIES WAREHOUSING 11 Think Safety Hazards & Solutions • More than 145,000 people work in over 7 ,000 warehouses. Warehouse operations can present a wide variety of potential hazards for • The fatal injury rate for the warehousing the worker. industry is higher than the national average for all industries. For warehousing establishments, the • Potential hazards for workers in warehousing: 10 OSHA standards most frequently • Unsafe use of forklifts; included in the agency’s citations • Improper stacking of products; were: • Failure to use proper personal protective 1 . Forklifts equipment; 2. Hazard communication • Failure to follow proper lockout/tagout 3. Electrical, wiring methods procedures; 4. Electrical, system design • Inadequate fire safety provisions; or 5. Guarding floor & wall openings • Repetitive motion injuries. and holes 6. Exits 7 . Mechanical power transmission 8. Respiratory protection 9. Lockout/tagout 10. Portable fire extinguishers Occupational Safety and Health Administration U.S. Department of Labor www.osha.gov Occupational Safety and Health Administration 2 WORKER SAFETY SERIES WAREHOUSING 3 Docks Forklifts Hazard: Injuries happen here when forklifts Hazard: About 100 employees are killed and run off the dock, products fall on employees 95,000 injured every year while operating or equipment strikes a person. forklifts in all industries. Forklift turnovers account for a significant percentage of these Solutions: fatalities. • Drive forklifts slowly on docks and dock Solutions: plates; • Train, evaluate and certify all operators to • Secure dock plates and check to see if the ensure that they can operate forklifts safely; plate can safely support the load; • Do not allow anyone under 18 years old to • Keep clear of dock edges and never back operate a forklift; up forklifts to the dock’s edge; • Properly maintain haulage equipment, • Provide visual warnings near dock edges; including tires; • Prohibit “dock jumping” by employees; • Before using a forklift, examine it for haz- • Make sure that dock ladders and stairs meet ardous conditions which would make it OSHA specifications. unsafe to operate; • Follow safe procedures for picking up, putting down and stacking loads; • Drive safely, never exceeding 5 mph and slow down in congested areas or those with slippery surfaces; Occupational Safety and Occupational Safety and Health Administration Health Administration 4 WORKER SAFETY SERIES WAREHOUSING 5 • Ensure that the operator wears a seatbelt installed by the manufacturer; Conveyors Hazard: Workers can be injured when they • Never drive up to a person standing in front are caught in pinch points or in the in-going of a fixed object such as a wall or stacked nip points, are hit by falling products or materials; develop musculoskeletal disorders associated • Prohibit stunt driving and horseplay; with awkward postures or repetitive motions. • Do not handle loads that are heavier than Solutions: the weight capacity of the forklift; • Inspect conveyors regularly; • Remove unsafe or defective trucks from • Ensure that pinch points are adequately service until the defect is properly repaired; guarded; • Maintain sufficiently safe clearances for • Develop ways of locking out conveyors and aisles and at loading docks or passages train employees in these procedures; where forklifts are used; • Provide proper lighting and working sur- • Ensure adequate ventilation either by faces in the area surrounding the conveyor. opened doors/windows or using a ventila- tion system to provide enough fresh air to keep concentrations of noxious gases from engine exhaust below acceptable limits; • Provide covers and/or guardrails to protect workers from the hazards of open pits, tanks, vats and ditches; • Train employees on the hazards associated with the combustion byproducts of forklift operation, such as carbon monoxide. Materials Storage Hazard: Improperly stored materials may fall and injure workers. Solutions: • Stack loads evenly and straight; • Place heavier loads on lower or middle shelves; • Remove one object at a time from shelves; • Keep aisles and passageways clear and in good repair. Occupational Safety and Occupational Safety and Health Administration Health Administration 6 WORKER SAFETY SERIES WAREHOUSING 7 Manual Lifting/Handling Hazard Communication Hazard: Back injuries may occur from Hazard: Chemical burns are possible if spills improper lifting or overexertion. of hazardous materials occur. Solutions: Solutions: • Provide general ergonomics training and • Maintain a Material Safety Data Sheet task-specific training; (MSDS) for each chemical to which workers are exposed in the facility; • Minimize the need for lifting by using good design and engineering techniques; • Follow instructions on the MSDS for han- dling chemical products; • Lift properly and get a coworker to help if a product is too heavy. • Train employees on the risks of each chemical being stored; • Provide spill cleanup kits in any area where chemicals are stored; • Have a written spill control plan; • Train employees to clean up spills, protect themselves and properly dispose of used materials; • Provide proper personal protective equipment and enforce its use; • Store all chemicals safely and securely; • Store chemicals away from forklift traffic areas. Occupational Safety and Occupational Safety and Health Administration Health Administration 8 WORKER SAFETY SERIES WAREHOUSING 9 Charging Stations Poor Ergonomics Hazard: Fires and explosion risks are possible Hazard: Improper lifting, repetitive motion or unless proper guidelines are followed. poor design of operations can lead to muscu- loskeletal disorders in workers. Solutions: • Prohibit smoking and open flames in and Solutions: around charging stations; • If possible, use powered equipment instead • Provide adequate ventilation to disperse of requiring a manual lift for heavy materials; fumes from gassing batteries; • Reduce lifts from shoulder height and from • Ensure that fire extinguishers are available floor height by repositioning the shelf or bin; and fully charged; • Ensure overhead lighting is adequate for • Provide proper personal protective the task at hand; equipment such as rubber gloves and eye • Provide employees with task-oriented and face protection; ergonomic training; • Properly position forklifts and apply brakes • Use your legs and keep your back in a natu- before attempting to change or charge ral position while lifting; batteries; follow required procedures when • Test the load to be lifted to estimate its refueling gas or propane fueled forklifts; weight, size and bulk, and to determine the • Provide conveyors, overhead hoists or proper lifting method; equivalent materials handling equipment • Get help if the load exceeds the maximum for servicing batteries; weight a person can lift safely without • Provide an eyewashing and safety shower assistance; facility for employees exposed to battery • Don’t twist while carrying a load, but shift acids. your feet and take small steps in the direc- tion you want to turn; • Keep floors clean and free of slip and trip hazards. Occupational Safety and Occupational Safety and Health Administration Health Administration 10 WORKER SAFETY SERIES WAREHOUSING 11 Other Hazards Think Safety Checklists Inadequate fire safety provisions, improper use of lockout procedures and failure to wear The following checklists may help personal protective equipment also create you take steps to avoid hazards that hazards in the warehouse workplace. cause injuries, illnesses and fatalities. Employers should have an emergency plan As always, be cautious and seek help that describes what is expected of employees if you are concerned about a poten- in the event of an emergency, including: tial hazard. • Provisions for emergency exit locations and evacuation procedures; General Safety • Procedures for accounting for all employees and visitors; ❏ Exposed or openemployees could fall and other areas that loading dock doors 4 feet or more or walk off should be chained • Location and use of fire extinguishers and off, roped off or otherwise blocked. other emergency equipment. Warehouse operations need a lockout/tagout ❏ Floors and aisleshoses, spills and other electrical cords, are clear of clutter, program to prevent equipment from being hazards that could cause employees to accidentally energized and injuring employees. slip, trip or fall. Employees required to perform these opera- tions should be trained and all employees ❏ Proper work practicesrequirementsinto an determining the time are factored for should have a working knowledge of the employee to perform a task. program. Finally, management at warehouse operations ❏ Employees performing physical work have adequate periodic rest breaks needs to conduct a site hazard assessment to to avoid fatigue levels that could result in determine what personal protective equipment greater risk of accidents and reduced (PPE) must be worn based on the hazards quality of work. present and train warehouse employees on proper PPE selection, use and maintenance. ❏ Newly-hired training andreceive general ergonomics employees task-specific training. ❏ The warehouse is well ventilated. ❏ Employees in hot, humid environments. heat stress are instructed on how to avoid ❏ Employees are instructed on how to work in cold environments. ❏ The facility has lockout/tagout procedures. Occupational Safety and Occupational Safety and Health Administration Health Administration 12 WORKER SAFETY SERIES WAREHOUSING 13 Materials Handling Safety Hazard Communication Safety ❏ There are appropriately markedaisles and sufficiently safe clearances for and ❏ All hazardouslabeled, indicating the are properly materials containers at loading docks or passageways where chemical’s identity, the manufacturer’s mechanical handling equipment is used. name and address, and appropriate ❏ Loose/unboxedproperly stacked might fall materials which hazard warnings. from a pile are by block- ing, interlocking or limiting the height of ❏ There is an updated list of hazardous chemicals. the pile to prevent falling hazards. ❏ The facility hasdetermination, including a written program that ❏ Bags, containers, bundles, etc. are stored in tiers that are stacked, blocked, inter- covers hazard Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), locked and limited in height so that they labeling and training. are stable and secure to prevent sliding or collapse. ❏ There is a chemicaltoischeck that eachby incoming system accompanied ❏ Storage areas are kept free from accumu- a MSDS. lation of materials that could lead to trip- ping, fire, explosion or pest infestations. ❏ All employeeshazard communication ments of the are trained in the require- ❏ Excessiveentrances, workremoved from building vegetation is or traffic areas standard, the chemical hazards to which they are exposed, how to read and to prevent possible trip or fall hazards understand a MSDS and chemical labels, due to visual obstructions. and on what precautions to take to ❏ Derail and/or bumper blocks arerolling car provided prevent exposure. on spur railroad tracks where a ❏ All employee training is documented. could contact other cars being worked on and at entrances to buildings, work or ❏ All outside contractors are given a com- plete list of chemical products, hazards traffic areas. and precautions. ❏ Covers and/or guardrails are provided to protect personnel from the hazards of ❏ Procedures have been established to maintain and evaluate the effectiveness stair openings in floors, meter or equip- of the current program. ment pits and similar hazards. ❏ Personnel use proper lifting techniques. ❏ Employees when handling chemicals. equipment use proper personal protective ❏ Elevators and hoists for used with ade- containers are properly lifting materials/ ❏ All chemicals are stored accordingandthe to manufacturer’s recommendations quate safe clearances, no obstructions, local or national fire codes. appropriate signals and directional warn- ing signs. Occupational Safety and Occupational Safety and Health Administration Health Administration 14 WORKER SAFETY SERIES WAREHOUSING 15 Forklift Safety ❏ Forkliftsapplied beforepositionedstart to are properly and ❏ Powered industrial trucks (forklifts) meet the design and construction requirements brakes workers change or charge batteries. established in American National ❏ Vent caps are properly functioning. Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks, Part II ANSI B56.1-1969. ❏ Precautions are takenor electric arcs in open flames, sparks to prevent smoking, ❏ Written approval from the truck for any manufacturer has been obtained battery charging areas and during stor- age/changing of propane fuel tanks. modifications or additions that affect the capacity and safe operation of the ❏ Tools fromothertop of uncovered batteries. away and the metallic objects are kept vehicle. ❏ Capacity, operationtags or decals are and maintenance ❏ Concentrations below acceptable and fumes are kept of noxious gases levels. instruction plates, changed to specify any modifications or additions to the vehicle. ❏ Forklift operators are competent to oper- ate a vehicle safely as demonstrated by successful completion of training and ❏ Nameplates andin a legibleare in place and maintained markings condition. evaluation conducted and certified by persons with the knowledge, training and ❏ Forklifts that are used inmarked/approved tions are appropriately hazardous loca- experience to train operators and evalu- ate their performance. for such use. ❏ Thetruck-related topics,content includes training program ❏ Battery charging is conducted only in designated areas. all workplace-related topics and the requirements of 29 CFR ❏ Appropriate and neutralizing spilled facilities are provided 1910.178 for safe truck operation. for flushing electrolytes, for fire extinguishing, for ❏ Refresher training andan operator has conducted whenever evaluation is protecting charging apparatus from been observed operating the vehicle in damage by trucks and for adequate an unsafe manner or has been involved ventilation to disperse fumes from in an accident or a near-miss incident. gassing batteries. ❏ Refresher training andan operator is evaluation is ❏ Conveyors, overhead hoists or equivalent materials handling equipment are provided conducted whenever assigned to drive a different type of truck for handling batteries. or whenever a condition in the workplace ❏ Reinstalled and secured. properly positioned batteries are changes in a manner that could affect safe operation of the truck. ❏ Carboy tilters or siphons are used for ❏ Evaluationsconducted at least once every mance are of each operator’s perfor- handling electrolytes. three years. Occupational Safety and Occupational Safety and Health Administration Health Administration 16 WORKER SAFETY SERIES WAREHOUSING 17 ❏ Loadcontrols neutralized, powerlowered, with engaging means are fully shut Warehouse Safety & off and brakes set when a forklift is left Health Resources unattended. Most resource materials can be found ❏ Operators maintain a safe distance from the edge of ramps or platforms while on the OSHA website: www.osha.gov using forklifts on any elevated dock, Materials Handling platform or freight car. Materials Handling and Storage ❏ There is sufficient headroom for the fork- lift and operator under overhead installa- OSHA Publication 2236 (Revised 2002). , 559KB PDF 40 pages. tions, lights, pipes, sprinkler systems, etc. A comprehensive guide to hazards and safe work practices in handling materials. ❏ Overhead to protect forklift operators condition guards are provided in good http://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha2236.pdf from falling objects. Electrical Hazards ❏ Operatorsauthorized plant speed limits. including observe all traffic regulations, Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout) OSHA Publication 3120 (Revised 2002). ❏ Driversand keep a clearlook inofthe direc- tion of are required to view the path , 174 KB PDF 45 pages. This booklet presents OSHA’s general require- of travel. ments for controlling hazardous energy during service or maintenance of machines or equipment. ❏ Operators run their trucksstopa in a safe will permit the vehicle to at speed that http://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3120.pdf manner. Controlling Electrical Hazards OSHA Publication 3075 (Revised 2002). ❏ Dock boards (bridge plates) are properly secured when loading or unloading from , 349KB PDF 71 pages. This publication provides an overview of basic dock to truck. electrical safety on the job. ❏ Stunt driving and horseplay are prohibited. http://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3075.pdf ❏ Allwithin are stable,capacityarranged and fit loads the rated safely of the truck. Safety and Health Topics: Lockout/Tagout OSHA website index to information about lockout/tagout, including hazard recognition, ❏ Operatorsnot running. only when the engine is fill fuel tanks compliance, standards and directives, Review Commission and Administrative Law Judge ❏ Replacement partswith thoseare equivalent in terms of safety of trucks used in the Decisions, standard interpretations and Compliance Letters, compliance assistance original design. and training. ❏ Trucksplaced into servicesafetyunsafe http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/controlhazardous are examined for before energy/index.html being and or defective trucks are removed from service. Occupational Safety and Occupational Safety and Health Administration Health Administration 18 WORKER SAFETY SERIES WAREHOUSING 19 Protecting Young Workers: Prohibition Evacuation Plans and Procedures Against Young Workers Operating Forklifts An eTool designed to help small, low-hazard OSHA Safety and Health Bulletin (2003), 4 service or retail businesses implement an emer- pages. Available as a PDF document, 109 KB. gency action plan and comply with OSHA's http://www.osha.gov/dts/shib/shib093003.html emergency standards. http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/evacuation/ Hazard Communication index.html OSHA’s website index for resources on hazard communication. Fire Safety http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/hazardcommunica- Safety and Health Topics: Fire Safety tions/index.html OSHA website index to information on fire safety. http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/firesafety/index.html More Hazard Communication Frequently Asked Questions for Hazard Fire Safety Advisor Communication. OSHA, 6 pages. OSHA's Fire Safety Advisor is an interactive http://www.osha.gov/html/faq-hazcom.html expert software. It will help explain and apply OSHA's Fire Safety-related standards. It can Hazard Communication Standard. be used online or is available for download. OSHA Fact Sheet (1993), 3 pages. http://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/oshasoft/ http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.shw softfirex.html _document?p_table=FACT_SHEETS&p_id=151 Hazard Communication Guidelines for Forklift Safety Compliance. OSHA Publication 3111 (2000), 112 Safety and Health Topics: Powered , KB PDF 33 pages. Industrial Trucks This document aids employers in understanding OSHA website index links to specific require- the Hazard Communication standard and in ments and other Federal agency requirements. implementing a hazard communication program. http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/poweredindustrial- http://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3111.pdf trucks/index.html Chemical Hazard Communication. OSHA Sample Daily Checklists for Powered Industrial Trucks , Publication 3084 (1998), 248 KB PDF 31 pages. http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/ote/trng-materials/pit/daily_pit_checklist.html This booklet answers several basic questions Preventing Injuries and Deaths of Workers about chemical hazard communication. Who Work Near Forklifts http://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3084.pdf NIOSH Alert Pub. No. 2001-109 (June 2001). NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. This alert instructs workers in the steps they can Handy source of general industrial hygiene take to protect themselves near forklifts. It is also information on several hundred chemicals/ available as a downloadable PDF document. classes for workers, employers and occupa- http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/2001-109.html tional health professionals. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npg.html Occupational Safety and Occupational Safety and Health Administration Health Administration 20 WORKER SAFETY SERIES WAREHOUSING 21 Ergonomics Warehouse Industry Safety and Health Topics: Ergonomics OSHA website index to resources and publica- Cooperative Programs tions on ergonomics. http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/ergonomics/index.html Grocery Warehousing – Ergonomics An e-tool specific for warehousing operations in the grocery industry. http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/grocery warehousing/index.html Personal Protective Equipment Voluntary Protection Programs Numerous VPP worksites that OSHA Safety and Health Topics: recognizes for their excellent safety and health Personal Protective Equipment management systems deal with the hazards OSHA’s website index to hazard recognition, of warehousing and storage. These model control and training related to personal protec- worksites are willing to share their expertise tive equipment. and many are available to mentor other http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/personalprotective businesses. For further information on how equipment/index.html VPP participants can help you, contact the VPP Personal Protective Equipment. OSHA Manager in your OSHA Regional Office or the Publication 3151 (2004), 695KB PDF 44 pages. , Voluntary Protection Programs Participants’ Discusses equipment most commonly used for Association, 7600-E Leesburg Pike, Suite 440, protection for the head, including eyes and face, Falls Church, VA 22043, telephone (703) 761- and the torso, arms, hands and feet. The use of 1146. equipment to protect against life-threatening hazards is also discussed. http://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3151/ osha3151.html Alliance Program Alliances enable organizations committed to workplace safety and health to collaborate with OSHA to prevent injuries and illnesses in the workplace. A number of Alliances have an impact on the warehousing industry, including the following: Retail Industry Leaders Association The OSHA Alliance with the Retail Industry Leaders Association (RILA) is focused on Occupational Safety and Occupational Safety and Health Administration Health Administration 22 WORKER SAFETY SERIES WAREHOUSING 23 sharing safety and health best practices and technical knowledge, including ergonomics in NJ Warehouse retail warehousing and distribution facilities. Operation - Industrial Truck Association The Industrial Truck Association (ITA) and A Success Story OSHA also have an Alliance to promote the safe operation of powered industrial trucks OSHA recommendations result in through training and outreach. The goal of the immediate, high payoff for an East Alliance is to assist employers and employees Coast warehouse operation. in reducing and preventing exposure to potential hazards associated with the use of Injury Reduction powered industrial trucks in general, and in Recently, a New Jersey warehouse operation warehouses in particular. had been averaging two back injuries a month. After adopting several OSHA International Warehouse Logistics Association recommendations for reducing ergonomic OSHA and the International Warehouse risk factors specific to their operations, the Logistics Association (IWLA) work together company reported zero back injuries. to protect employees’ safety and health, including hard-to-reach youth workers. The Boosting Morale & Productivity Alliance addresses materials handling, forklift And there was another benefit from adopting safety, hazard communication and other OSHA’s recommendations. According to the issues unique to the public warehouse industry. Marlton, NJ OSHA area office, company National Lumber and Building Material sources reported that both the morale and Dealers Association productivity of the company’s 50 warehouse OSHA has an Alliance with the National employees had subsequently increased. Lumber and Building Material Dealers Association (NLBMDA) to increase overall Ongoing Help safety awareness in that industry while As part of OSHA’s ongoing efforts to do a specifically addressing recordkeeping issues, better job in promoting workers’ safety and preventing forklift accidents and avoiding health, the agency has developed a program lifting strains. to help identify certain industries that have exceptionally high injury rates. One of these industries is warehousing. By identifying these workplaces, OSHA is better able to assist businesses in reducing their high injury rates. Through the Site Specific Targeting Plan, OSHA performs a comprehensive evaluation of a workplace and, with the help of its technical experts, helps the employer develop a plan for improving its employees’ safety and health. Occupational Safety and Occupational Safety and Health Administration Health Administration 24 WORKER SAFETY SERIES WAREHOUSING 25 Specific Recommendations Feasible Controls OSHA’s recommendations were developed In OSHA’s detailed evaluation, each hazard specifically for this New Jersey warehouse was carefully described, including photo- operation by OSHA’s Salt Lake City Technical graphs illustrating the task to help clearly Support Center following an inspection of the show the hazard. For each hazard, OSHA 186,000 square foot facility under the specialists detailed several feasible controls. agency’s Site Specific Targeting Plan which These were straightforward, easy-to-imple- included a comprehensive walkaround of the ment actions such as: workplace and a review of its injury records. • Adjusting the height of shelves; Avoiding MSDs • Providing stools or ladders to employees; OSHA compliance officers worked with • Reducing the depth of shelving; experts at the Salt Lake City Center to tailor • Raising loading heights; specific recommendations to address the potential ergonomic risk factors they • Evaluating the flow and volume of orders observed. Specialists at Salt Lake City so faster-moving products are placed on analyzed the warehouse’s various operations easier-to-reach shelves. and recommended 19 steps, known as “feasible controls, that the employer could ” Also, OSHA’s evaluation report detailed a list take to help employees to avoid muscu- of available resources, including on-site losketal disorders (MSDs). consultation visits, that the company could use in developing improved ways to prevent Hazards Identified injuries. Some of the hazards identified by OSHA included: The company adopted 13 of the 19 feasible controls that OSHA recommended. And the • Employees had to reach elevated and result, thus far, speaks for itself: a perfect zero distant locations in storage shelves to for back injuries, improved productivity and access materials; higher employee morale. • Workers had to repeatedly bend to reach low-level locations at floor level to access materials; • Employees were lifting and placing heavy boxes onto pallets placed on the floor; • Employees were performing forceful finger tasks with their wrists in bent postures while pricing products at poorly designed workstations. Occupational Safety and Occupational Safety and Health Administration Health Administration Occupational Safety and Health Administration U.S. Department of Labor www.osha.gov OSHA’s role is to assure the safety and health of America’s workers by setting and enforcing stan- dards; providing training, outreach and education; establishing partnerships; and encouraging con- tinual improvement in workplace safety and health. This informational booklet provides a general overview of a particular topic related to OSHA standards. It does not alter or determine compli- ance responsibilities in OSHA standards or the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Because interpretations and enforcement policy may change over time, you should consult current OSHA administrative interpretations and decisions by the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission and the Courts for additional guid- ance on OSHA compliance requirements. This publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced, fully or partially, without permis- sion. Source credit is requested but not required. This information is available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 693- 1999; teletypewriter (TTY) number: (877) 889-5627 .