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ALCOHOL

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					              Think about it


 that contain one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups
 represented by the ROH (R- alkyl group)
                Classification
 mono hydroxyl alcohol

   Primary (1º) alcohol      Tertiary (3º) alcohol




   Secondary (2º) alcohol
                Classification
 poly hydroxyl alcohol

   dihydroxy              trihydroxy
             IUPAC Rules,
           Can you name us?

 Select the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms
  combining the hydroxyl group.
   Example:
      Give the IUPAC name of

     The longest carbon chai containing the –OH group has
     four carbons
             IUPAC Rules,
           Can you name us?

 Number the carbon atoms in the chain so that the
  one bearing the –OH group has the lowest possible
  answer
   Example:
      Give the IUPAC name of
              IUPAC Rules,
            Can you name us?
 Form the alcohol name by replacing the final –e by –ol.
  When isomers are possible, locate the position of the
  –OH by placing the number of the carbon atom which
  the –OH is bonded.
   Example:
       Give the IUPAC name of

       The name of the four- carbon alkane is butane. Replace the
    final e in butane with ol, forming the name butanol. Since –OH
    is on carbon 1, place a 1- before butanol to give the complete
    alcohol name 1- butanol.
              IUPAC Rules,
            Can you name us?

 Name each alkyl side chain and designate its position
  by number
   Example:
       Give the IUPAC name of


       No group of atoms other than hydrogen are
       attached to the butanol chain, so the name of
       this alcohol is 1- butanol.
        Physical Properties…


 high boiling point
 branched chain alcohols have lower boiling points
 alcohols containing up to three carbons are infinitely
  insoluble in water
 alcohols containing four or more carbon atoms have
  limited solubility in water
 5-11 carbons are liquids
 12 up resemble solid alkanes physical properties
       Chemical Properties…


 Acidic and Basic Properties
   methanol and ethanol has approximately the same acid
    strength as water
   larger alcohols are weaker acids than water
   alkoxide ion (RO−) is the resulting anion in the alcohol
    reaction and stronger than hydroxide.
                Dehydration
 elimination of water
 to form alkenes or ethers
 sulfuric acid – effective dehydrating agents

 Alkenes: Intramolecular Dehydration
   higher temperature and single alcohol produce alkene



 Ethers: Intermolecular Dehydration
   lower temperature and two alcohols produce an ether
                  Oxidation


 loss of hydrogen
 the gain of bonds to oxygen
                Esterification


 alcohol reacts with a carboxylic acid to form an ester
  and water
 an important reaction of alcohols
How alcohols are made?
How alcohols are made?
How alcohols are made?
                      Methanol


 volatile
 highly flammable liquid
 Poisonous and capable of causing blindness or
  death if taken internally
 used for:
   conversion to formaldehyde, primarily for use in
    the manufacture of polymers
   manufacture of other chemicals
   denaturing ethyl alcohol
   an industrial solvent
                  Ethanol


   earliest and most widely known alcohol
   prepared by fermentation for legal use in beverages
   also called as ethyl alcohol, gram alcohol, spirit
   conversion of simple sugar to ethanol is accomplished
    by yeast
                 Ethanol


 Uses
   intermediate in the manufacture of other chemicals
   a solvent for many organic substances
   a compounding ingredient for pharmaceuticals,
    perfumes, flavorings and so on
   an essential ingredient in alcoholic beverages
                  Ethanol


 Act as:
   Food- the body is able to metabolize it to CO2 and H2O
    with the production of energy
   Drug- depressant
   Poison- unconsciousness and ultimately death may
    occur if a very large amount is consumed
2- Propanol (Isopropyl Alcohol)

 derived from petroleum
 relatively low- cost alcohol
 not a potable alcohol
  2- Propanol (Isopropyl Alcohol)

 Used:
   to manufacture other chemicals (especially acetone)
   as an industrial solvent
   as the principal ingredient in rubbing- alcohol
    formulations
  2- Propanol (Isopropyl Alcohol)

 If large quantities are inhaled
     Dizziness
     Headache
     Nausea
     Vomiting
     Mental depression
     Coma
Ethylene Glycol (1,2- ethanadiol)

   simplest alcohol
   cheap, low molar-mass alcohol
   commercially derived from petroleum
   complete water solubility
   low freezing point
   high boiling point
Ethylene Glycol (1,2- ethanadiol)

 Uses
   preparation of the synthetic polyester fiber pacron and
    film Mylar
   as a major ingredient in “permanent type” anti-freeze
    for cooling systems
   as a solvent in the pant and plastic industries
   in the formulation of printing ink and ink for ballpoint
    pens
Ethylene Glycol (1,2- ethanadiol)
     Glycerol (1,2,3-propanatriol)

 syrupy liquid with a sweet, warm taste
 by- product of animal and vegetable fats to make
  soap
 major uses:
   a raw material in the manufacture of polymers and
    explosives
   emollient in cosmetics
   as a humectant in Tabaco products
   as a sweetener

				
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