Community Based Programs for Youth by marcjackson

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									Community Based
Programs for
Youth
 Jacquelynne S. Eccles
 University of Michigan
Goals
     Discuss general issues related to the need for
      better programming for youth

     Provide summary of what works in community
      based programs for youth

     Based in part on the recent NRC/IOM report
      Community Programs to Promote Youth
      Development and in part on other reports and
      research
Sponsors of NRC/IOM Report on
Community Programs for Youth
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
     Office of the Assistant Secretary of Planning and
     Evaluation
    U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice
     and Delinquency Prevention
    U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development,
     Office of Research, Evaluation, and Monitoring Ford
     Foundation
    The Ford Foundation
    The William T. Grant Foundation
    The David and Lucile Packard Foundation
    Carnegie Corporation of New York
                                                    NRC/IOM
Members of NRC/IOM Committee

Jacquelynne Eccles (Chair),              Caswell Evans, National Institutes of
    University of Michigan                   Health
Cheryl Alexander, Johns Hopkins          Ronald Ferguson, Harvard University
    University                           Robert Granger*, Manpower
                                             Demonstration Research Corporation
Brett Brown, Child Trends, Inc.          Teresa LaFromboise, Stanford University
Sarah Brown, National Campaign to        Reed Larson, University of Illinois-
    Prevent Teen Pregnancy                   Urbana-Champaign
Kenyon Chan, Loyola Marymount            Milbrey McLaughlin, Stanford University
    University                           Robert Plotnick, University of
Elizabeth Colson, University of              Washington
    California, Berkeley                 Zena Stein, Columbia University
Thomas Cook, Northwestern
    University                           Jennifer Gootman, Study Director
Peter Edelman, Georgetown
    University Law Center



                           *Member until March 2000
Social Forces Have Changed the
Landscape of Family and
Community Life
          A combination of factors have weakened the informal
             community support once available to young people:

             high rates of family mobility

             greater anonymity in neighborhoods

             extensive media exposure to themes of violence and
              heavy use of drugs and alcohol

             deterioration and disorganization of neighborhoods
NRC/IOM
          Social Forces Have Changed the
          Landscape of Family and
          Community Life

                increasingly complex, technical, and multicultural
                 world


                extended length of adolescence; pathways to
                 adulthood less clear and more numerous




NRC/IOM
Good News
          Adolescent well-being and behavior have shown
            substantial improvement since the late 1980’s:
             serious violent juvenile crime has declined
             teen pregnancy has decreased
             more young people are graduating from high
              school
             more young people are participating in volunteer
              and community service

NRC/IOM
  Bad News
          There are continuing problems during this period:

             cigarette smoking has increased

             HIV infection has increased

             school violence has increased

             obesity has increased

             many youth are entering the labor market with
              inadequate knowledge and “soft skills”

NRC/IOM
NRC/IOM Committee Conclusions
             Some youth are doing very well

             Some youth are taking dangerous risks and doing
              poorly

             All youth need a variety of experiences to develop to
              their full potential

             Some youth have unmet needs and are particularly at
              risk

             There is a need for more high quality community-
              based programs for youth

NRC/IOM
     Positive Youth Development


                 Approach is not viewed as replacing focus on
                   preventing problems, but rather creating a
                   framework that promotes positive outcomes for
                   all young people

                 To prevent is not to fully prepare




NRC/IOM; Karen Pittman
     Personal and Social Assets
             Represent Healthy Development and
              Well-Being During Adolescence

             Facilitate Successful Transitions from
              Childhood, Through Adolescence, and
              Into Adulthood




NRC/IOM
   Personal and Social Assets
          Four developmental domains:
           Physical

           Intellectual

           Psychological and emotional

           Social




NRC/IOM
          Physical Development
                   As good general health status as
                    possible

                   Good health habits




NRC/IOM
     Intellectual Development
               Knowledge of
                   Life skills
                   Vocational skills
                   Cognitive skills
                   Cultural skills
               School Success
               Rational habits of mind
               Good decision-making skills
NRC/IOM
 Psychological Development
             Good mental health
             Emotional skills
                Self-regulation

                Coping and conflict management

             Self-efficacy
             Mastery achievement motivation
             Planfulness and optimism
             Sense of purpose or spirituality
             Coherent and positive personal and
              social identities


NRC/IOM
 Social Development
             Strong and positive social relationships with
              parents, peers, and other adults
             Connectedness
                A sense of being integrated into social groups
                 and systems
                Attachment to positive social institutions such
                 as schools, faith-based organizations and
                 youth centers
             Ability to navigate in multiple cultural settings
             Commitment to civic engagement


NRC/IOM
Personal and Social Assets
              Individuals do not necessarily need the entire
               range of assets to thrive

              Having more assets is better than having a few

              Continued exposure to positive experiences,
               settings, and people, as well as abundant
               opportunities to gain and refine life skills,
               supports young people in the acquisition and
               growth of these assets

 NRC/IOM
  Promoting Adolescent Development
        at the Program Level


          What is necessary for adolescents to be
           happy, healthy, and productive at the
           present time, as well as successful,
           contributing adults in the future?




NRC/IOM
        Promoting Positive Youth
        Development
     Provide diverse opportunities for young people to:

                                                    Move into healthy and
           Engage with caring adults                productive adulthood
           outside their families




Promote positive
                                                                Be happy and
relationships with other               Young People             healthy
youth


Provide opportunities to learn healthy
and valued behaviors, expectations,                   Develop sense of security
values, morals, and skills                            and personal identity
                                          NRC/IOM
    Karen Pittman’s White Space

                                                                                     Example:
                               Co l H nal                                            Schools
                               So Pe
                                 ci rso

                                 m ea C
                                   a

                                    pe lt iv
                                      te h ic
                                        nc A
                                          y cad
                                           Ar e
                                             ea mi
                                               s c           Waking Hours of a Day
                                                               (7 am to 11 pm)
                                               Ages (0-24)




                                                                 Schools



                                                             Early Childhood Education



Karen Pittman and colleagues
          Features of Programs that
           Influence Development

   Physical and                  Positive social norms
    psychological safety
                                  Support for efficacy and
   Appropriate structure          mattering


   Supportive relationships      Opportunities for skill
                                   building

   Opportunities to belong
                                  Integration of family,
                                   school, and community
NRC/IOM                            efforts
     Physical and Psychological
     Safety

    Supportive Practices      Contra Indicators

    Increase safe peer        Physical and health
                                dangers
     interactions

                               Feelings of fear and
    Decrease unsafe or         insecurity
     confrontational peer
     interactions
                               Sexual and physical
                                harassment and verbal
                                abuse
NRC/IOM
      Age and Culturally Appropriate
      Structure

   Supportive Practices               Contra Indicators
   Appropriate levels of              Disorganization
    monitoring, rules and
    controls
                                       Excessive levels of
                                        control
   Clear rules and limits
                                       Feelings of unfairness
   Consistent and fair                 and lack of structure
    enforcement
                          NRC/IOM
       Opportunities to Belong

   Opportunities for social         Exclusionary practices by
    inclusion for all groups          staff

   Active outreach to increase      Ignoring exclusionary
    diversity of participants         behavior among the
                                      participants
   Encouragement of strong
    positive social identity         Tolerance of bullying or
    formation                         other discriminatory behavior

   Support for cultural and
    multi-cultural competencies                 NRC/IOM
      Opportunities for Mattering

   Youth-based                       Excessive adult control
    empowerment practices
                                      Limited opportunities to
   Opportunities to provide           provide meaningful and
    meaningful services to
    one’s community                    valued contributions

   Opportunities to move             Limited opportunities
    into positions of                  for leadership and
    leadership and                     decision-making roles in
    responsibility                     organization
                         NRC/IOM
Opportunities for Developing a Sense
             of Efficacy
   Provision of challenging                 Stress on current levels of
    activities with stress on                 competence in a social
    improvement                               comparative frame of
                                              reference
   Stress mastery not
    competition
                                             Insufficient opportunities to
                                              demonstrate improvement
   Opportunities to
    demonstrate and celebrate                 following “failure”
    one’s accomplishments
                                             Failure to provide activities
   High expectations for                     that allow success
    everyone                                  experiences at all skill levels
                                NRC/IOM
                                                                 NRC/IOM



     Opportunities to Learn
     Essential Skills
   Intentional learning             Practices that support bad
    environments                      physical and cognitive habits

   Use of embedded learning         Practices that undermine
    strategies
                                      learning at school
   Opportunities to learn life
    skills and “soft skills”         Limited opportunities to
                                      engage in new and
   Opportunities to learn            challenging activities
    cultural and multi-cultural
    competence to navigate           Failure to use opportunities
    multiple complex worlds
                                      for embedded learning
       Intentional Learning
       Envirnoments
              Community


                      Knowledge-
                      centered
                                     Assessment-
                                      centered


                          Youth-
                          centered




McLaughlin
   Knowledge-centered Learning
            Context
                Clear learning foci – “about something in
                 particular”

                Quality content and exemplary instruction

                Use principles of embedded curriculum so that a
                 range of academic competencies and life skills are
                 taught within each type of activity

                Use many different types of “teachers” including
                 the youth themselves
McLaughlin
      Assessment-centered Learning
               Contexts
                Clearly articulated “cycles of planning,
                 practice, and performance”

                Regular opportunities for feedback and
                 recognition often through public performances
                 and other forms of celebration

                Focus feedback on improvement and meeting
                 individual specific objectives rather than
                 competition and social comparison
McLaughlin
             Youth-centered Learning
                    Contexts
                 Respond to diverse talents, skills, and interests by
                  providing a rich array of activities that have
                  opportunities to participate at all levels of expertise

                 Identify and build on the strengths of each
                  participating youth by providing opportunities for
                  each youth to do what they can do best as well as to
                  learn new skills

                 Use developmentally and cultural appropriate
                  materials that allow youth to grow in skills and
                  leaderships within the specific activities

McLaughlin
             Youth-centered Learning
                   Contexts - 2
                Provide extensive personal attention from
                 the adults

                Stress youth leadership and voice

                Actively recruit youth using a variety of
                 locally appropriate methods


McLaughlin
Conclusions
      We know a lot about what works

      We know much less about how to
       create and sustain programs high in
       experiences that work

      Current funding and policy climates
       makes it very difficult for staff to create
       and sustain organizations that “work”
       well

								
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