Guidelines for Agricultural Relief Programs in Zimbabwe Guidelines for Agricultural Relief Programs in Zimbabwe David Rohrbach, Rod Charters, and Jacob Nyagweta 2004 Acknowledgments s This publication was funded by the European Commission’ Humanitarian Aid Office (ECHO) and the Department for International Development (DFID), UK. It was developed jointly by a range of partners. A number of organizations are involved in emergency agricultural rehabilitation projects in Zimbabwe. The Agriculture Coordinating Committee for Zimbabwe suggested the need for a common set of guidelines to improve the effectiveness of these efforts. A volunteer committee was tasked with this responsibility. Members of this committee provided valuable inputs throughout the process, and their assistance and expertise is deeply appreciated. They include K Furany (CARE), S Huddle (World Vision), M Jenrich (RRU), N Kutukwa (CARE), M Mudiwa (FAO), T Mupetesi (FACHIG Trust), L Mutiso (Oxfam), and H Sittig (Help). Contents 1. Guidelines for emergency relief projects in Zimbabwe 1 2. Rationale for emergency assistance in Zimbabwe 3 3. Institutional arrangements 5 4. Needs assessment and geographical targeting 9 5. Household targeting 11 6. Basic input support basket 15 7. Input procurement 25 8. Timing of input distribution 28 9. Distribution strategies 30 10. Technical support for agricultural recovery ` 35 11. Integrating recovery efforts with development 38 12. Relief and recovery in livestock systems 41 13. Monitoring and evaluation 44 Appendices Appendix 1. Key contacts in Zimbabwe Appendix 2. Sample household registration form Appendix 3. Distribution of crops grown in the communal sector Appendix 4. Simplified method for testing germination rates Appendix 5. Seed varieties released for sale in Zimbabwe Appendix 6. Sample contract for procurement of inputs Appendix 7. Warehouse checklist Appendix 8. Datasheet for monitoring distribution of inputs to ward level Appendix 9. Sample of data reported on district level input distribution Appendix 10. Program monitoring plan Appendix 11. Sample of post-planting assessment survey questionnaire 1. Guidelines for Emergency Relief Projects in Zimbabwe: Seed and Fertilizer Relief During the 2002/03 and 2003/04 planting seasons, free seed and fertilizer were widely The meetings of the informal FAO/NGO distributed in Zimbabwe in response to Agricultural Recovery Coordination drought and a general economic decline. Committee, involving major donors, This distribution was necessitated by the international organizations and other reduction in household seed stocks caused stakeholders, encouraged the sharing of by poor harvests. Production losses have experiences and stimulated the joint been exacerbated by a sharp decline in assessment of possible solutions to common economic growth, and limited availability and problems. high retail price of food grains. As a result, household and community seed stocks are Distribution of seed, fertilizer, and related more likely to be consumed. agricultural inputs has undoubtedly helped smallholder agriculture recover after the past s Zimbabwe’ recent problems have been two seasons of drought. However, many severe but not unique, or even uncommon. questions have been raised about program Input relief has been distributed in this strategies and impacts. It is generally country during 7 of the past 12 years. Similar acknowledged that the effectiveness of programs have been periodically launched in assistance would be improved by better virtually every neighboring country. The information flow – for example avoiding distribution of seed through relief and duplication or overlapping coverage of areas. recovery programs has become so common that several smaller seed companies have Proportion of households receiving relief seed and growing alternative crops, 2003/04 emerged to service this market. Larger seed companies maintain at least some stocks of a range of food crops to respond to this demand. 100 Received The substantial investment in 80 Grown % of farmers input distribution programs 60 naturally leads to questions about their efficiency. In late 40 2002, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 20 (FAO) began sponsoring monthly 0 meetings of governmental and non- Ma Wh Pea Gro Cow governmental organizations (NGOs) ize ite s rl m und pea org illet nut hum providing input relief in Zimbabwe in order to improve coordination. These meetings Relief programs in Zimbabwe have expanded rapidly in recent initially involved NGOs linked with FAO years, providing food, seed, fertilizer and other assistance programs, but eventually included most of the major NGOs involved in input distribution in the country. Related questions have been raised about best practices relating to agricultural relief how best to target farm households. Should and recovery. These include options for inputs be given to the poorest and most food tillage support, crop management advice, more serious’or ‘ insecure, or to ‘ better’ water management, livestock systems farmers more likely to achieve production management, and linking farmers to gains and thus improve food security in the commercial markets for agricultural products. community? Can targeting be more efficient? Therefore, these guidelines should be Should farmers in drought prone regions be viewed as a work in progress. given maize seed? Is there a ‘ best’package of inputs for each agro-ecological zone? The guidelines focus on programs with a 6 to What indicators should be included in impact 12 month lifespan, targeting relief and monitoring? recovery after drought, as well as chronic crises such as HIV/AIDS and the declining In late 2003, the FAO/NGO Agricultural economy. However, most of this advice can Recovery Coordination Committee endorsed also inform program planning in areas the drafting of a set of guidelines to provide affected by flooding. An effort is made to advice to government and NGOs about how highlight problems relating to input delivery best to assist farmers in need of relief. to households severely affected by Several members of the Committee HIV/AIDS. However, much more analysis is volunteered to help draft these guidelines required of the needs and capabilities of based on their diverse experiences. such households. This document represents ICRISAT agreed to help coordinate the our views of current best practice. This preparation of the guidelines. In the initial advice is expected to evolve with time. draft, six NGOs – CARE, Catholic Relief Services, GOAL, Oxfam (UK), FACHIG, and Finally, we note one persistent problem World Vision – contributed brief descriptions encountered during the drafting. We are of what they considered best practices. This trying to provide simple advice to guide the draft has been rewritten to provide a more development and implementation of relief consistent description of program options, as and recovery programs. Yet opinions differ well as suggestions for best practice. about what constitutes best practice. Examples of the practices of specific NGOs Programs are changing as more experience are included. is gained with alternative methodologies. Therefore, these guidelines provide specific This publication primarily considers issues sets of advice as well as a discussion of relating to seed and fertilizer delivery in post- program options, which could help users drought recovery programs in Zimbabwe. modify the advice to better suit a particular However, the Committee has agreed that situation. More detail is provided in a series this should be extended to a wider range of of appendices. 2. Rationale for Emergency Assistance in Zimbabwe The primary aim of agricultural relief and The severity of these problems has led many recovery programs is to improve the food NGOs to include both food aid and input security of vulnerable1 farm households. In supply in their relief programs. These include particular, these programs aim to strengthen distribution of food aid (commonly maize, oil, the capacity of these farmers to produce and a legume), school feeding programs, their own food supplies; and thus expand under-five feeding and food for work. Most and stabilize food supplies at community NGOs distribute seed to help farmers re- level. establish their fields and expand their plantings. Some NGOs distribute fertilizer, Several reasons have been commonly cited micro-irrigation kits, and tillage support, and to justify the need for agricultural assistance also provide crop management. A few are during the past two years. These involved with the include: Short-term relief and rehabilitation of irrigation ? Poor rainfall leading to longer-term development schemes, boreholes, dams interventions often target widespread shortfalls in food and rural roads. different types of production relative to households. Many donor household and community portfolios clearly In many cases, relief needs differentiate between programs are an extension of ? Shortages of basic foodstuffs relief and development; development activities and fund one type of on the retail market, increasing previously being implemented activity rather than the the probability that farmers will other. by the NGO community. consume some of their seed Some of these development supplies activities remain in place. For ? The sharp decline in economic example, CARE continues to growth, reducing remittance build the capacities of rural income and off-farm employment retailers and rural micro-finance groups ? Shortages and consequent high prices of through whom they distribute input aid. ITDG agricultural inputs on the retail market has used food aid to encourage farmers to ? The high incidence of HIV/AIDS resulting establish contours to improve water in labor shortages, capital losses and a infiltration into crop lands. FAO has linked its larger proportion of child-headed emergency program to its farmer field households. schools and livestock forage production initiatives. In effect, the impacts of drought have been considerably worsened by problems in the Opinions differ about the degree to which larger agro-economy. It is likely that relief relief programs should also have programs will still be needed even after more development objectives. Some argue that favorable rains return. A significant objectives to improve the food security of proportion of farm households will remain vulnerable households should not be food-deficient and in need of assistance, confused with development initiatives that perhaps for several years more. may favor households with better resources. Others argue that relief programs ought to have longer term development impacts. 1. See Chapter 4 for a broad definition of vulnerability These distinctions are reinforced by the fact development impacts such as contribution to that many donor portfolios tend to clearly household and community food supply, differentiate between humanitarian relief contribution to household income, success of programs and development programs. In technology adoption, increased efficiency of Zimbabwe, programs funded by ECHO or crop production, or improvements in USAID/OFDA target relief impacts only; institutional arrangements for input while DFID funding generally targets relief marketing or agricultural relief. with longer term impacts. However, these agendas may change over time. Relief programs must be judged in terms of their impact indicators. The success of relief seed distribution is generally judged in terms of the expansion of cropped area and production. Seed is distributed to farmers believed to have little or no seed stocks. If this seed was not distributed, food crops would be planted over a smaller area, and food insecurity would persist. Similarly, the delivery of fertilizer is assessed in terms of the additional grain produced. Food-insecure farmers Relief programs are increasing in size and scope, covering receiving seed and fertilizer should generally more areas and distributing a wider range of inputs be able to harvest a larger crop than farmers The objectives of relief and development who do not receive these inputs. cannot always be strictly distinguished, but relief programs can impact on development. Some programs also assess a range of Where possible, relief objectives should be secondary indicators. Most relate to the pursued with positive development impacts. logistics of delivery – whether all seed is At a minimum, development impacts should accounted for, the timeliness of delivery, the be neutral. But relief programs should number of recipients, satisfaction with quality ensure they avoid deleterious development and quantity, and the proportion of seed impacts. For example, relief distribution of planted. seed and fertilizer should not undermine the development of seed and input markets. Such indicators correspond with the short Where possible, these programs should term output of these relief efforts. Thus far, support the development of such markets. few efforts are made to measure broader 3. Institutional Arrangements For a relief program to be successful, the and district administrative staff. Traditional implementing agency, such as an leadership structures may also need to be international organization or an NGO, must consulted. establish linkages with public agencies and private sector organizations. This chapter Each Province is divided into districts. reviews several of the key linkages. Districts are divided into wards. Each ward falls under the responsibility of an elected National Ministries councilor. In general, local level permissions The Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare is must be sought from the councilor. This may responsible for declaring the need for relief, and be done first through the District then coordinating assistance to needy Development Committee, which comprises communities. The Ministry of Agriculture and the government-appointed District Rural development is responsible for district, Administrator plus all councilors in the provincial and national crop production district. Zimbabwe has 10 provinces (2 estimates. These are collected on a fortnightly urban, 8 rural) and 83 districts (14 urban, 69 basis. This ministry houses the Department of rural), each of which contains 15-30 wards. Agricultural Research and Extension Services (AREX) which is responsible for research and extension advice. The Ministry of Transport and Energy houses the Department of Meteorological Services which maintains national rainfall records and tracks the incidences of flooding and drought in the country; and issues a weekly rainfall bulletin. All IOs/NGOs involved in relief programs are encouraged to maintain communication with such government ministries. Local Government Authorities Liaison is essential with local administrative officials, though the exact nature of these arrangements will differ in Food insecurity in Zimbabwe is widespread, and growing each Province. In most cases, permissions and coordination is needed with provincial A ward consists of several villages, each led collated at the district, provincial and national by a headman; the position is generally levels. Each year, the estimates are hereditary. The village headman (or kraal reviewed, and possibly amended, by a head, in some areas) is responsible for national Crop Forecasting Committee. This allocating village land and resolving local Committee then announces a First Official level disputes. He generally maintains village Crop Forecast, usually in February, and a lists and is responsible for identifying Second Official Crop Forecast, usually in households in need. The headman’ s April. The second forecast is generally the permission must be sought before entering a final official estimate for the season. village community. In general, NGOs operating in rural areas Once again, there is no single set of benefit from support of local extension staff. procedures, throughout the country, for At a minimum, it is a courtesy to inform local community entry. The important thing is to extension staff while entering a community. respect the existence and concerns of local District and ward level extension staff can authorities; and good relations depend as also provide valuable information about the much on good communication as on local agro-ecology, crops commonly grown, protocol. and crop management practices. Extension staff may also provide assistance with Agricultural Research and Extension training farmers about new varieties, and Services (AREX) help run demonstration trials to promote Agricultural research and extension in good management practices. Zimbabwe is coordinated by a single government department called the International Agricultural Research Agricultural Research and Extension Centers Services. The national research service is Zimbabwe hosts several programs of the the primary source of information about international centers of the Consultative cropping technologies, and the primary Group for International Agricultural Research source of new seed varieties for crops other (CGIAR). These are valuable sources of than maize. The extension service develops technical advice about crop varieties, crop and disseminates crop management management and Zimbabwean agriculture. recommendations. These are summarized in ICRISAT maintains a significant program at the Farm Management Handbook (AGRITEX the Matopos Research Station situated 26 1993) as generic ‘ blanket’recommendations km south of Bulawayo. It holds a global for the country as a whole. However, these mandate for sorghum, pearl millet, recommendations tend to be adapted, on a groundnut, chickpea and pigeonpea somewhat ad hoc basis, by provincial and research, and thus offers an excellent source district level extension authorities. Each ward of information about these crops. is supposed to have an extension officer. CIMMYT has a global mandate for wheat The extension service is also the primary and maize research, and maintains a maize source of crop production estimates. Ward program at the University of Zimbabwe level extension workers prepare fortnightly research farm approximately 15 km north of reports containing estimates of area, Harare. ICRAF maintains a program of agro- production, and crop condition. These are forestry research while CIFOR works more directly on forestry issues. The relevant it to seed specification – essentially for contact addresses for these institutions are physical purity and germination. This helps listed in Appendix 1. ensure that farmers receive varieties that are adapted to local conditions; but the seed is Seed Companies often genetically mixed – Common Grade More than ten seed companies operate in seed, in industry parlance. Chapter 6 Zimbabwe. Many of them also service provides more information on these issues. neighboring countries. The Seed Company of Zimbabwe (SeedCo) accounts for more Fertilizer Companies than half of all sales in the country. Other Zimbabwe currently has five major chemical large companies include PANNAR, Pioneer, fertilizer companies (see Appendix 1). Monsanto, National Tested Seed, and Prime Three are licensed for commercial sale Seed (see Appendix 1). These companies through the wholesale and retail trade – are the main source of certified seed in the Zimbabwe Fertilizer Corporation (ZFC), country. They will also import seed stocks if Windmill and Omnia. The other two are they are not available locally, mostly from licensed to produce fertilizer – Sable neighboring countries – particularly Zambia, Chemicals and Zimphos. During the past two Botswana, and South Africa. However, years, the operations of these companies occasionally, seed has been Seed companies focus on have been severely restricted imported from as far away as India hybrid maize, cotton and s by the country’ foreign and Egypt. other commercial crops. exchange shortages. They produce only small Zimbabwe produces its own quantities of traditional The main problem with the seed food crops (eg sorghum, phosphorus, but must import industry is that seed stocks cowpea) because they all its ingredients for nitrogen, (except for maize) are low. Seed believe commercial as well as most minor companies are reluctant to demand is limited and nutrients. Sable Chemicals is highly variable, depending produce significant quantities of the only producer of nitrogen on relief requirements. crops such as sorghum, pearl in the country. In 2003, the millet, groundnut and cowpea company stated it would give because they believe commercial priority to buyers able to demand is limited. They do not provide foreign exchange for want to be left with large stocks in the event the import of ammonia from South Africa. that relief and development programs in Zimbabwe and neighboring countries cut Other Sources of Information down on purchases. This problem is In 2002, Zimbabwe established a national magnified by the fact that the ultimate level Vulnerability Assessment Committee (VAC) – a of seed stocks may not be known until subcommittee of the Social Services Cabinet several months after the proceeding Action Committee, in turn composed of a s season’ harvest. The seed companies consortium of government, NGO and UN contract farmers to produce their seed, but agencies. The VAC coordinates assessments of they remain uncertain about the level of the level and scope of the emergency at the deliveries for several months. national level. A series of national surveys were conducted to assess agricultural production, NGOs also need to be aware that a common nutrition, and rural and urban poverty. In March way to resolve seed supply deficits is to 2003 the VAC issued a major report purchase grain from local markets and clean summarizing the distribution of food insecurity in rural areas. A similar report was completed for The Meteorological Service currently urban areas. provides a weekly report summarizing national weather conditions including more The Famine Early Warning Network detailed data for a small cross-section of (FEWSNET) is a good source of information on areas. This is available for a small agricultural conditions and food security in the subscription fee. country. FEWSNET issues periodic reports estimating production levels, food supply levels, FAO nutritional indicators, and the status of The FAO is taking the lead in coordinating agricultural production. humanitarian interventions in the agricultural sector, through monthly stakeholder s The Surveyor General’ office offers a good meetings and a series of sub-working source of maps including detailed maps of groups. The meetings involve organizations rural districts – though village demarcations directly involved in relief work, donors, and on these maps are not always accurate. This other stakeholders participating directly and office also sells aerial photos of various indirectly. Information about these meetings levels of resolution for much of the country – s may be obtained through FAO’ Emergency though, for any given area, these are likely to Coordination Unit for Zimbabwe. FAO also be several years old. has a database of agricultural interventions disaggregated by ward, NGO and crop. The Central Statistical Office sells periodic reports summarizing agriculture in the UNDP/European Union country, national accounts and economic In 2003, the UNDP established a Relief and statistics, and inflation estimates. These Recovery Unit (RRU) with EU and DFID reports are generally available at the funding. The RRU has a mandate to collect Government Publications office. and distribute information about relief and recovery programs in the country. It also facilitates better coordination of some of these activities. 4. Needs Assessment and Geographical Targeting Two different assessments are required involve consultation with district and ward before program beneficiaries can be officials, AREX officers, chiefs, and village identified. The first, discussed in this chapter, headmen. is to identify what parts of the country are affected by crop losses, ie what parts of the For the first time, in 2003, VAC survey data country to assist. The second, reviewed in allowed a disaggregated assessment of food Chapter 5, is a more detailed assessment of supply shortfalls in each district in the needs within target communities, and country. These findings were summarized in selection of household beneficiaries in these Emergency Food Security and Vulnerability communities. Assessment (Report No. 3), commonly known as the VAC Report. The report Assessing the Scope and Distribution of estimated that 4.4 million rural residents the Emergency (56% of the rural population) would need Declaration of an agricultural emergency in food aid, and that the government would Zimbabwe is the responsibility of the Minister need to import 754,800 tons of grain to meet of Labor and Social Welfare. The Minister is these needs. Most importantly, this report responsible for reviewing production provided a breakdown, by data collected by the Ministry of The 1993 VAC survey district, of the level of need Agriculture and Rural Development estimated that 4.4 million – measured in terms of the rural residents (56% of and assessing the severity of rural number and percentage of the rural population) in and urban food insecurity. The final Zimbabwe would need households experiencing assessment relies heavily on the food aid – 754,800 tons of cereal supply deficits. Second Official Crop Forecast, which grain would need to be summarizes aggregate crop imported. Selection of Districts and production levels for the country as a Wards whole and for various classes of NGOs select which parts of farmers (large-scale commercial, the country to target for small-scale commercial, communal and relief assistance based on their past resettlement). Provincial breakdowns may be experience and the location of their current provided for maize production. programs. Informal consultations are made with other NGOs regarding the distribution of Once an emergency is declared, village their efforts. Older NGOs tend to follow their headmen and councilors are asked to established contacts in particular districts compile lists of needy households to be and wards. Newer NGOs look for districts targeted for food aid and input relief. These and wards that are not covered. Permission are aggregated to district and provincial is then sought from Provincial and District levels to estimate the number of households level authorities to distribute aid within in need. particular district and ward communities. Individual NGOs also seek information from The FAO Emergency Unit for Zimbabwe their local contacts in rural communities collects data on the distribution of NGO where they are running programs. This may activity by district and ward. The 2002/03 % of farmers receiving inputs from multiple NGOs 1 Source 2 Sources 11.5% 3 Sources 1.8% 86.7% Over 30 NGOs (plus government agencies ARDA and GMB) were distributing relief inputs in the area database highlighted the likelihood of over- period of time to establish contacts with local coverage of certain districts and under- authorities. In the worst cases, decisions coverage of others – based on the perceived about ward and village coverage are still distribution of need. The 2003/04 database being made while input delivery is underway. highlighted similar problems. Many districts received more inputs than needed to assist In order to improve coordination, the FAO the entire population identified by the VAC Emergency Unit seeks to obtain data from report as being in need. each NGO on their intended ward level input distribution early in the cropping season. In order to strengthen this assessment, FAO also collects data on the distribution of Ultimately, stricter agreements may be needed, agricultural inputs by ward. This again earlier in the planning process, about the showed over-coverage of many regions, with distribution of district coverage. As long as multiple NGOs sometimes Substantial over-coverage multiple NGOs are operating in a serving the same ward. These and overlaps are district, strict delineation of zones findings were confirmed in reported. Many districts of coverage may prove difficult. surveys conducted by ICRISAT. receive far more inputs However, an early agreement on than needed; multiple ward coverage should help reduce NGOs sometimes serve Most observers in the NGO the same ward. One the current overlaps in community community acknowledge the major reason is lack of coverage. It is estimated this need for better coordination of coordination between agreement would need to be in their relief efforts, down to the NGOs operating in an place at least four months before area. ward level, in the future. This will the first inputs are distributed. An remain difficult, however, as long IO/NGO protocol is currently being as the assistance plans of NGOs developed, highlighting (among continue to evolve during the other issues) the need for early early stages of the cropping season. This identification and dissemination of assistance happens if relief grants arrive late, the plans. This will help address some of the identification of local partners is prolonged or problems associated with over-coverage and simply because NGO staff take an extended overlapping. 5. Household Targeting The first priority for any relief program is to Questions then arise about how these establish robust criteria for interventions at indicators are best measured. Many of the household level. To identify which criteria are vague – how should the term households should receive assistance, two ‘elderly’be defined; what is meant by ‘ limited basic sets of decisions must be made. First, assets’or ‘ high dependency ratio’ One. NGOs must identify the types of households option is to establish explicit criteria for each to be targeted. Second, they must establish variable – eg minimum/maximum age; a procedure to identify these households. In ceiling on household assets, target either case, it is useful to involve the local dependency ratio. Such stringent criteria community in the selection process. Local have the obvious advantages of clarity, and transparency increases the chances of can minimize inclusion/exclusion errors. accurate targeting. However, they tend to be costly to implement. Few NGOs have the field staff Types of Households Targeted necessary to collect and evaluate such There are no universal criteria to identify information for each target vulnerable households. The community. As a result, most Stringent, clearly defined choice of indicators or criteria criteria can minimize NGOs prefer more flexible depends on the NGO; its targeting errors – but may criteria, laying down the general priorities, mandate, specific be costly and sometimes principles for selection and constraints, and the political inappropriate. More flexible criteria lay down the general leaving the responsibility for environment. Most relief selection to the community. principles for selection and programs target the most allow community vulnerable households. participation in selection of Questions are also being raised However, many NGOs also beneficiaries. on why only the poorest target assistance to households benefit. Some households participating in community leaders argue that their ongoing development programs. village food security can be better enhanced Many indicators have been proposed for the by providing assistance to better endowed selection of vulnerable households. These households more likely to use the inputs to are, in effect, proxy indicators for food supply produce a crop surplus. These households deficits. The most commonly cited include: are said to be more likely to employ members of more vulnerable households ? child headed households and to provide the most needy with food and ? female headed households seed. These claims have been backed by ? elderly evidence that many poorer households only ? widows and widowers use part of their inputs they receive. ? households with disabled members, chronically ill members, or orphans To cope with these arguments, some NGOs ? households with limited cash income, no combine their vulnerability indicators with an pension and no formal employment additional set identifying households likely to ? households with high dependency ratios ‘seriously’invest in crop production. These ? households with limited assets commonly include: ? households with a minimum amount of of children, but instead simply extracts land for planting resources from this household. Anecdotal ? households with a minimum amount of evidence cites cases where an uncle draft power for land preparation responsible for a group of orphans simply ? households with enough labor to grow a collects relief inputs for his own use while crop leaving the children to fend for themselves. ? households not engaged in gold panning, or other off-farm activities The capacity of HIV/AIDS affected households to make effective use of Yet several of these latter indicators agricultural inputs is also uncertain. A recent contradict those used to identify the most assessment of the impacts of HIV/AIDS on vulnerable households. This is particularly agriculture (SADC, FANR, VAC, 2003) true for draft power. In many communities highlights sharp declines in both area more than 40% of households – generally planted and production levels among the poorest and most food insecure – do not affected households. These are due to labor have enough cattle or donkeys to field a constraints, as well as the loss of farming minimum team of 2 animals. They may rent assets sold to pay for medicines or funeral or borrow animals or draft services from expenses. The most significant declines in relatives and neighbors. This leads to late production are linked with the recent death of planting. However, most of these households an adult decision maker. However, little is should still be classified as committed known about the coping strategies these farmers. families pursue to offset resource constraints over a period of several years. HIV/AIDS Affected Households Approximately 26% of Zimbabwe’ adults One option is to provide specialized relief population (ages 15 to 49) is officially and development support targeting classified as HIV-positive. Rates are HIV/AIDS affected households. In one such marginally lower in the rural areas, but highly program, orphans, or youth from households variable across districts. The high rates of that have lost adult decision makers, are prevalence have led donors to recommend being given training in new income earning explicit targeting of HIV/AIDS affected opportunities such as small-scale poultry households. This advice is reflected in many enterprises. In other cases, HIV/AIDS of the indicators used to identify vulnerable affected households are being encouraged households – child headed households, to concentrate on improving food production households with chronically ill members, or from nearby household plots. Many relief households with many orphans or large programs incorporate HIV/AIDS awareness dependency ratios. training. While there has been much talk of child Procedures for Identifying Vulnerable headed households, the actual proportion of Households these families in rural Zimbabwe appears Most NGOs struggle to identify which low – less than 2% of the population. specific households should be classified as Children are commonly taken in by aunts, vulnerable, and thus meriting of assistance. uncles and grandparents. However, NGOS Alternative strategies range from more need to watch for cases where an older formal procedures of data collection, to less relative is said to be responsible for a group formal discussions with community leaders An alternative strategy is to call a community or full community meetings. meeting and let the community itself identify the most vulnerable or needy households. In CARE follows a more formal 100 practice (see box). Following Proportion of households with severe grain shortfall (harvest < 500 kg), 2003/04 community meetings to introduce the80 intended program, all community 60 members are asked to register % of farmers for possible assistance. 40 Households are given a simple one page registration form to 20 complete (see example in Appendix 0 2). This provides information on the Mb ere ngw a Zvi sha van e Mw ene zi Gw and a Ins iza Bu lilim ang we Tsh olo tsh o main proxy indicators of vulnerability. The general, village leaders are asked to gather data from these forms are computerized and all households to a meeting which is the vulnerable are identified using cut-offs addressed by local and NGO officials. The linked with the amount of assistance general criteria are announced, and the available. The beneficiary list is then taken to community then identifies which households the community for verification. should receive assistance. A public discussion is believed to reduce cheating. It This approach requires strong advance also ensures broad awareness of the planning and ground level support, more reasons why some households receive aid likely to be available among larger, better while others do not. Another advantage is established NGOs. Farmers like it because that this strategy is quicker, cheaper and the procedure is viewed as impartial. more transparent than formal data collection. However, this procedure can be prone to error insofar as potential aid recipients are Steps in registration and household targeting – aware of the criteria being used to judge Example 1 whether they qualify for inputs. While ground-truthing can reduce these biases, 1. Hold provincial and district level meetings to introduce the intervention this process also can be manipulated by 2. Call for awareness meetings (through local councilors local elites. and traditional leadership) to explain intervention and selection criteria (see application form) 3. Communities line up by village; pre-screening by communities begins 4. Application forms issued, completed and sent to NGO office. Vulnerables who do not attend the meetings cannot apply for benefits 5. Applicants entered into database, selection criteria applied 6. Initial beneficiary register produced 7. Verification meetings to clean registers 8. Final beneficiary lists prepared Steps in registration and household targeting – Example 2 Guidelines are first developed for the selection of beneficiaries to ensure uniformity in operations by district teams. The criteria include: ? Households that do not have draft animals and have limited small stock ? Female-headed (de jure) households ? Households with limited cash income, no pension, no formal employment and little or no remittances ? Households with a high dependency ratio, ie, high numbers of children, orphans, handicapped, terminally ill and the elderly ? Male-headed households with limited assets (satisfying criteria 1 and 3 above) ? Households should be acceptable to the community as being able to utilize the seed offered. If sufficient quantities of inputs are available, selection may be opened to households that have less than a defined number of draft animals (this ‘ limit’to be determined at district level), and satisfy criteria 3 and 4 above. Registration is conducted in open community meetings in the respective wards and food distribution points. The registration team reads out and explains the selection criteria to the community. Each community then collectively selects beneficiary households who meet the criteria. A cross-section of households is later visited to verify the information supplied. Yet this procedure is also said to be prone to households are receiving assistance. In bias. Some farmers may complain that they effect, the definition of vulnerability appears were shut out of the process as a result of highly elastic depending on the resources their political views or distance from available. community elites. This is particularly problematic in periods prior to elections. Debates about what proportion (or number) of households should be assisted can be While methods for identifying target resolved only through a closer analysis of households are becoming more exact, the the relationship between the proxy indicators proportion of households receiving (of poverty or farming capability) and the assistance remains high. In many impacts of input distribution. To date, there communities in the drier, more drought prone have been no significant efforts to test these parts of the country, 80% or more of relationships. 6. Basic Input Support Basket The types of inputs to be provided depend seasons of favorable rainfall, most of these on the objectives of the relief program and transactions involve cash or barter trade. the characteristics of the local farming Following drought years, gifts predominate. system. Most relief programs distribute seed As farmers themselves describe it, in order to help farmers re-establish I “ have an obligation to help my neighbor themselves after a flood or drought. Seed is with seed, just as she has an obligation to a simple technology that can readily be help me in return when my harvest falls divided to assist large numbers of short.” households. But seed alone may contribute little to household food security. Alternative Unfortunately, years of seed relief have sorts of inputs/interventions may offer higher conditioned farmers to complain about seed returns on investment. The following shortages even if the shortage is not severe. discussion summarizes some of these trade- Drought affected communities are similarly offs. conditioned to show visiting NGOs their empty granaries. The visitors assume that all How Much Seed to Distribute? seed is lost. But the fields actually planted Drought is the most common factor the following season almost always contain a triggering seed interventions in wide range of traditional and Zimbabwe, but not the only Seed relief helps farmers re- improved varieties – far beyond factor. Some parts of the establish themselves after a the limited range of seeds country periodically experience flood or drought. But seed distributed through relief alone may contribute little to flooding. But access to seed household food security. programs. may also be limited because Alternative inputs or seed markets fail, or because interventions – crop While recognizing the proclivity the capacity to purchase inputs production and fertilizer of farmers to ask for aid, may be reduced by high rates training, market information, s studying the community’ seed and a focus on introducing of inflation. improved varieties – may needs will help an NGO assess offer higher returns on what seeds of what crops are Efforts to answer the question investment. most likely to be in short of how much seed to provide supply. ICRISAT has worked must first consider the fact with farmers and village that, contrary to common authorities in neighboring opinion, smallholder Mozambique to develop a seed communities rarely, if ever, run needs assessment completely out of seed. In drought years, methodology that provides a first some farmers will lose most of their seed approximation of community requirements stocks, and the aggregate level of (ICRISAT and INIA, 2003a). This considers community stocks may be reduced. But the availability of stocks from better than many farmers will remain with seed, and average farmers, from upland fields, from local seed markets perform reasonably well grain markets and from the retail market. at reallocating these stocks. Following The success of seed fairs in many countries country. However, many Zimbabwean (including Somalia, Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania farmers look to relief programs as a source and Mozambique) provides ample testimony of access to new varieties. to the capacity of farming communities to maintain local seed stocks (Chapter 9 Relief programs are largely responsible for discusses seed fairs in more detail). Seed the widespread adoption of new white Fairs based on the supply of seed from local sorghum (SV 2 and Macia) and pearl millet farmers have been successfully (PMV 2 and PMV 3) varieties in the country. implemented in many communities in These varieties mature early, increasing the Zimbabwe.1 These commonly supported the probability of a harvest if rains end early. delivery of commercial maize seed stocks to Relief programs are also the main (though complement the broad availability of local limited) source of the drought tolerant seed stocks of crops such as sorghum, pearl cowpea variety IT 18. During the past year, millet, cowpea, pumpkin and various relief programs have been virtually the only squashes. Such experiences again highlight the importance of targeting. Some households will have seed of many different crops while others maintain only limited stocks. Shortages are more likely for legumes, compared with cereals. In Zimbabwe, farmers are accustomed to purchasing hybrid maize seed on the retail market. In some communities farmers particularly sought maize seed through the relief programs in order to reduce their purchases. Improved varieties offer substantial yield gains over traditional varieties – as much as 50% in a bad season Improved vs Traditional Varieties Seed distribution programs should not be source of new, open-pollinated maize used to distribute new varieties of uncertain varieties now being grown in Zimbabwe. All adaptation and acceptance. Seed from local these new varieties were widely tested in the grain markets may be better than seed country before being released by the imported from uncertain sources outside the government and distributed by NGOs. 1. During the 2003/04 season, seed fairs were implemented by The main problem, revealed in recent CRS/CTDT, by FACHIG, and by World Vision in more than 10 districts in Zimbabwe. Local seed markets failed to provide a surveys of relief programs, is that farmers significant share of seed in only one area, Matobo District south of commonly lack information about the Bulawayo. This is the first known example where seed fairs have not attracted significant local seed stocks. This was likely due to varieties they are receiving. In a recent two factors – many households in the area rely on remittance survey of 1500 households, at least 40% of income, and the season was preceded by two consecutive years of severe drought. farmers did not know the names of the Hybrids versus OPVs varieties provided by various NGOs. They did not know the growth characteristics of Given adequate rainfall and inputs, hybrids will generally give higher yields than open-pollinated varieties (OPVs). the crop, or even whether this was hybrid or However, the actual difference in yields depends on the open pollinated seed. This helps explain why choice of variety. many farmers did not plant all the seed they A main advantage of OPVs is they can be re-used by received – logically, they sought to assess farmers for several seasons before fresh stocks of the variety’ performance before allocating s certified seed are purchased. This saves farmers money. more of their land. Correspondingly OPVs may be suitable for smallholder farmers who cannot afford to purchase inputs, and those living in outlying areas where input markets are weak. The payoffs to relief programs can often be considerably enhanced if they are able to Zimbabwe has a long history of hybrid crop breeding. It was the second country (after the USA) to release maize provide farmers access to more productive hybrids. By the mid 1980s, virtually every small-scale new varieties. The international agricultural farmer in the country had experience growing hybrid research institutes of the CGIAR as well as maize seed. In fact, sales of OPV maize seed were banned. In recent years, however, high seed prices have the national research and extension services encouraged a shift back to OPVs. In 2003 the sale of can provide useful information about the OPV maize seed was legalized. existence, performance and availability of NGOs should be aware of this history of hybrid seed new varieties. development, and be sure that farmers understand whether they are receiving hybrid or open pollinated Hybrid vs Open Pollinated Varieties of seed. Maize More than 90% of Zimbabwean smallholders of seed are now being produced for delivery have experience growing hybrid maize. This during the 2004/05 planting season. widespread adoption resulted from the remarkable performance – even in drought prone Many NGOs have expressed interest in areas – of several hybrids released during the promoting sales of OPVs so farmers can 1970s. Most of these farmers discarded open- more readily save seed from their harvest. pollinated varieties (OPVs) of maize in favor of Some claim farmers are better off growing hybrid seed; and the government subsequently OPVs. However, this decision should be outlawed the sale of OPV maize in the country. made by farmers, not by NGOs. On-farm Consequently, sales of hybrid maize were trials have shown that OPVs perform well. entrenched. Farmers now need to be educated about the In late 2002, Zimbabwe changed its policy differences between OPV versus hybrid and allowed ‘ fast track’registration of five maize, and offered the opportunity to try open pollinated maize varieties for both. For example, NGOs can distribute 5 kg distribution and sale in the country. One of bags of both hybrid and OPV seed and these varieties, Kalahari Early Pearl, is an encourage farmers to experiment. The result older variety widely promoted in relief of such experimentation is likely to have programs in neighboring countries. The other longer-term impacts than simply distributing four (ZM 421, ZM 521, Matuba and whatever seed is most readily available. Obatampa) are new varieties from CIMMYT. Small quantities of several of these varieties Maize in Drought Prone Regions were distributed for the first time through Some NGOs similarly argue that maize seed relief programs in 2003/04. Larger quantities should not be distributed in drought prone regions because it simply perpetuates the need for food aid. But farmers in these areas widespread. Sorghum and pearl millet are well aware of the risks of maize production are most important in the drier production; and adopt strategies such as parts of the country – Natural Regions IV timely planting on better soils, or multiple and V. Groundnut is locally important in plantings, in order to improve the probability many areas while cowpea tends to be more of a harvest. common in the drier areas. Sugar beans tend to be grown in higher rainfall zones and Undoubtedly, maize is less drought tolerant in areas closer to urban markets. than sorghum or pearl millet. Farmers in most drier regions of the country consistently Survey evidence suggests that rural plant these small grain crops as a form of communities are most likely to retain insurance against rainfall risk. Yet maize significant seed stocks of drought-tolerant also has well known advantages. If rainfall is crops with high multiplication ratios, such as fairly consistent through the season, maize sorghum and pearl millet. Farmers will generally give higher yields than commonly look to relief programs for new sorghum or pearl millet. It is also less prone varieties of these crops. to bird damage, and easier to consume as a green vegetable crop Maize seed is more difficult Farmers are usually self sufficient during the period before in seed of sorghum and pearl millet to retain, if only because the main harvest, when (drought tolerant, high much of the seed being household food supplies multiplication ratios); but relief planted is of hybrids. are lowest. Maize is programs can play a crucial role in Farmers hope relief commonly viewed to be introducing new varieties. Farmers programs will distribute are keen to receive hybrid maize easier to process into meal seed as well as new maize OPVs. fresh maize seed so they or flour. Legume seeds are often in short need not buy it. However, supply, because of the low there is also growing Once again, farmers multiplication ratios, small interest in gaining access to should be given the choice. quantities harvested, and high the newly available open demand for legume grain. Most will choose to grow pollinated maize varieties. maize plus either sorghum or pearl millet, regardless Legume seeds are most of the views of NGOs. likely to be in short supply, because of the low multiplication ratios and Seed Packs the high demand for legume grain, which is There is no single best seed pack to considered a premium food. Plot sizes are distribute to all farmers in Zimbabwe, or even generally small and available stocks are to all farmers within a particular agro- quickly consumed as a snack or relish. ecological zone. Relief programs first need Larger supplies may be sold in the high to consider what crops are commonly grown priced confectionery market, particularly by in the target district or community, and then households needing a bit of cash. consider what seed is most likely to be The next question is how much seed to needed. distribute. Again, much depends on the relative availability of seed from the formal The distribution of crops grown in Zimbabwe and informal markets. However, a starting is summarized in Figure 1 (and in greater point for poorer households who have lost detail in Appendix 3). Maize production is most of their seed is to provide enough seed to plant just over 1 ha of a mixed cereal and consume their groundnut or cowpea seed legume crop. Table 1 shows two possible allocations. The reasons include: limited crop packs – one suitable for areas where quantities of legumes are available on local maize dominates (eg the higher rainfall grain markets, or from food aid. Groundnut, areas of Natural Regions I, II and III), and cowpea and beans are highly valued as a the second for areas where sorghum or pearl complement to the grains provided in aid millet are more important (low rainfall areas, allocations. Correspondingly, there may be Natural Regions IV and V). good justification for distributing more legumes in food aid allotments during the The harvest will depend more on the crop legume planting season. management practices employed than the quantity of seed provided. Table 1 shows the Seed Quality Issues approximate harvest expected if rains are There are frequent reports of poor quality fair to good. Yields will be much higher, in seed being distributed through relief either environment, if improvement programs. This includes evidence of seed management practices are used. Yields will with low germination, mixed genetic purity, or be lower if crops are planted late (relative to poorly adapted varieties. The best way to the timing of individual rainfall events) or on avoid these problems is to purchase well- poor quality soil. labeled seed of known varieties of reliable Both these alternative seed packs contain origin. more legume seed than is normally provided Seed companies normally test the s in Zimbabwe’ relief programs. Groundnut or germination rates of seed they intend to sell. cowpea allotments are usually small Purchase contracts may specify a minimum because the seed is expensive, and only level of germination. In general, seed of limited stocks are available on local markets. cereal grains should have a germination rate Investments in legume crop seed above 85%. Seed of legumes, such as multiplication may be needed in order to groundnut or cowpea should have a make this package more practical. germination rate above 70%. Problems of Also, NGOs frequently complain that farmers low germination are more common for legume seed than for cereal grains. NGOs can easily test germination rates of the seed they receive before distribution. Simple selection and testing procedures are described in Appendix 4. Table 1. Two alternative crop packs to plant approximately 1 ha Higher rainfall zone Lower rainfall zone Seed quantity Area Expected Seed quantity Area Expected harvest planted harvest* planted** 10 kg maize 0.5 ha*** 600 kg 8 kg maize 0.4 ha 300 kg 4 kg sorghum 0.5 ha 500 kg 5 kg sorghum or 10 kg groundnut 0.15 ha 100 kg 3 kg pearl millet 0.75 ha 550 kg 10 kg groundnut or 8 kg cowpea 0.15 ha 50 kg * An average 6-member household needs approximately 1 ton of grain per year ** Cereals are planted at lower density in drier regions *** Officially recommended planting rate for maize is 25 kg/ha, but farmers commonly plant at 20 kg/ha The most common problem with relief seed the major seed houses. Protocols are also for secondary crops such as sorghum, pearl being drafted, that stakeholders are millet and cowpea is the delivery of mixed expected to adhere to. seed lots. Some cases have been noted, where seed companies bought and sold Timing of Seed Distribution common grade seed when their own stocks s Zimbabwe’ planting season somewhat ran short. Most of this seed is purchased uniquely extends over a three month period. from the local grain market, cleaned for Planting commonly begins just before rains physical purity and checked for germination. start in late October. Pearl millet is often But it may not always be clearly labeled as planted into dry ground, while maize and common grade seed. Instead, it may be legumes are planted in the days immediately labeled generically as mixed cowpea, or following a major rainfall event. November simply as white sorghum or pearl millet. rainfall is usually highly variable in both NGOs then must decide whether to offer timing and distribution. Rains are more farmers seed of an uncertain and possibly mixed variety, or no seed at all. At least, this seed is likely to be suited to local environments, although it may be no better than the seed available in local, informal seed markets. During the past 12 years, any poorly adapted seed sold in Zimbabwe has invariably been imported. Pearl millet seed purchased from India following the 1991/92 drought, was generally late maturing and low yielding. In 2002 and 2003, several seed companies sold large quantities of a white sorghum variety labeled as Macia. However, this proved to be a late maturing variety purchased from the Mozambique grain All plants in this were photo were grown from seed labeled Macia market. Most of this crop yielded no grain – the tall plants in the background produce leaves but little grain, because it matured long after the rains were under Zimbabwean conditions over. Most unfortunately, this seed was mis- labeled. Macia is a popular early maturing common in December, so most planting is variety tested and released in Zimbabwe, done between 15 Dec and 15 Jan. Usually, and several other countries in southern planting is completed by mid-January. Africa. The seed in question was probably a However, rainfall in the 2003/04 season was landrace variety found in the longer season highly variable, so plantings continued into highlands of Manica Province. Poor seed early February. quality, poor markings and bad labeling are being addressed through discussions with Farmers generally plant legume crops early foundation seed after the first year or two of (before mid-December) and cereals over an special project attention. Farmers are extended period on multiple plots. The latter encouraged to adopt stricter quality control strategy helps offset the risks of flowering measures than they would normally use for during a mid-season dry spell. This their own seed crops, but such measures are particularly affects the productivity of maize. costly to police and of uncertain value to Sugar beans may be planted late in the local communities. Virtually all these projects season, sometimes on the residual moisture have difficulty with seed sales. If production available after the harvest of an early crop. levels are high, participating farmers commonly ask the NGO to purchase their Since planting may begin as early as late seed for sale to other communities. October, farmers want their relief seed by late September. Strictly speaking, early seed Nonetheless, community seed production distribution contributes more to household can provide a practical way to accelerate the certainty about seed distribution of new availability, than to early Community seed production varieties of limited interest programs have suffered a range of planting. If relief seed is problems – non-viability, to the commercial seed delivered early, the farmer dependence on continuous sector. In this case public does not have to purchase or external support; difficulties in subsidies to support the borrow seed; this in turn marketing the seed produced, and distribution of foundation provides a measure of in obtaining foundation seed. seed, farmer training and Nonetheless, community seed livelihood security. production can accelerate the technical supervision, distribution of new varieties of may be justified as Community Seed limited interest to the commercial investments to speed the Production seed sector. adoption of new high Community seed production yielding varieties. NGOs programs have been widely should consult with AREX promoted as a means to multiply and or the international agricultural research distribute new (and traditional) varieties of centers regarding the identity of new limited interest to the commercial sector. varieties suitable for these programs. Some of these programs encourage the Potential varieties currently include SV 3 community to produce OPV seed on contract (white sorghum), PMV 3 (pearl millet), for a commercial seed company. But most Nyanda (groundnut) and IT 18 (cowpea). involve production for localized sale within the community – seed producers are Draft Power expected to sell to neighbors experiencing Seed distribution is often necessary to production deficits. support an expansion of planted area. But the more binding constraint to expansion is Community seed production programs have lack of draft power, particularly among the generally failed to meet expectations. None poorer farmers. In fact, lack of draft has proved self-sustaining, and in most resources is a primary indicator of poverty. cases the willingness of farmers to pay a ICRISAT surveys in southern Zimbabwe premium price for seed from their neighbors show a close correlation between the area of has been over-estimated. Most programs land planted and the availability of cattle for find it hard to consistently obtain pure plowing. Shortages of draft power also delay One solution is to encourage farmers to planting, which in turn reduces yields. prepare their land earlier, soon after the Data on the impacts of drought on livestock harvest. Agronomic trials from both numbers are limited. However, in more Botswana and Zimbabwe consistently show open-ended questions about input high returns to winter plowing. During the requirements, many small-scale farmers post harvest period, draft animals are express a greater need for tillage support stronger and can plow larger areas. Demand than for seed. But this constraint is difficult to for tractors is also low at this time, allowing resolve – restocking of cattle is expensive more area coverage. and time consuming, and contributes to over-grazing and consequent land s Alternatively, Zimbabwe’ small-scale degradation. Efforts to promote tractor hire farmers can be encouraged to prepare parts schemes have been fraught with problems. of their fields by hand. Here the experiences Plowing services are expensive, and tend of the Zambian Conservation Faming Unit first to be allocated to better connected are instructive. Planting basins can be farmers. Tractor drivers are poorly trained in prepared over an extended period following the maintenance and use of their equipment. the previous harvest, allowing timely planting Again, farmers waiting for these services when the rains eventually begin. often fail to plant on a timely basis. Fertilizer Distribution Most of the soils cultivated by small-scale farmers, particularly in the drought prone regions, are grossly deficient in nutrients. In most years, lack of nitrogen is a more severe constraint than lack of water. Consequently, even ‘ improved’varieties give only limited yield gains. Average grain yields are less than 1.2 tons per hectare for maize, even in favorable seasons; and less than 800 kg per hectare for sorghum and pearl millet. Farmers commonly complain that chemical fertilizer is expensive. In drier areas they claim it is either not available or too risky. Some argue it burns the crop, or Illustration from a Shona/Ndebele pamphlet on fertilizer impoverishes’the soil. In this context, ‘ use, distributed to 160 000 farmers across Zimbabwe national extension recommendations to apply three 50 kg bags of Compound D (commonly known as maize fertilizer), and management. Training and on-farm two 50 kg bags of ammonium nitrate (AN) experimentation involving the use of small per hectare are essentially irrelevant. quantities of manure and chemical fertilizer can significantly improve yields. However, ICRISAT has collected considerable data this requires more than simply distributing from farm management surveys in the drier fertilizer – farmers must be taught to apply it parts of Zimbabwe. One surprising finding to a well weeded crop planted on a timely was that many farmers fail to use the basis. In 2003/04, approximately 160,000 manure available to them – 60% of cattle or farmers across the country received 25 kg donkey owners did not use any manure on packs of fertilizer with a pamphlet in the local their field crops. Instead, it was left to rot in language (Shona or Ndebele depending on piles by the kraal. the area) explaining how to use the fertilizer most efficiently. In the future, these efforts Several years of on-farm experimentation need to be extended with on-farm have shown that most farmers are simply demonstrations and discussions. unaware of the benefits of fertility 7. Input Procurement Zimbabwe has one of the more sophisticated Compound D, now being advertised as agricultural input markets in Africa. The maize fertilizer, offers a mix of nitrogen, country has more than ten seed companies phosphorus and potassium (8-14-10). It is and three retailers of chemical fertilizer. suitable as a basal dressing for most cereal Wholesale and retail trade channels are well crops. Other compound or basal fertilizers established for inputs relating to commercial were available earlier, but production has crops. Despite this, during the past two been discontinued. years, large-scale relief programs have difficulty sourcing inputs for distribution. Zimbabwe has long promoted the application Seed (except for maize) and fertilizer are in of ammonium nitrate (AN) as a top dressing short supply. Power lies with the input seller fertilizer for cereal grains. It is sold by two rather than the buyer. Correspondingly, fertilizer companies – Zimbabwe Fertilizer quality and timeliness of supply Company and Windmill. A are compromised; late buyers are Zimbabwe has a strong third company (Omnia) has private-sector presence in forced to ‘ take what they can get’ . sought to sell urea to relief agricultural inputs – but large-scale relief programs, but few Availability of Input Stocks programs have difficulty Zimbabwean smallholders are NGOs should first inventory the sourcing seed (except for familiar with this input. market to see what inputs are maize) and fertilizer. In a s seller’ market, quality available; and consult experts in and timeliness of supply Input Tenders institutions like AREX or the are often compromised. Most NGOs either purchase international agricultural research their inputs through tender or centers about the relative benefits obtain them through bulk of alternative products. Appendix tenders issued by 5 lists the seed varieties released on the collaborating partners. Several common local market. However, many of these problems arise. First, most tenders specify varieties are not consistently available. the crop but not the variety. This allows seed There are over 75 white maize hybrids on companies to provide whatever variety is the national registration list, but only about available. This presents little problem in the ten of these are readily available and case of maize because certified seed is suitable for relief programs. Only one of the readily available. However, the buyer will still four sorghum OPVs, and one of the three need to specify a preference for OPVs vs pearl millet varieties is readily available, and hybrids, or for varieties suited to drier, only in small quantities (relative to relief drought prone regions. demand). No significant stocks of groundnut are available; Zimbabwe consistently imports Purchasing seed of most other grain and an older groundnut variety (Natal Common) legume crops is more difficult. If varieties are from South Africa. not specified, the buyer is likely to be offered common grade seed of uncertain origin. This The country produces two main types of does not necessarily present a problem if it fertilizer targeted for maize production. is purchased from local farmers. However, an opportunity may be lost to distribute National and regional seed companies improved varieties of greater interest to commonly need four to six weeks lead time many farmers. In order to obtain these to make deliveries. However, NGOs should varieties, orders must be placed early and be aware that relief seed and fertilizer are properly specified. often delivered late, particularly if tenders are awarded late in the buying season (due to Contracts should specify quality standards delayed funding and other factors). This is for the seed – germination rates, maximum due to limitations in seed cleaning and permissible content of foreign matter, and (if packing, and constraints in the manufacture a particular variety is specified) genetic of chemical fertilizer. These difficulties have purity, ie maximum level of been worsened by the contamination with alternative Zimbabwean regulations decline in the overall varieties. require rigorous field and economy. Buyers may need lab inspections of seed. This system works to have clauses in their All seed production and trade in reasonably well for maize, contracts penalizing Zimbabwe is regulated by the and for the small non- suppliers for late delivery. national Seed Services Department. maize commercial market Appendix 6 shows a All seed is supposed to be inspected – but not for the huge sample contract. relief market. Relief seed in the field and again in the often has problems of laboratory to ensure physical and quality or varietal purity. Storage genetic purity, germination rates and It is important to establish seed health. This system works storage warehouse space reasonably well for maize, and for when tendering for large the small quantities of other crops seed and fertilizer sold on the commercial market. But the purchases. Such stores may be hired in system cannot cope with the large quantities larger business centers through rental of seed being sold and distributed under agreements with local wholesalers or big relief programs. As a result, seed stocks are retail shops. They should have waterproof of variable quality, and genetic (varietal) construction, good ventilation, and ample purity is often a problem. space for orderly stacking of commodities. A checklist for assessing storage space is In this situation, buyers must often choose provided in Appendix 7. between purchasing standard grade seed and having little or no seed to distribute. This Labeling trade-off is difficult to judge. In general, One very common problem in relief standard grade seed has not harmed programs is the lack of clear labeling of smallholder farmers, and generally produces agricultural inputs – and of seed in particular. a fairly uniform crop. However, in areas This results partly from limitations in the where local seed stocks are more plentiful, availability of printed packaging. But in NGOs are better off limiting their purchases addition, most seed companies do not have to high quality seed of improved varieties the capacity to label thousands of smaller and investing in fertilizer or tillage support. bags. At best, labels identify the variety and lot number required to trace the origins of the seed. In many cases, even this information is distributed individually. The former strategy not available. Instead, farmers receive clear allows faster distribution in the village, and is packages with no information about the seed more convenient for farmers (easier to carry type or variety characteristics. a single 15 kg bag than several smaller bags). Lack of labeling is of particular concern in the context of increasing distribution of OPV The latter strategy is more flexible, allowing maize seed. Zimbabwean farmers are used the NGO to adjust delivery strategies as to growing hybrids and will not necessarily needed. For example, one community may expect to receive an OPV. If seed packs are grow more sorghum, while a neighboring not labeled, most will simply assume that village may grow more pearl millet. Smaller seed must be repurchased in the following package sizes increase flexibility, but may season. This is beneficial to the seed also make the logistics somewhat more companies, but represents a lost complex. development opportunity. In a few cases, seed companies deliver in Finally, good labeling allows NGOs to track larger 50 kg bags, which the NGO repacks and document seed problems. into smaller units. This may In areas where local seed The characteristics of the crop stocks are plentiful – even reduce the price of seed and can be checked in relation to a if the quality is variable – improve delivery schedules, variety name. The origins of NGOs could concentrate because the major bottleneck is mixed or mis-labeled seed can their resources on in packing seed in smaller sized distributing high quality be tracked with a lot number. lots. However, the time and seed of improved varieties When problems are identified, and investing in fertilizer effort required for repacking seed companies often blame the or tillage support. seed should not be farmer for contaminating their underestimated; and the NGO seed. But if unopened, but itself must provide some sort of labeled, seed packets are found labeling. to be similarly contaminated, or otherwise deficient, it is easier to hold the seed seller During the 2003/04 cropping season, 160,000 accountable. farmers were each provided with 25 kg of ammonium nitrate fertilizer. The standard size Packaging fertilizer bag is 50 kg. There was no way to Most NGOs request that seed be packed in repack it in smaller bags without significant a form suitable for delivery to individual additional expense and long delays. Ultimately, households. A set of different seed crops two farmers were asked to share each 50 kg bag. may be packed into a larger bag for The success of this program is currently being distribution to each farmer. Or smaller evaluated. packets of several different crops may be 8. Timing of Input Distribution There never seems to be enough time to planted in November and a second plot in complete every objective of a well late December. Groundnut and cowpea tend functioning and well monitored agricultural to be planted earlier. Cereal grains are more input relief program. The funding arrives late, likely to be planted later. Poorer households new staff members are difficult to find, and with limited access to draft resources require more training and supervision than commonly extend their planting into January, anticipated; and inevitably one problem or and occasionally to early February. Such late another delays the implementation of the planting results from a proclivity to wait to program. Program planning and tracking can borrow draft resources from neighbors who benefit, at least, from the creation of a first want to complete their own planting. calendar of activities. These need to be Most farmers would prefer to plant late than linked, ultimately, back to the farming to till their land by hand. calendar commonly employed by s Zimbabwe’ smallholders. According to this calendar, relief seed ought to be delivered to farmers by late October. Farming Calendar However, if supplies are late, seed can still Most smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe plant be delivered and productively used by poorer their main field crops over a single summer households in late December or early planting season. This usually starts just January. Basal fertilizer similarly needs to be before the onset of rains in late October and in the hands of farmers by October, though ends with the completion of harvest in June top dress fertilizer may be distributed in late or early July of the following year. Table 2 November or December. provides a rough calendar for the country as a whole. Program calendar Tables 2 and 3 show a possible calendar for Maize is commonly planted more than once relief operations, in relation to the farming in order to offset the risks of mid-season calendar. drought. Therefore one plot of maize may be Table 2. Summer season farming calendar Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Summer plowing Planting Weeding Basal fertilizer At planting or 2-3 weeks after germination * Top dress fertilizer Usually 1 month or more after germination, up to flowering Harvest Legumes first, cereals later, except for green maize harvest Threshing Winter plowing * Farmers in Zimbabwe commonly apply basal compounds after germination, to reduce investment risks Table 3. Calendar for relief input program June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May June Identify areas needing assistance Quantify assistance needed Proposal for funding Tender for inputs Organize delivery system Register recipients Distribute seed and basal fertilizer Distribute top dress fertilizer Assess distribution Assess use of inputs Evaluate program impacts 9. Distribution Strategies Relief programs in Zimbabwe have depend on the capacity of NGOs, the experimented with several strategies for strength of local markets, and the political seed distribution in recent years. In general, and economic environment. direct distribution of free handouts is being replaced with more market oriented Direct Free Distribution strategies. These include: This is the traditional method – small packs ? credit programs requiring farmers to of seed and related inputs are distributed deliver a portion of their harvest in directly to individual farm households. exchange for inputs Recipients are first selected and registered ? vouchers redeemable for inputs ‘ sold’ (see Chapter 4). The registered households through rural retail shops may receive an identification card or simply ? seed fairs where vouchers are have their national identification cards listed. exchanged for seed supplied by When seed or fertilizer is available, they are commercial and informal traders. informed and mobilized. The advantages and disadvantages of these Distribution is done in coordination with local approaches are still being assessed. In district and ward authorities. NGO staff may general, an efficient methodology for input address a meeting explaining the distribution distribution is expected to: procedure. Beneficiaries are grouped into ? Minimize errors of inclusion/exclusion (ie, village units, the names checked against the assisting non-deserving households or registration lists, and recipients’identities leaving out deserving households) at the confirmed by village officials. The beneficiary identification and selection beneficiaries are then asked to sign for their stage input package before collecting it. Some ? Provide farmers with inputs for which NGOs ask for additional confirmation: the they have the agronomic knowledge and beneficiary signs a statement acknowledging skills, and which relate to their crop receipt, and/or local officials or AREX staff production preferences. In addition, new counter-sign to confirm that the seed has products can be introduced provided been collected. farmers are given relevant training ? Enable farmers to receive inputs in a The key advantage of this strategy is its transparent and corruption-free fashion simplicity. Communities are mobilized in the ? Minimize administrative costs of delivery same way as for food aid distribution, so ? Minimize donor dependency community leaders and participating ? Minimize the disruption of input markets; households are familiar with the process. and where possible, facilitate market Some argue this method is cheaper to development. implement than some of the alternative methods described below. However, a strict Ultimately, multiple strategies may be analysis of relative costs of alternative needed in order to reach different segments distribution strategies would need to be done of a population. The choice of strategy may to confirm this. Input Delivery on Credit to provide poor quality grain to meet In the main government program of input numerical repayment quotas. delivery, seed and fertilizer are distributed on credit through the Grain Marketing Board Some NGOs have also asked farmers (GMB). In effect, farmers receive seed and receiving inputs (particularly seed) to return fertilizer in return for a promise to sell their a small quantity of seed from their grain grain to GMB at the end of the season. In harvests. The problem is that the returned 2003/04, farmers had to show that they had seed is of uncertain quality. It is difficult to sold grain to GMB in previous years. assess seed quality in the field and the Farmers who had repaid their earlier credit ‘seed’being returned may be actually grain; for inputs could essentially obtain what of mixed varieties or with low germination inputs they desired. rates. Little information is available about the Seed Fairs details and success of this program. An Catholic Relief Services (CRS), in unknown proportion of farmers receiving collaboration with ICRISAT, have developed credit in 2002/03 did not repay, and therefore a strategy of using community seed fairs to did not qualify for loans the following season. deliver relief seed to small-scale farmers. The requirement of sales to the GMB The main objective of these fairs is to give effectively restricts participation to better- farmers a choice of seed types and varieties. than-average farmers who had surplus grain In particular, farmers can obtain traditional despite the drought last season. varieties from other farmers or local traders, Correspondingly, very few farmers in drier instead of unfamiliar modern varieties. CRS parts of the country have qualified for these and ICRISAT have written several manuals loans. describing how to implement seed fairs (ICRISAT and CRS 2002, ICRISAT and INIA The advantage of this program is it reduces 2003b). dependency on free inputs. The terms of the loan are more liberal than terms offered Farmer beneficiaries are first identified and through the banking system; so farmers can registered. Arrangements are then made for build a credit rating while bearing only limited a market day (fair) where anyone wanting to risks. The imposition of market controls sell seed can participate: formal seed appointing GMB as the sole buyer in the companies, local small-scale retailers, and country, has increased the likelihood of local farmers with surplus seed. Each repayment. But this may be difficult to beneficiary is given a set of vouchers enforce. (different denominations for convenience) using which they can ‘ buy’seed from any A variant of this strategy is for an NGO to seller at the fair. take responsibility for collecting grain after harvest. This is not currently legal in On the day of the fair, traders are registered Zimbabwe, but has often been used in and allowed to display their seed stocks. neighboring countries. The main difficulty is There is no restriction on formal sector the logistics of collecting small amounts of participation. Some fairs are open to those grain from large numbers of farmers – selling not only seed but other inputs such as collection costs may be higher than the value tools or fertilizer. Some fairs may restrict the of the grain. And farmers have an incentive number of informal traders (ie local farmers selling seed), to keep the fair of manageable The total quantity of seed offered by each size. In most fairs in Zimbabwe, seed prices trader is weighed and recorded both at the are set in advance, eg standard prices for a beginning of the fair, and at the end. This bag or cup of cereal/legume seed. In other helps the organizers monitor seed prices and countries, prices are left to market forces. limit cheating. The seed prices being set at Fairs in Zimbabwe are commonly higher than seed Farmers must spend all their vouchers on prices on local markets. This is viewed the day of the fair. After this these vouchers necessary to encourage more traders to are worthless. participate. But this also contributes to seed price inflation. The seed fairs essentially build on the recognition that local seed stocks are usually Informal traders are expected to have their available, often in substantial quantities, seed inspected for quality. However, this is despite floods or drought. Village seed sometimes difficult for field staff trying to markets continue to operate. The fairs are manage large numbers of trader and buyers. predicated on the assumption that the main Good advance planning is essential. constraint facing vulnerable households is their inability to purchase the available seed. This assumption may merit further investigation. One of the main gains from the fair is a substantial infusion of money into the rural community. This may have multiplier effects as seed sellers use their earnings to purchase labor or other village-produced commodities. The main disadvantage of the fair is the complex logistics. The organizers never quite know how much seed will be available until the fair opens; and may consequently set seed prices higher than needed. Little is known about the impacts of seed fairs on local seed markets. Surveys in Zimbabwe suggest that fairs are monetizing a transaction that would normally take the form of a gift. Poorer households normally obtain free seed from their neighbors following drought years; and are expected to reciprocate in future years when fortunes are reversed. The introduction of external institutions and large amounts of money to finance seed transactions may undermine Seed fairs have proved effective and popular in several countries, including Zimbabwe, Kenya, Uganda and Sudan such community obligations. However, the significance of this problem is unknown. Vouchers Redeemable at Retail Shops When inputs are available, they are CARE is implementing a program similar to distributed to the designated retailers, and seed fairs, where vouchers are distributed to farmers are notified to trade in their vouchers target beneficiaries, and are redeemable for for a mandated package. The farmers must inputs at local retail shops. This takes pay a small fee to cover the costs of input advantage of the substantial market storage and handling by the local retailer. infrastructure in Zimbabwe’ rural areas. s This is said to reduce dependency on free Shops can be found in most rural input delivery and ensure that farmers communities that regularly sell hybrid maize recognize the value of what they are seed. But this retail trade is severely receiving. Even the poorest farmers seem to compromised by the free distribution of relief have little difficulty paying these service fees. seed. Even the prospect of such programs The income earned by the retailer is discourages retailers from stocking seed. expected to be reinvested into the business. Similarly, seed companies are discouraged from distributing seed through wholesale and In the future, farmers may be given more retail channels if they can more easily, and choice of what inputs to purchase. This is perhaps more profitably, sell in bulk to a few currently not possible because of the relief programs. logistics. The seed and fertilizer packages being distributed must match the value of the The voucher program is a natural extension vouchers being redeemed. Also, seed must of CARE’ recent efforts to provide business s be reserved in bulk to ensure it is available. training to rural retailers, in order to improve But subsidies empowering poorer farmers to their investment practices and make choices are probably more efficient entrepreneurial skills. In non-drought years, means to provide agricultural assistance commercial suppliers were encouraged to than mandated purchases. provide inputs on credit to retailers thus trained. CARE agreed to provide monitoring The main disadvantage of this program is support. A similar program of business the complex logistics. Retailers must be training was implemented by the Citizen’ s identified and trained, vouchers distributed, Network for Foreign Affairs, in a program and farmers organized on the day of input ultimately managed by AGMARK. delivery. The main advantage is this creates or strengthens market linkages that will Though this is a more market friendly continue to function after the relief program approach to the delivery of relief assistance, has ended. As such, this may be the most CARE still takes responsibility for buying all sustainable of the delivery strategies inputs to be delivered through these currently being implemented in Zimbabwe. programs. This has remained necessary, partly because suppliers no longer provide Table 4 summarizes the advantages and inputs on credit to retail traders, in turn disadvantages of these programs. because of high rates of inflation in Zimbabwe (over 500%). Table 4. Advantages and disadvantages of alternative distribution strategies Advantages Disadvantages Free, direct distribution Similar in logistical requirements to food aid delivery Provides no choice of inputs Most NGOs are familiar with the procedures for free input Undermines retail trade of inputs delivery Creates dependency on free handouts Low establishment costs Credit programs Reduces dependency on free handouts insofar as farmers May undermine formal credit systems if credit is subsidized have to repay loans Risky to administer in drought prone regions Provides some choice in the type and quantity of inputs to be obtained Seed fairs Provides farmers choice of inputs to be purchased High start-up costs in staff training and community Encourages local seed producers to expand their production organization Encourages development of informal, community seed market May undermine local seed markets Brings cash into the rural community Inflates local seed prices Input availability is not guaranteed; need to check if seed is really available on local markets; can be difficult to determine if farmers are hiding stocks in order to qualify for handouts Elderly, disabled may have difficulty obtaining seed in a crowded fair May increase dependency on external interventions Vouchers redeemable at retail shops Encourages development of wholesale and retail input High start-up costs in organizing and training retail traders markets Still unclear how much collateral investment will be made by May provide choice depending on how the program is run input supply companies in developing such retail trade Reduces risks of stocking agricultural inputs Possibly prone to corruption – eg trader provides partial allotments or asks for bribes 10. Technical Support for Agricultural Recovery Many NGOs involved in agricultural relief Clearly, relief programs in Zimbabwe must and recovery programs provide some allocate more investment to seed labeling technical support to complement the delivery and farmer education. of inputs. The support may include farmer training on varieties and crop management Information about Fertilizer practices, implementation of demonstration At least 80% of farmers in drought prone trials, or distribution of information regions (Natural Regions IV and V) have pamphlets. The key issue is: how much little experience with chemical fertilizer. They should we invest in these programs? And as may have received free fertilizer from a relief a corollary, how to build linkages with program, but will rarely purchase it. As a partners who have the necessary technical result, when fertilizer is distributed, it is used competence? inefficiently. Some farmers will reject it altogether, worried that it ‘ worsens their Information about Seed Most relief recipients lack . soils’ Others may sell it to traders Varieties the information needed to or to neighbors with irrigated Recent surveys have shown use the inputs effectively. plots. There are stories of farmers that too many recipients of This is a huge opportunity who use the fertilizer to paint their lost. Relief programs must relief seed do not know what house or keep snakes out of the expand investments in varieties they are receiving farmer education – seed yard! from NGOs. The bag is labels and what they sometimes labeled with the mean, crop management, In most cases these stories can variety name; but this alone is fertilizer application rates be linked with the lack of technical and methods, etc. meaningless without additional information on how to apply the information. Few farmers will limited quantities provided know the difference between through relief programs. Many the maize hybrids SC 403 and agronomists, even, have difficulty DK 8031; or between the OPV answering the question of how ZM 521 and the hybrid SC 501. Often, the best to allocate 25 kg of ammonium nitrate. seed packet is not even labeled. In such Should it be spread broadly, or concentrated circumstances, farmers may be well advised on a small portion of the crop? Should it be to only plant part of the seed to check its used on maize or sorghum? Should it be performance. buried or broadcast? A huge opportunity is lost if farmers lack the Most NGOs rely on AREX extension staff to information needed to use their inputs provide advice on fertilizer use. But they effectively. If the unknown variety performs cannot simply assume that this advice will be poorly, relief seed becomes suspect. If the provided in the normal course of extension variety performs well, farmers may be programs. Rural extension programs do not interested in purchasing it next year – but have enough resources to make consistent cannot, because the identity is unknown; the visits to small-scale farmers. The majority of opportunity to develop a market is lost. these farmers never see an extension agent. And many extension staff have little training The key to this process is good targeting. In relating to severely resource constrained 2003/04, ICRISAT worked with the NGO systems. Few can readily answer the community to distribute an illustrated one- question of how best to apply small page pamphlet describing how best to quantities of fertilizer, other than to suggest allocate exactly the quantities of fertilizer that it ought to be applied with the rains. being provided through one major donor. It Training of extension staff may be needed. explained the need to target fertilizer to the plant, apply on a timely basis relative to both During the past few years, ICRISAT has rainfall and crop growth, and to control weed been working with provincial and district growth. Every farmer received a pamphlet AREX staff to test alternative strategies for along with his/her allocation of fertilizer. allocating small amounts of Typical N response curve - Zimbabwe semi-arid areas chemical fertilizer. This work Research is founded on the assumption 2000 recommendations Investment that most farmers adopt costly growth Investment growth technologies in a stepwise 1500 fashion. They will start with a Grain yield (kg/ha) Early gains in drought- small investment in fertilizer prone environments 1000 before considering the much Research recommendations higher recommended rates. The willingness of these 500 farmers to expand usage depends on the payoffs to the 0 initial small investment. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 N rate (kg/ha) Official fertilizer 1200 No N recommendations are placed at the high end of the nitrogen 1000 1 bag AN response curve – recommendations at a lower level would be more practical, -1 800 Grain yield kg ha and give higher returns on investment 600 400 200 0 m a ize (n=259) m illet (n=85) sorghum (n=184) Matobo On-farm trials in the semi-arid Matopos district in Zimbabwe show significant gains from a single bag of fertilizer While the impacts of this effort are still being input fertility management strategies in measured, at least some farmers have learned Hwange district. Similar programs of training something more about a key crop management and demonstration trials have been launched practice. with World Vision and CARE. There may be scope for obtaining support from other Demonstration Trials international agricultural research centers Several NGOs support demonstration trials to based in Zimbabwe, including CIMMYT and promote improved crop management ICRAF. technologies. World Vision, for example, manages an extensive training program for ‘ lead’ Seed companies should be encouraged to farmers who are chosen by the community to work more actively with NGOs involved in work with and be trained by AREX officials. seed distribution. The companies should be These lead farmers then establish a encouraged to view the distribution of new demonstration plot in the village, and in turn train varieties as an investment in building a five to 10 farmers on crop management methods. market; provide farmers with more These Field School Groups (FSG) are centrally information about their varieties; and located to encourage more farmers to participate. perhaps sponsor demonstration trials and The payoffs to such demonstration programs field days. Fertilizer companies may be merit further assessment. similarly encouraged to invest in strengthening extension programs relating to Sources of Technical Support their products. AREX is generally the primary source of technical support, capable of backstopping Finally, NGOs need to take advantage of the relief and recovery programs. Indeed AREX wealth of experience with Zimbabwe farming staff are located in most of the country’ s systems and input delivery available within their wards and have a mandate for farmer own community. During the past year, CRS has training. Once again, however, NGOs should provided training to staff of other NGOs about note that much of the training received by how to implement seed fairs. But such initiatives these staff applies to relatively high-input are rare. An inventory of specialized programs and more commercialized systems. AREX within the NGO community could reveal an staff themselves may benefit from additional unexpected wealth of expertise. training relating to low-input systems. ICRISAT has been working with the NGO COSV to train extension workers on low- 11. Integrating Recovery Efforts with Development Most donors have separate budgets for relief contribute most to household food and for development. Funding for relief security? programs is for short term investments that ? How can longer term development efforts help people keep themselves alive (food aid) be linked with the provision of relief and re-establish their livelihoods (agricultural assistance? inputs). This is distinct from development programs with medium to longer term In Zimbabwe, this debate has arisen in the impacts. context of several initiatives: This distinction derives from two factors. 1. Seed market development Some argue that the pursuit of development Free seed distribution, whether through goals undermines efforts to provide short direct distribution, through seed fairs or term welfare gains to the most vulnerable through vouchers redeemable at retail households. Such questions have arisen in shops, inevitably distorts seed markets. recent discussions about seed and fertilizer Large scale purchases by NGOs encourage allocations. Should they be allocated to seed companies to hold seed off the market households capable of producing more food in the hope of bulk sales to relief programs. per unit of input? Or to the poorest and most Seed packing equipment is tied up serving vulnerable households – who are likely to the subsidized trade. Free, direct distribution achieve lower yields (perhaps because of discourages wholesalers and retailers from draft power constraints), but who would stocking seed, even if it is available through otherwise find it difficult to re-establish their commercial seed companies. farming activities? The need for emergency assistance may The second factor is largely political. Some justify short term interventions that disrupt donors are willing to provide Zimbabwe with local markets. However, NGOs may also humanitarian assistance, but not consider a range of strategies for making development assistance. Relief programs seed distribution under relief programs more may be funded, but not development market friendly. These involve tighter programs. targeting of assistance to poorer households with limited capacity to purchase their In most cases, however, it is impossible to requirements on the commercial market. In make a strict distinction between relief and general, voucher type programs, though development activities. Relief interventions more complicated to organize, can provide inevitably contribute to community an element of choice within the context of development – by introducing new varieties, existing market institutions. One key improving rural incomes etc. Two questions question is how much choice is logistically then arise: feasible. ? How can we deliver agricultural aid in ways that are least disruptive of longer The seed trade may also benefit from term development efforts, yet still investments in the establishment of seed security stocks. There have been noticeable problems of seed quality, for crops other stakeholders, and has designed a CF than maize. One reason is that following a package allowing flexibility according to favorable season, commercial markets for agro-ecological zone. This starts from the these seed crops are perceived to be limited. premise that soil should be managed in a Seed stocks remain low, and when demand more sustainable manner. The Task Force sharply increases, little is available. A recommends no plowing (reduced tillage), development investment in building seed maintenance and incorporation of crop security stocks may have a high payoff when residues, early planting at appropriate plant the next emergency occurs. population, timely weed control, and rotations, preferably with legumes. 2. Community seed production After every drought, there is renewed The package initially requires a large enthusiasm for community or local seed investment of family labor in land preparation production schemes. These are promoted as and weed control. Farmers without draft means to improve seed security within rural resources are encouraged to dig planting communities. In most cases, community basins during winter, before the rainy seed production is linked with the season. Those with draft power can simply multiplication and distribution of new create planting lines or furrows. Planting varieties. But farmers are also being basins or furrows concentrate early rainfall encouraged to multiply and maintain stocks around crop seeds, accelerating emergence of favored traditional varieties. and improving plant stands. Fertilizer and manure are more carefully placed near the Community seed schemes potentially offer a plant, making more efficient use of available good means to support the distribution of water and nutrients. Retaining crop residues varieties of limited interest to commercial reduces surface temperatures and over time, companies. However, NGOs need to improves soil fertility. Deep rooting crops can consider the fact that these schemes depend be used in a rotation to break pans and on continuing financial and technical support aerate the soil. Rotations with legumes from the public sector. The assumption that reduce the quantities of mineral fertilizer farmers will maintain community seed needed. production programs on their own has proved unfounded. And there are key Weed burdens tend to be high in the first problems of foundation seed supply, quality year or two. However, weed populations control and marketing that require careful quickly drop as the limited tillage reduces the planning. germination of weed seeds. Over time, less labor is required than in conventional 3. Conservation agriculture production systems, soil quality improves, The objective of Conservation Agriculture or and yield levels increase, even in drought Farming (CF) in Zimbabwe is to enable years. smallholders to adopt more productive and environmentally sustainable farming systems 4. Commercial markets for agricultural that improve yields, food security, and soil products fertility. Some relief programs explicitly promote the production of more drought tolerant crops. In A CF Task Force has been set up in Zimbabwe, for example, the production of Zimbabwe, representing the major sorghum and pearl millet is encouraged as an alternative to maize in drier parts of the underutilized. In addition, low population country. To reinforce these efforts, densities in many drier regions lead to higher commercial linkages may be pursued with search and assembly costs. grain traders and processors. But NGOs need to be aware of the difficulties of The best option may be to establish linkages commercial market development in drought with private sector traders willing to take on prone regions. The very likelihood of most of the investment risks involved in drought, and the associated variability in commercial market development for drought production levels, raises marketing costs. If a tolerant crops. Relief programs can play a significant surplus is only available every significant role by distributing improved seed other year, trade infrastructure is or management advice for targeted crops. They may facilitate crop assembly or information sharing about market opportunities. These efforts can reduce the uncertainty and costs of the private trader’ s investment. 12. Relief and Recovery in Livestock Systems Livestock is an important and integral part of Several of the recommendations from this s Zimbabwe’ agriculture economy, study are summarized here. contributing 15 to 25% of the value of the agricultural output in all farming sectors. Livestock Targets Cattle production accounts for more than half National development efforts tend to this output. Goats, sheep, pigs and poultry emphasize production and veterinary are also widely important. Donkeys are support for cattle. But if a relief program is to important sources of draft power in the drier assist poorer households, more attention parts of the country. must be directed to other species. Donkeys are relatively tolerant of drought and are a Most livestock production in the communal key source of transport and draft power. sector remains semi-subsistence. Small stock are important sources of food Reproduction rates and offtake are generally protein and petty cash income for essential low. Cattle are valued as much for their needs such as medicines and school fees – outputs – for tillage, transport, milk, manure especially in times of drought. Programs and meat – as for their cash sale value. targeting improved poultry husbandry may Goats and sheep are commonly maintained benefit the poorest small-scale farmers. for smaller cash needs – to be sold or slaughtered when school fees need to be Animal Feed paid, or for household consumption Feedlots have been used in the past to expenditure. Almost all households maintain provide drought relief to livestock producers. a few chickens as a source of protein and for However, these favor cattle and wealthier cash purposes; poultry is of considerable households. As such, they should be importance to poorer households. managed on a cost recovery basis; farmers could pay for feed either in cash or in the Despite the importance of livestock in the form of livestock. smallholder economy, investments in relief and recovery programs targeting this sector The management of communal feed have been limited. Past government resources is a key part of drought mitigation programs have sought to encourage de- programs. Once a drought occurs, plans stocking, and the use of state lands should be in place allowing access to state providing supplementary access to water lands for grazing of selected groups of and feed. During the past year, the animals. Relief programs could assist with government supported the distribution of the collection of hay from roadsides or feed rations to a small cross-section of fodder from various browse species. Relief districts worst affected by drought. Several and recovery programs could also NGOs supplemented these efforts with re- concentrate on delivering feed supplements stocking programs for cattle and goats. to support the maintenance of a few key animals in the homestead kraal. These A study conducted in early 2004 reviewed include items such as oilseed cake, options for expanding these interventions. sugarcane tops, liquid molasses, salt, urea, Water Access Droughts increase competition for dwindling community water resources. As surface water runs dry, animals and people turn to borehole water. In this context, underground water supplies need to be evaluated and monitored to promote sustainable use. NGOs can provide logistical support for village level water management committees, including assistance in Livestock are a key comnponent of farming systems, especially in drier areas. Interventions must take account of repairing and maintaining boreholes. crop-livestock synergies Production Support and high-energy protein cubes. Bran from Most communal farmers have limited access the major mills could be targeted to poultry. to animal husbandry advice. Technical support for the production of donkeys and Farmers report they practice a selective small stock is particularly limited. NGOs can allocation of feed to animals of particular assist AREX authorities with the value. However, many also claim to simply development and dissemination of advice on abandon animals that appear weak in order housing, feed and nutrition, watering to focus their limited resources on stronger regimes, animal health, and reproduction. In animals more likely to survive drought. all cases, advice should take account of the Further training can improve this decision- value of indigenous breeds. making process. De-stocking and Re-stocking Veterinary Services Farmers are commonly advised to de-stock Improvement of animal health should also be animals at the onset of drought in order to recognized as a mitigation strategy. reduce pressure on limited feed and water Healthier animals can better withstand resources, and thereby reduce animal shortages of food and water. At the onset of deaths. However, few households heed this a drought poorer households with fewer advice because of the low prices at such animals could be targeted to reduce the times, and the difficulty of re-establishing vulnerability of remaining stock. Vouchers herds. These problems are aggravated by can be provided to poorer households to underdevelopment of livestock markets and help them purchase key pharmaceuticals lack of market information in many and feed. communal areas. One option is to more closely link de-stocking efforts with re- stocking support after the drought. Poorer households selling animals could be given vouchers to assist in the purchase of new targeted at poorer households can reduce stock after the drought. Efforts to promote re- their obligations to sell small stock. These stocking should only be initiated when water include food aid, external support for and feed resources are replenished. These payment of school fees (or a moratorium on should not rely on exotic breeds. Poorer school fees), subsidies for medicines for households with limited capacity to invest in both animal and human use, and feed and medicines may be better off with supplementary protein. indigenous animals. Monitoring Systems Limiting the Need to Sell Small stock A recent assessment of Zimbabwe’ s Communal farmers rely heavily on the sale livestock sector revealed large gaps in the of small stock for the purchase of basic information available about livestock necessities. Consequently, households with population levels and dynamics. This makes few animals risk falling into a poverty trap. it particularly difficult to plan livestock When these animals are sold, it becomes interventions. Priority must be placed on difficult to re-establish herds or flocks. These improved data collection and reporting households can benefit from targeted systems for livestock and in particular for all assistance protecting these minimum non-cattle species; improved information on holdings from sale. Simple interventions water resources available for livestock; improved information of livestock feed availability; and stronger monitoring and evaluation systems for relief and recovery interventions. 13. Monitoring and Evaluation Monitoring and evaluation programs will be The FAO Emergency Unit has created a designed in different ways depending on spreadsheet to monitor the distribution of whether the objective is to: agricultural inputs by district and ward. This ? document the implementation of the relief aims to assess the distribution of input program distribution coverage in the country and ? document the allocation of relief highlight areas of overlap. The success of this resources (eg how much seed was effort depends on the timeliness and purchased and distributed to how many accuracy of the data provided by NGOs. A beneficiaries) copy of the data collection form for this ? measure the primary impacts (eg whether spreadsheet is found in Appendix 8. Some of the seed was planted, how much the data collected in 2003/04 are shown in additional land was planted and how Appendix 9. much grain was harvested; or ? document secondary impacts (eg did The value of a program evaluation depends farmers understand what varieties they on the quality of the data collection and were receiving, how were these judged, analysis. Consideration of a few basic was seed saved for the next planting principles can considerably improve the season). quality of these assessments. Some monitoring and evaluation plans also 1. Clearly define the specific seek to collect a wider range of information objectives of the evaluation about such issues as alternative livelihood If the objectives are unclear, the chances of strategies, household asset levels, or the collecting data sufficient to assess the impacts of HIV/AIDS. program are sharply reduced. Is the objective to track the allocation of relief funds, to There is no single correct method for assess how farmers used the assistance, or conducting a program assessment. Rather, to evaluate the impacts of this assistance? there are many different strategies for One way to clarify these objectives is to conducting different types of evaluations. identify expected impacts to be measured in Some may involve simple checklists to track the form of hypotheses. the flow of resources. One example is the warehouse checklist found in Appendix 7. 2. Define the indicators by which these objectives will be measured Alternatively, we may use a brief one- to If performance indicators are not explicitly specified, the probability of measuring any three-page questionnaire focusing on a few key indicators. Open-ended discussions may given impact is sharply reduced. What be used to identify problems with field indicators should be used, for example, to measure whether relief seed contributed to practices. And longer formal questionnaires an expansion of cropped area? If seed is may be used to assess program impact. Each of these methods may be used with different obtained from various sources, these must be stakeholders at different times. distinguished in the data collection. Ideally, data may need to be collected from similar sets of households who did or did not 4. Frame questions so that the chosen receive relief seed. What indicators should be indicators can be efficiently and used to estimate whether relief inputs unambiguously collected contributed to food security? Again, estimates Many monitoring and evaluation programs of total production will be inadequate if seed start by drafting a generic questionnaire is derived from different sources. collecting information on input use and Complications arise in distinguishing the production levels. These sorts of surveys are contributions of relief inputs (eg seed and highly prone to attribution errors (eg was the fertilizer) from the contributions of alternative seed from a relief program or from the management factors (such as timely access s farmer’ own stock) or failure to collect data to draft power). critical to the evaluation (eg what is the value of the additional grain at the farmgate). A 4. Select the data collection method to better practice is to craft a set of questions be employed around two specific lists: a list of Performance data can be collected in many hypothesized impacts, and a list of the different ways. Two common formats are (a) indicators by which these impacts will be formal, survey questionnaires measured. and (b) informal, open-ended There is no single correct interviews. The latter include method for conducting a Be sure the questions are procedures like focus group program assessment. The properly worded so that method – a simple discussions, participatory surveys responses will be as consistent checklist, a brief and transect walks. Formal, questionnaire, or detailed as possible. Many monitoring quantitative surveys are most interviews – will depend questionnaires ask ambiguous suited for the collection of data on what precisely is being questions. This makes the that are quantifiable – for assessed. analysis difficult if not example, quantity of inputs impossible. For example, received, quantity of inputs used questions such as “ Did you like and the level of harvest resulting. the seed”are much less useful than a series of questions Informal surveys are more suited to the about germination rates, seedling vigor, plant collection of data that are difficult to quantify, health, and relative grain yields. such as opinions about the value of a program. They are also better for identifying 5. Identification of enumerators problems. Often the two survey methods are NGOs commonly use their own staff to used in combination. The informal survey conduct impact surveys. This creates two may be used to help focus a formal survey. possible sources of bias. First, farmers may And informal interviews may then be used to already perceive these staff as having a learn more about problems identified in a vested interest in certain responses. Most questionnaire. recipients already know they need to meet Formal quantitative surveys are considered to certain criteria in order to qualify for be more expensive and time consuming than assistance. They may similarly believe that informal surveys. But this is not consistently whether they receive assistance next year will true. In either procedure, much depends on depend on their answers to questions the characteristics of the sample frame, and Ideally, data may need to be collected from the sorts of information being collected. similar sets of s about what they did with this year’ assistance. stakeholders may have a vested interest in the In addition, there is always a risk that result of the evaluation. 6. Train enumerators to ask the Possible differences in interpretation of each questions with care question must be analyzed. Enumerators must Effective training of enumerators commonly be trained to be skeptical of first responses and takes many days of discussion and practice. It is to watch for inconsistencies in responses. And important that enumerators fully understand the they must often be trained to learn with their purpose of the survey and problems of eyes as well as their ears. This takes time and interpretation likely to be encountered in the considerable practice. field. They must be prepared to ask follow-up questions to resolve Data processing and analysis ambiguities in initial answers. must follow immediately after 7. Establish a sample capable data collection. Delays will received assistance, is unknown. If of testing each impact lead to difficulties – due to a household had not received seed coding errors, data from a relief program, for example, hypothesis inconsistencies, and Most monitoring and evaluation it may have received it from a interpretation of results. programs select sample frames of neighboring household. There is program participants with the no way to test this proposition with objective of measuring changes in a sample confined to relief practice or result after inputs have been recipients. An alternative is to deliberately select provided. This is difficult because the likely a sample that includes households that received position of these households if they had not assistance and those that did not. The problem here is that these two sub-populations survey supervisors. Questions about may have started from such different levels of inconsistencies in the data collected from resource endowment (vulnerable vs better off individuals or groups of respondents can households) that differences at the end of the similarly be resolved if analysis follows soon season remain difficult to attribute. Ultimately, after data collection. As time passes, memories the key issue is to be clear how the sample is of field problems, or unexpected factors likely to chosen. If generalizations are to be drawn about influence interpretation of the data, are lost. And a larger population (eg of relief recipients) the interest wanes in the completion of a complete sample must genuinely reflect the characteristics and accurate analysis. of this population. This is generally achieved through randomization. A random sample of A sample of a generic monitoring plan is households is selected in a random set of provided in Appendix 10. A sample of a formal villages in a random set of wards in the districts questionnaire for post-planting assessment where the NGO has been active. 8. Organize the data processing and analysis early The longer the time lag between data collection and data processing, the more likely difficulties will arise in interpreting the results. Problems of coding can be quickly resolved if data processors are in contact with enumerators or is provided in Appendix 1 Appendix 1. Key Contacts in Zimbabwe International Agricultural Research Centers Center Address Telephone Fax Crops International Maize and P.O. Box MP 163, 04-301807 04-301327 Maize, wheat Wheat Improvement Mount Pleasant Center (CIMMYT) Harare International Crops Box 776 083-8311-9 083-8253 or Sorghum, pearl Research Institute for Bulawayo 083-8307 millet, groundnut, the Semi-Arid Tropics pigeonpea, chickpea (ICRISAT) World Agroforestry P O Box MP128, Mount 04-369122/124 04-728340 Agro-forestry crops Center (ICRAF) Pleasant Harare CIFOR 74 Harare Drive, Mt 04-369655 04-369657 Forestry Pleasant Harare Fertilizer Companies Company Address Telephone Fax Crops Omnia PO Box BW736 04-369390 04-369393 Wholesale & retail Borrowdale Harare Windmill P O Box WGT560 04-334911-9 04-334910 Wholesale & retail Westgate Harare Zimbabwe Fertilizer P O Box 385 04-753882-9 04-753881 Wholesale & retail Company Harare Sable Manufacturer Zimphos P O Box AY120, Amby 04-498837-47 or 04-487934 Manufacturer Harare 487803-6 Seed Companies Company Address Telephone Fax Crops Agricultural Seeds and PO Box 6766, 263-4-700655/728021 263-4- Non-maize Services Harare 700655/728021 Monsanto PO Box EH 47, 04-336626/28 04-336636 Hybrid maize Emerald Hill, Harare Nhimbe Seeds Non-maize National Tested Seeds PO Box 3018, 2634-310284-7 263-4-331050 or All? Harare 310288 PANNAR PO Box 99, Ruwa 073-2631/4 or2820-4 073-2652 Maize, sorghum + Paseco Quality Seeds PO Box MP348, Mt 2634-336297 263-4-335714 ? Pleasant, Harare bwe Pioneer Hi-Breed Z’ Mutual Gdns 100, 2634-339301/3, 263-4-339386 Hybrid maize (PVT) Ltd The Chase West, 339359/81 Harare Prime Seeds PO Box BW1798, 04-480501-2 04-480501-2 or All + vegetables Borrowdale, Harare 485572-3 Quinton Seeds Cotton Seed Co Ltd PO Box WGT 64, 263-4-308881-8 263-4-304841 Maize, sorghum, Westgate, Harare pearl millet sunflower, groundnut cowpea Zimbabwe Seed Trade Suite 3/4, 263-4-332017 263-4-332017 Association Strathaven Plaza, PO Box A1906, Avondale, Harare Key Government Departments Department Address Telephone Fax Crops Department of PO Box BE150, 04-778160 04-778161 Rainfall data Meteorological Services Belvedere, Harare, Zimbabwe Famine Early Warning PO Box 7810, Harare 04-744434 TBA- Network (FEWSNET) s Surveyor General’ P Box CY54, 04-775550-2 or 04-780808 Office Causeway, 775604 Harare Central Statistical Office P Bag 7705 Causeway, 04-794571 Harare AREX P O Box CY594, 04-703-531/9 - Causeway, Harare Appendix 2. Sample Household Registration Form Emergency Agriculture Recovery Application Form Q1. Application form no Q2. Name of interviewer Q3. Date of interview C. Geographic Information Q4. Region Gweru Masvingo Zvishavane Q5. District Gokwe L/Gweru Kwekwe Bikita Chivi South Chivi North Masvingo Zaka Mberengwa Mwenezi Zvishavane Q6. Ward Q7. Village Q8. Kraal Q9. Nearest Business Centre/School D. Geographic Information Q10. Name of household head Q11. National Registration Number Q12. Gender of household head Male Female Q13. Age of household head Q14. Marital status of Household head Married Divorced Single Widow Q15. Level of education of household head Primary Secondary Tertiary Q16. Is the household head employed Yes No Q17. Name of respondent (if not the household head) Q18. Relationship to household head Child Spouse Worker Q19. Next of kin to household head Q20. National Registration Number of the next of kin Household Composition Q21. Household Size Q22. How many members of your family fall under each of the following categories? <15 15-35 36-55 >55 Male Female Disabled persons Chronically ill persons Q23. In what numbers do you own the following livestock and assets? Number Cattle Donkeys Goats Ploughs Cultivators Previous Harvest (Maize in bags) Q24. Any other assistance from other development agents CARE Govt Other NGO Other Food Inputs Q25. Type of household Child headed Elderly Widowed Male/Female defacto Appendix 3. Distribution of Crops Grown in the Communal Sector of Zimbabwe Table A3.1 Percent of area planted to alternative crops in each Natural Region Natural Region Maize Sorghum Pearl millet Finger millet Groundnut Cotton 1 .69 .08 .03 .03 .06 .03 2 .76 .01 .00 .02 .09 .09 3 .58 .03 .02 .03 .09 .20 4 .55 .11 .10 .02 .10 .08 5 .35 .36 .14 .01 .08 .03 Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, AREX, various years. Table A3.2 Percent of area planted to alternative crops in each province Province Maize Sorghum Pearl millet Finger millet Groundnut Cotton Manicaland 62 9 7 2 9 4 Mashonaland East 72 3 3 3 12 3 Mashonaland Central 54 4 1 1 7 29 Mashonaland West 63 3 1 0 6 21 Midlands 60 5 6 4 9 12 Masvingo 50 14 6 7 16 3 Matabeleland North 52 17 20 0 2 4 Matabeleland South 36 35 17 1 8 0 Source: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, AREX, various years. Natural Region 1 – High rainfall, at least 900 mm Natural Region IIa – Moderate and fairly consistent rainfall, 750-1000 mm Natural Region IIb – Moderate but less consistent rainfall, 750-1000 mm Natural Region III – Lower and less consistent rainfall, 650-888 mm Natural Region IV – Low and inconsistent rainfall, 450- 650 mm Natural region V – Low and highly inconsistent rainfall, less than 650 mm Appendix 4. Simplified Method for Testing Germination Rates Sampling Procedures a) pre-packed seed: select one bag at random from each lot - taking account of the appearance of the seed. This should appear representative of the larger sample. b) bulk seed or seed in larger grain bags or seed from seed fairs: select samples from seed lots greater than 100 kg only. Take 5 samples from a single seed lot, mix these in a bucket, and select 1 kg from this lot. These samples should be selected from different parts of the seed lot, taking account of the following: o Heavy and light seeds segregate in storage with heavier seeds found usually at the bottom. o During harvesting of the crop, seed is combined from different locations resulting in variations of seed maturity, disease or occurrence of weeds o Seed is not always properly blended o Harvesting, conditioning, and storage conditions can vary within a bulk and thus change its uniformity. Seed stored on the top of a bin or wagon may be subjected to different conditions than the seed stored in the middle or at the bottom of the bulk Testing Procedures Place two pre-cut circles of newspaper (plain newspaper, not colored) into the bottom of a plastic lid. Moisten the paper with 5 ml4 of tap water. This may be measured out using a 5 ml medicine measure. The newspaper circles must be saturated with water, but there must be no free water on the surface. Use a little less water if necessary. Count out 50 to 100 intact grain seeds grains and spread evenly over the surface of the moistened paper so that none of the grains are touching each other. Cover the lid with aluminum foil to close it. Place the lid in a polystyrene box with close-fitting lid. Incubation may be carried out at ambient temperature (20-30°C). High relative humidity is maintained in the box by placing two layers of thin cotton dishcloth saturated with water at the bottom of the box covering the entire surface area; and placing two layers of thin cotton dish cloth saturated with water covering the plastic lids. The cloths must be re-saturated with water each day of the test. After 24, 48 and 72 hours, the grains are examined. At each time interval, the germinated grains are counted and removed from the plastic lid. Germinated grains are grains where the root has penetrated the pericarp. At each time interval calculate the percentage germinated grains. Duplicate determinations should not differ by more than +/- 5 grains, for example first determination 95%, second determination 90%, or 100% Germinative Energy is the mean of the duplicate determinations, expressed as a whole number. Results should be expressed as Germinative Energy (%) 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, e.g. Germinative Energy (%) 24 hours 48 hours 72 hours Sample X 84 92 95 Testing procedures adapted from Taylor, 2001. Appendix 5. Seed Varieties Released for Sale in Zimbabwe Hybrid maize – there are about 75 white maize hybrids on the list from SeedCo, Pioneer, Pannar, Monsanto, the Crop Breeding Institute and the African Centre for Fertilizer Development. Open pollinated maize: ZM 421, ZM 521, Matuba, Kalahari Early Pearl (KEP), Obatanpa Open pollinated sorghum: SV2, SV3, SV4, Macia Hybrid sorghum: DV 75, PAN 888, NS 5511, Scud Open pollinated pearl millet: PMV 1, PMV 2, PMV 3 Groundnuts: Falcon, Flamingo, Jesa, Teal, Nyanda Bamrabanut: Kazuma, Mana Cowpea: CBC1, CBC2, CBC3, PAN 238, PAN 311, IT 18 Beans: Iris, PAN 127, PAN 138, Nandi, PAN 148, Bounty Appendix 6. Sample Contract for Procurement of Inputs AGREEMENT Made and entered into by and between XXXXX and XXXXXX, Hereinafter referred to as Contractor (name of NGO) (name of supplier) On 26 Feb 04 in relation to: Procurement of agriculture inputs for Emergency Agriculture project, 2003/04 agriculture season 1. PURPOSE OF AGREEMENT This agreement between XXX (name of NGO) and the Contractor concerns their relationship to supply XXX (name of NGO) with locally produced Ag-inputs necessary for their program that involves the supply and delivery of agricultural inputs to farming families. 2. CONTRACT OBJECTIVE The contractor will supply 150 tons of Sugarbeans seed by 15 March 04. 3. GENERAL TERMS OF THE AGREEMENT Either party must first approve, in writing, any and all deviations from the parameters of this Agreement and Annexes. All communication relating to this Agreement shall be directed only to the Country Director of XXX (name of NGO) (or nominated representative) if for XXX, and the Contractor (or nominated representative) for the services required. The parties will notify each other of the relevant contact persons. Neither party will undertake any work for other agencies using resources from this project unless contractual obligations have been met. Nothing in this contract will prevent the other party from entering into separate Agreements with other agencies for other projects or activities, provided that such agreements do not detract in any way from the efficacy of this Agreement. Neither party shall sub-contract any of the work covered by this Agreement without obtaining the prior written permission of the other party. 4. AGREEMENT PERIOD The effective commencement date of this Agreement is the date this agreement is signed by both parties. This Agreement shall terminate automatically without notice on 31 Mar 04, unless terminated earlier pursuant to Articles 9 and 10 of this Agreement. 5. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE CONTRACTOR THE contractor Agrees to supply and deliver to XXX: 150 tons of Sugarbeans seed by 15 March 04 These amounts will be broken down into seed packs containing 2 kg of Sugarbeans seed composited into 50kg packs. Based on the above s tonnage the Contractor will provide 75,000 x 2 kg seed. The entire consignment of seed packs should be delivered to XXX’ (name of NGO) warehouses by 15 March 04 as outlined in paragraph 5.3. 5.1 PRODUCT QUALITY AND SPECIFICATIONS The Contractor will supply XXX with Sugarbeans seed (Red Speckled (Bonus Type)) minimum germination 80% and minimum purity 98%. Seeds should be accompanied by a seed analysis certificate and the following documents where applicable: commercial invoice, certificate of origin, phytosanitary certificate, waybills, GMO-free certificate and a fumigation certificate. 5.2 PACKAGING The 150 tons of Sugarbeans seed will be packed into strong plastic packs of 2 kg and composited into a total of 3,000 x 50kg. Product and weight is to be clearly marked on each bag. 5.3 DELIVERY The contractor will supply and deliver composite seed packs according to the following schedule: Location Masvingo Zvishavane Gweru # of 50kg Comp. Packs: 2400 0 600 Sugarbeans Tonnage 120 0 30 Address Add necessary details Person in charge Add necessary details Date 15 March 04 NA 15 March 04 s All supplies delivered must be accompanied by the Contractor’ dispatch note. The receiving official at XXX (name of NGO) shall sign at least two copies, keeping one copy for XXX and returning the other to the Contractor. The signed delivery note bearing the signature of the XXX receiving officer shall constitute proof of delivery by the Contractor to XXX. The XXX receiving officer will s raise a goods received note which should tally with the Contractor’ delivery note. The basis of payment will be this duly signed GRN and an accompanying invoice. 5.4 PRICE The Contractor will supply and deliver seeds to XXX at the following rates and total Amounts in US$: Price per 2 kg packet 1.79 Price per ton 895.00 Total cost 134,250.00 Transport: Will be paid upon submission of transport invoices for a maximum of 113 804.00 ZWD per ton to Masvingo and 107 281.20 ZWD per ton to Gweru. 5.5 PAYMENT TERMS The agreed total value of the contract of USD134,250 shall be paid 15 days after the delivery of all the 150 tons as per 5.3 to the following bank details and submission of a valid invoice accompanied by goods received notes, seed certification documents and where applicable, the other certificates as per section 5.1. Bank: Sort code: SWIFT Code: Account Name: Acc No: 5.6 PENALTIES Any seed packs that are damaged or found not to meet the specifications detailed in sections 5.1 and 5.2 whilst under the s Contractor’ responsibility will be replaced by the Contractor at no cost to XXX. Due to the nature of the project and the importance of avoiding any delays in supply of the commodity to XXX it is essential that the delivery schedule is strictly adhered to, or bettered. Late deliveries, other than due to Force Majeure (section 9), may invoke penalties at a rate of 5% of the unit price per ton per seven days. XXX may satisfy penalties owing to it by way of deductions from payments to be made to the Contractor under this Agreement. 6. DISCUSSIONS WITH THE PRESS Neither party will enter into any discussions relating to this Agreement with members of the press, on or off the record, without the permission of the other party. 7. INSURANCE The Contractor shall, at its own expense, establish and maintain appropriate workers compensation, medical care and disability insurance cover for its personnel in respect of claims for illness, bodily injury or death or, damages to, or loss of, their property that may arise from the execution of this Agreement. 8. CONFIDENTIAL NATURE OF THE AGREEMENT The Contractor shall never reveal to any person outside XXX, any information acquired as a result of its association with XXX, without authorisation nor shall the Contractor at any time use such information for its own advantage. These obligations survive the expiration or termination of this Agreement. Neither the Contractor nor its staff shall disclose to any person or organization, in any manner or form, during the period of this Agreement or after its expiration, any privileged or confidential information of XXX. Likewise, neither XXX nor its staff shall disclose to any person or organization, in any manner or form during the period of this Agreement or after its expiration, any s privileged or confidential information of the Contractor. The specific exception to this requirement shall be XXX’ donors to whom it may disclose such financial and operational information of the Contractor as is necessary for the execution of this Agreement. 9. FORCE MAJEURE “Event of Force Majeure”means, in relation to either party, an event or circumstance beyond the reasonable control of that party (the Claiming Party) including, without limitation (whether or not by the Claiming Party), acts of God, acts of War, invasion, revolution, insurrection or other acts of a similar nature or force or sabotage or damage by an enemy of either party. The Claiming Party shall not be deemed to be in breach of this Agreement or otherwise liable to the other party (the Non-Claiming Party) for any delay in performance or any non performance of any obligations under this Agreement (and the time for performance shall be extended accordingly) if and to the extent that the delay or non-performance is due to an event of Force Majeure PROVIDED THAT:- a) The Claiming party could not have avoided the effect of the Event of Force Majeure by taking precautions which, having regard to all matters known to it before the occurrence of the Event of Force Majeure and all relevant factors, it ought reasonably to have taken but did not take, b) The Claiming Party has used reasonable endeavours to mitigate the effects of the Event of Force Majeure and to carry out its obligations under this Agreement in any other way that is reasonably practicable and, c) Failure to adhere to the contract by reason of non availability/shortage of components and other materials required to fulfil the contract shall not be regarded as Force Majeure, but a breach of contract. The claiming Party shall promptly notify the Non-Claiming Party in writing of the nature and extent of the circumstances giving rise to the Event of Force Majeure. If the Event of Force Majeure in question prevails for a continuous period in excess of 10 days after the date on which it began, the Non-claiming Party may give notice to the claiming Party terminating this Agreement. The notice to terminate must be given in writing and specify the termination date, which must not be less than 5 clear days after the date on which the notice to terminate is given. Once a notice to terminate has been validly given, this Agreement will terminate on the termination date set out in the notice. Neither party shall have any liability to the other in respect of termination of this Agreement due to an Event of Force Majeure, but rights and liabilities, which have accrued prior to termination, shall subsist including, without limitation, those under Article 18. 10. TERMINATION AND SUSPENSION This Agreement may be terminated at any time; ? For cause, if it is determined by either party that the other party has failed to comply with the conditions of this Agreement; ? For convenience, if all parties agree that continuation of this Agreement would not produce beneficial results commensurate with further expenditure of funds. All parties shall agree upon termination conditions, including the effective date and in case of partial termination, the portion to be terminated. Certain provisions herein, including without limitation, the provisions of this Article and Articles 6, 8 and 12 inclusive shall survive any termination or expiration of this Agreement. 11. DISPUTES In the event of a dispute an independent arbitrator will be appointed by the agreement of both parties. 12. NONLIABILITY Neither party shall indemnify and hold harmless the other party, and its officers, successors and assigns, from and against any s and all claims, demands, liabilities, expenses (including reasonable lawyer’ fees and disbursements, court costs, judgements, settlements and fines), whether of omission or commission, that may be committed or suffered in connection with the performance of this Agreement by either party or a partner or agent of either party. This paragraph shall survive termination or expiration of this Agreement. Neither party assumes liability for any third party claims for damages arising out of this Agreement. 13. LIMITATION Neither party by making this contract has any obligation to provide other additional support services or contracts to the other party for the purposes of this Agreement or otherwise. 14. AMENDMENT This Agreement may be amended, in writing, subject to written approval by XXX and the Contractor. 15. NO PARTNERSHIP Nothing in this Agreement and no action taken by the parties pursuant to this Agreement shall constitute, or be deemed to constitute, the parties a partnership, association, joint venture or other co-operative entity. 16. WAIVER A waiver of any term or condition of this Agreement shall be effected only if given in writing and signed by the waiving or consenting party. No failure or delay on the part of either party in exercising any right, power or privilege under this Agreement shall operate as a waiver thereof. No breach of any provision of this Agreement shall be waived or discharged, except with he express written consent of the parties. The right and remedies herein provided are cumulative with and not exclusive of any rights or remedies provided by law. 17. ASSIGNMENT This Agreement is personal to the parties to it. Accordingly, neither party may, without the prior written consent of the other, assign the benefit of or the obligations of either party under this Agreement. 18. INVALIDITY If any provision of this Agreement is or becomes invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any respect under the law of any jurisdiction, the validity, legality and enforceability under the law of that or any other jurisdiction of any provision of this Agreement shall not be affected or impaired in any way thereby. 19. GOVERNING LAW AND JURISDICTION This Agreement (and any dispute, controversy and proceedings or claim of whatever nature arising out of or in any way relating to this Agreement or its formation) shall be governed by and construed in accordance with Zimbabwe Law. Each of the parties to this Agreement irrevocably agrees that the Magistrates Court at Harare shall have exclusive jurisdiction to hear and decide any suit, action or proceedings in the first instance and/or to settle any disputes, which may arise out of or in connection with this Agreement and, for these purposes, each party irrevocably submits to the jurisdiction of the Magistrates Court of Harare. Either party may withhold fees and compensation due to the other party until a settlement has been reached. 20. ENTIRE AGREEMENT This Agreement contains the entire understanding of the parties hereto with respect to the Emergency Agricultural Recovery Project. This Agreement supersedes all prior agreements and understandings between the parties with respect to such subject matter. Any amendment to the Agreement shall only be valid if evidenced in writing and signed by the duly authorized representatives of the parties. 21. AUTHORITY By his or her signature below, each signatory represents and warrants that he or she is duly authorized to enter this Agreement on behalf of the party he or she purports to represent such that, upon execution and delivery, this Agreement shall be binding obligation of such party. XXX (name of NGO) Contractor Name Position Signature Appendix 7. Warehouse Checklist Name of implementing partner: Location of warehouse: Contact details: Responsible official: Date of visit: Checklist 1 1. Is the warehouse tightly constructed, waterproof & adequately ventilated Poor Fair ¦ Good 2. Stacking of commodities, are they stacked in an orderly, countable manner, away from the walls & not too close to the ceiling. Are the stacks marked & is there space in between them for easy mobility & access. Poor Fair Good No stocks 3. Is there evidence of infestation, slack or damaged bags, damaged or rusted containers Yes No ¦ 4. Check if there is more than one type of commodity on one stack & in the warehouse Yes No ¦ 5. What is the condition of the packaging of the commodities? Poor Fair Good No stocks 6. Are pallets used on stacks? Yes ¦ No 7. Is there a procedure for removal/ disposal of damaged commodities from the warehouse? Yes ¦ No Checklist 2 1. Are rodents present & are there any signs of feeding? Yes No ¦ 2. Is there refuse of other conditions that serve as an attraction or breeding area for insects? Yes No ¦ 3. Is the warehouse provided with fire extinguishers/ buckets for safety precaution? Yes No ¦ 4. Is the warehouse road accessible in all weathers? Yes ¦ No 5. Evaluate the communication system ( telephone, telex or other) Poor Fair ¦ Good 6. Are there any openings that permit entry of insects or birds through windows, doors or ventilators Yes No ¦ Checklist 3 1. What is the state of the roof? Does it leak or retain water? Poor Fair Good ¦ 2. Is there a smooth passage of air through the warehouse so that no moisture could be collected in the warehouse Yes No ¦ 3. Monitor the lifting of bags by loaders (to prevent tearing or weakening of the bag) Poor Fair Good No activity 4. Assess the reporting format used in the warehouse to check if it captures all important stock movement information, ie receipts, dispatches, stock losses and balances. There is a ledger in use at the warehouse that details all the receipts and dispatches. There should however be a Goods Received Note that XXX (name of NGO) complete and give to the transporter instead of solely relying on the transporter's delivery note. COMMENTS: Generally the warehouse is good and well kept. The main worry is if it will be able to accommodate 300 tons of fertilizer at the same time. Appendix 8. Datasheet for Monitoring Distribution Of Agricultural Inputs to Ward Level The followings are examples: the varieties of inputs included are not meant to be exhaustive (especially for seed fairs and voucher programs). The Organization should add columns to include additional inputs. Please refer to the "Guidelines for Agricultural Relief Programs in Zimbabwe" for further information 1. Assistance: seed distribution Location: Province: Matebeleland South District: Insiza Ward No: 17 (Tombo/Papama) Date: 25 May 03 Implementing Partner: New Frontier Funding Source: own source Status: Distributed Comments: No. of H/H: 750 No. of seed packs distributed: 750 Pack contains 10 kg OPV maize, 2 kg millet, 2 kg sorghum, 10 grams pumpkin, 5 grams tomato, 25 kg ammonium nitrate fertilizer Qty distributed OPV maize Sorghum (kg) Pearl millet Pumpkins Tomato (kg) Fertilizer, (kg) (kg) (kg) Limed AN (kg) 7500 1500 1500 7.5 3.75 18,750 2. Assistance: seed distribution Location: Province: Matebeleland South District: Insiza Ward No: 4 (Mleja) Date: 28 May 03 Implementing Partner: Africa Development Funding Source: own source Status: Planned Comments No. of H/H: 250 No. of seed packs distributed: 500 (vegetable seeds distributed in a second pack) Pack contains 5 kg OPV maize, 2 kg millet, 10 kg sorghum, 10 grams pumpkin, 5 grams tomato, 25 kg ammonium nitrate fertilizer Qty distributed OPV maize Sorghum (kg) Pearl millet Pumpkins Tomato (kg) Fertilizer, (kg) (kg) (kg) Limed AN (kg) 1250 2500 1250 2.5 1.25 6250 Note: It is compulsory to include Seed Pack Composition. Ward number: compulsory. Ward name: strongly requested if available Appendix 9. Sample of Data Reported on District Level Input Distribution HH assisted, by district HH assisted, by NGO VAC report data (April 2003) Program evaluation HH assisted No. of HH No. of HH Total no. of % of HH with HH assisted vs HH in District assisted NGO assisted Total pop HH cereal deficit vs total HH need MANICALAND PROVINCE Buhera 11,648 CRS/FACHIG 11,373 220,161 50,037 60% 23% 39% Buhera IFRC 275 Chimanimani 12,817 HELP/ADF 5,000 111,755 25,399 54% 51% 94% Chimanimani German Agri-Action 571 Chimanimani CRS/FACHIG 4,246 Chimanimani FAO/SCN 3,000 Chipinge 74,300 FOSENET/ZWB 6,485 261,395 59,408 50% 125% 249% Chipinge PLAN 39,325 Chipinge PLAN 28,490 Makoni 33,667 FAO/GOAL 12,676 244,823 55,642 49% 61% 124% Makoni CRS/CTDT 3,843 Makoni AFRICARE 5,000 Makoni Oxfam Canada/ZPT 2,000 Makoni FOSENET/ZPT 9,623 Makoni HELPAGE 525 Mutare 63,172 HELP/PLAN 19,997 217,843 49,510 58% 128% 220% Mutare PLAN 38,190 Mutare AFRICARE 4,985 Mutasa 57,850 HELP/PLAN 41,800 160,036 36,372 54% 159% 296% Mutasa PLAN 16,050 Mutasa Oxfam Canada/FCTZ Nyanga 9,972 CAFOD/Cadec 8,739 113,478 25,790 53% 38.7% 72.82% Nyanga German Agri-Action 1,233 TOTAL ZIMBABWE 980,858 980,858 10,432,131 2,382,507 47% 41% 88% Appendix 10. Program Monitoring Plan Objective Indicators III Monitoring Inputs IV Final Verification % of input packs arriving at the primary Review logistics records and periodically Actual number of By April warehouses intact check inputs on receipt. beneficiaries that received 2004, seed and fertiliser on time. 149,000 Quantities of inputs dispatched match Matching quantities dispatched to the # of vulnerable the # of beneficiary at DP. Proper beneficiaries per DP On a sample basis confirm farm loading and offloading actual germination households percentage of seed have utilized % transporters getting inputs to right Make follow up to destinations and hold one- varieties provided an increased destination, in the right quantities and on-one discussions with distributors; discuss quantity and at agreed times; % distributors who with distributors and note concerns On a sample basis field diversity of have signed contracts, arranged crop stand monitoring cereal grain offloading and storage and received confirms end use planting and legume beneficiary lists and vouchers of seed and use of planting fertiliser as intended material in 10 Ascertain income generated and how Check records of cash receipts and any Districts of utilised by distributor invoices of business transactions On a sample basis carry Masvingo out estimated and actual and Midlands % of targeted beneficiaries receiving Monitoring Officers (MOs) randomly survey yield assessments Provinces, input packs in time for the 2003/2004 beneficiaries to ascertain compliance with through the planting season. project targeting criteria All distributors to account provision of for the utilisation of the 2,533 MT of % of target beneficiaries that MOs to monitor voucher distribution processes money injected into their seeds and demonstrate satisfaction with the to measure timeliness and to ensure that businesses possibly 7450 quantity, quality and variety of seed distributions are in compliance with distribution MT of top received and suitability and lists and procedural norms established by the dressing effectiveness of distribution project with beneficiaries, AGENT rural traders fertiliser. methodology and RMFP groups % of beneficiary farm families FOs and MOs gather information on input cultivating seeds as intended utilisation, land prep., planting dates, general agronomic practices, estimated yields, crop condition and constraints faced Compare the better farmers with the MOs undertake post distribution monitoring to “poor”ones in order to share success assess utilisation of distributed seeds and stories amongst communities and fertiliser and to monitor crop establishment promote EARP and growth Assess production levels and use of MO & FO to assess production levels, additional production derived from storage, what quantities are marketed inputs package External consultant undertakes final project evaluation Appendix 11. Sample of Post-Planting Assessment Survey Questionnaire This survey can provide information on whether the household received relief inputs, how these were used, and the alternative sources of supply of these inputs. This information helps assess the relative contributions of relief inputs to crop production. Date: ______________________ Enumerator: ______________________ Province: ___________________ District: __________________________ Ward: ______________________ Village: __________________________ Respondent should be an adult who is a main decision maker for this household. If husband and wife jointly manage farming activities, both should be interviewed together. Participation of the wife should be encouraged. Respondent and household details Name of Status Gender Age Years of Residency Health education status* respondent Male HH head=1 Male=1 Full time=1 Good=1 Female HH head=2 Female=2 Part Time=2 Fair=2 Other (specify)=3 Poor=3 * Health status: good = little or no sickness; fair = sick approximately 15-40 days per year; poor = sick more than 40 days per year 1. How many residents live in this household (including respondents listed above): Full time (9 months or more) Part time (2-8 months) Adults (15+ years) Children (0-14 years) Inputs received 2. Did you receive any seed from outside agencies this cropping season? _______________ Yes=1, No=2 [if NO, go to Q4] 3. What seed did you receive, and from whom What agency When was it Where was How far is Crop Variety Quantity Units Any problems provided the provided it provided this from with this seed? seed here (week/month) (minutes Maize=1 Provide name kg=1 None=1 walk) W. sorghum=2 or Other Poor germination=2 R. sorghum=3 Unknown=9 (specify)=2 Variety unknown=3 P. millet=4 Crop unknown=4 Groundnut=5 Mixed variety=5 Cowpea=6 Other (specify)=6 Other (specify)=7 4. Did you receive any chemical fertilizer from outside agencies this cropping season? _______________ Yes=1, No=2 [If NO, go to Q6] 5. What types of fertilizer did you receive? What agency provided the When was it Where was it How far is this Type of fertilizer Quantity Units fertilizer provided provided from here (week/month) (minutes walk) kg=1 50 kg bag=2 Other (specify)=3 Crops and crop management 6. What have you planted this season and how have you managed these crops? Plot Crop Planting Variety Source Kg of Variety Source Kg of Kg of Kg of Kg of # date #1 Var # 1 #2 Var # 2 manure basal top- planted planted applied fertilizer dress applied fertilizer applied Maize=1 (week/month) (include Own stock=1 (include Own stock=1 W local Neighbor=2 local Neighbor=2 sorghum=2 names) Distant names) Distant R sorghum=3 relative=3 relative=3 Pearl millet=4 Retail shop=4 Retail Groundnut=5 Grain shop=4 Cowpea=6 market=5 Grain Other NGO (give market=5 (specify)=7 name)=6 NGO (give Other name)=6 (specify)=7 Other (specify)=7 Seed sales, gifts, barter, stocks, consumption 7. Do you still have any seed in stock? ____________ yes=1, no=2 8. Did you sell, trade, barter or give away any seed this season? _________ yes=1, no=2 9. Did you consume any of your seed, or the seed you received from NGOs, this season? ________________ yes=1, no=2 10. [if the answer to Q7, 8 or 9 is yes] What did you do with the seed you did not plant? Crop Seed source Transaction Quantity Price Reason Maize=1 Own stock=1 Sale=1 state units If sale/barter – for Excess to need=1 W. sorghum=2 Neighbor=2 Gift =2 entire transaction To help another R. sorghum=3 Distant relative=3 Barter=3 farmer=2 Pearl millet=4 Retail shop=4 Consume=4 To earn cash=3 Groundnut=5 Grain market=5 Still in stock=5 Did not like variety=4 Cowpea=6 NGO (give name)=6 Other (specify)=6 Unable to plant=5 Other (specify)=7 Other (specify)=7 Other (specify)=6 Thank the respondents and ask if they have any questions. Record these.