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  How the world‟s best-performing
  school systems come out on top




Budapest, Hungary

January 25, 2008

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The Challenge
Despite high spending increases in OECD, education outcomes have
stagnated


                         Increase in real expenditure per student*                Increase in student achievement**
  %
                         (1970-1994)                                              (1970-1994)

  Belgium                            65                                              -5

  United Kingdom                       77                                            -8

  Japan                                     103                                            2

  Germany                                   108                                      -5

  Italy                                        126                                         1

  France                                                      212                    -7

  New Zealand                                                  223                -10

  Australia                                                             270           -2



      * Real expenditure, corrected for the Baumol effect using a price index of government goods and service
     ** Math and Science
Source: UNESCO, EFA Global Monitoring Report 2005, Pritchett (2004), Woessmann (2002). McKinsey                   2
Similarly, the US has experienced stagnant outcomes despite rising spend
per student
                                                                          Spend per student
  Linear 70                                                               ($ 2004)
  Index
              60

              50
                                                                          Student-to-
              40                                                          teacher ratio


              30                                                          Literacy (17 years)

              20                                                          Literacy (13 years)


              10                                                          Literacy (9 years)

                0
                1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

Source: National Centre for Education Statistics, NEAP, Hanushek (1998)
The skill impact of socio-economic differences is significant by as early as
age four

      Number of words (millions) heard by child at age four*


      Children of „professional‟                                             45
      parents


      Children of „working class‟                                       26
      parents


      Children of „welfare‟ parents                                13




      * Based on longitudinal research of 42 families in Kansas City
Source: Betty Hart and Todd Risley, 1995                                          4
Popular reforms have not improved student outcomes: Class size


     Of 112 studies that have examined the effects of class size on
     student achievement …


     Significant positive effect of
     reduced class sizes                              9


     No significant effect
     of reduced class sizes                                                               89


     Significant negative effect
     of reduced class sizes                               14



                                                 “variations in teacher quality completely
                                                 dominate any effect of altered class size”


Source: Hanushek The Evidence on Class Size, Akerhielm Does class size matter, McKinsey        5
Popular reforms have not improved student outcomes: Autonomy
NAEP scores in reading for charter schools and public                               Charter school students
schools, Grade 4, 2003                                                              Other public school students

    240

                          227 227                                                     229
    230                                                                         226
                                                                                                           220 220
    220           217
            212
    210                                                                                            208
                                                                                             205
                                                     201                201
                                                           199
    200                                195 197                    195

    190

    180
               All         White         Black      Hispanic       Eligible       Not        Central   Non-
            students                                                            eligible      city   central city
                                   Race/ethnicity                  Eligibility for free/       Type of location
                                                                    reduced-price
                                                                      school lunch
Source: NAEP: America‟s Charter Schools: Results from the NAEP 2003 Pilot Study; NAEP, A Closer Look at Charter
        Schools using Hierarchical Linear Modelling (2006)
Popular reforms have not improved student outcomes: Spend



                      PISA score relative to the                     Cumulative spend per student
      Country         international average                          6-15 years, $US PPP, 2002



      Finland                                             47                               59,000




      Sweden                         12                                                       68,000



      Denmark           -4                                                                      75,000



      Norway           -5                                                                           78,000




Source: OECD education at a glance (2005); Pisa 2003, McKinsey analysis                                      7
The Evidence
This is the theme of our recent publication: ‘How the world’s best-
performing school systems come out on top’




                                           The Economist, Oct 18, 2007


                                            How to be top
                                           What works in education:
                                           the lessons according to
                                           McKinsey
                                           THE British government, says Sir Michael Barber, once an adviser to the
                                           former prime minister, Tony Blair, has changed pretty much every
                                           aspect of education policy in England and Wales, often more than once.
                                           “The funding of schools, the governance of schools, curriculum
                                           standards, assessment and testing, the role of local government, the
                                           role of national government, the range and nature of national agencies,
                                           schools admissions”—you name it, it's been changed and sometimes
                                           changed back. The only thing that hasn't changed has been the
                                           outcome. According to the National Foundation for Education Research,
                                           there had been (until recently) no measurable improvement in the
                                           standards of literacy and numeracy in primary schools for 50 years.



Source: McKinsey
We benchmarked 20 school systems, including ten of the world’s
top performers

               Systems in the top ten in                                              Systems with strong
               the OECD’s PISA (2003) 1                                               improvement trajectory 4

                • Alberta2                                                            • Atlanta
                • Australia                                                           • Boston
                • Belgium                                                             • Chicago
                • Finland                                                             • England
                • Hong Kong                                                           • Jordan
                • Japan                                                               • New York
                • Netherlands                                                         • Ohio
                • New Zealand                                                                               The team also understood the
                • Ontario2                                                                                 reform direction rationale of five
                • Singapore3                                                                                 other school system that are
                • South Korea                                                                              currently launching improvement
                                                                                                                       programs

1. OECD‟s Programme for International Student Assessment, examination every three years of reading, math, and
   science skills of 15-year olds. Liechtenstein and Macao also scored in the top ten in 2003 but were excluded for
   technical reasons.
2. Canada scored 5th overall on PISA; Alberta and Ontario were included as representative provinces
3. Singapore did not participate in PISA; Singapore scored top in both science and mathematics in TIMSS 2003
4. Systems with high improvement rates according to the US National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) or
   TIMSS scores. In addition, Boston and New York have been consistent finalists of the Broad Prize for Urban Education
Source: PISA, McKinsey                                                                                                                      10
Lesson 1

   “The quality of an education
    system cannot exceed the
    quality of its teachers.”
Teacher quality is the most important lever for improving student                                                                     US EXAMPLE

outcomes


      Student performance
                100th percentile

                                                                                                                  90th percentile
         Two students with
         same performance
                                                                                                                  53 percentile points
                  50th percentile


                                                                                                                  37th percentile




                    0th percentile

                                         Age 8                                                      Age 11


*Among the top 20% of teachers; **Among the bottom 20% of teachers
Analysis of test data from Tennessee showed that teacher quality effected student performance more than any other variable; on average, two
students with average performance (50th percentile) would diverge by more than 50 percentile points over a three year period depending on the
teacher they were assigned
Source: Sanders & Rivers Cumulative and Residual Effects on Future Student Academic Achievement                                                 12
Great school systems attract great people into teaching




              Country            Teacher pool composition


                • Korea          • The top 5 percent of graduates
                • Finland        • The top 10 percent of graduates
                • Singapore/     • The top 30 percent of graduates
                     Hong Kong




Source: Interviews
Top-performing systems made it difficult to become a teacher: Finland


                     • Check for minimum qualifications:
                      – Academically, applicants should be in the top 10% of
                        their age cohort
       CV Screen      – Applicants should have completed relevant school and
       CV Screen        university education



                     • Check skills
      Assessment      – Applicants must have a high level of literacy and      Only 1 in 10
         tests          numeracy                                               applicants is
                                                                               accepted to
                                                                                become a
                     • Check attitude, aptitude and personailty:                 teacher
                      – Conducted by a panel of experienced headmasters
       Interviews     – May include practical tests or activities


                     • Check attitude, aptitude and personailty:
                      – Teachers are monitored during their initial teacher
     Monitoring at      training for suitability as teachers
      university      – A small number of candidates who do not demonstrate
                        the required standards are removed from the course


Source: Interviews
Top-performers carefully managed entry into the profession to maintain
a high status (1/2)




            High school
            or university
                                                           Teacher
            (degree in a                                                                    Teaching
                                                           training
            subject other                                                                   in a
                                                           program
            than                                                                            school
            education)




           Option 1: Screen                                                Option 2: Screen applicants
           applicants here                                                 here
           (Most top-performers)                                           (Most school systems)



Source: OECD Attracting Developing and retaining effective teachers; interviews, McKinsey                15
Top-performers carefully managed entry into the profession to maintain
a high status: Singapore example (2/2)

                                                                                       ESTIMATE
   Ratio of applicants for teacher education to teachers employed
   2005

         100
                           -80%
                                      Tough application
                                      process to select
                                      the best
                                      candidates from                              Almost all
                                      all interested                             students who
                                      applicants                                enrol in teacher
                                                                                   education
                                                                                    become
                                                                                    teachers
                               20             18             18           18



    Students            Students          Students        Students     Students
    applying            with offers       enrolling in    graduating   employed
    to teacher          to teacher        teacher         from         as teachers
    education           education         education       teacher
                                                          education
Source: Interviews; McKinsey                                                                   16
Top-performers paid good salaries, but not great salaries
Primary teacher salary as a % of GDP per capita



                                                                             159


                                                        131

                                             112                    112

                 95           95




             Finland       OECD            Finland    OECD        Finland   OECD

                Starting salary           Salary after 15 years    Maximum salary

Source: OECD Education at a glance 2005
 Top-performers position teaching as a prestigious profession: England




         Training and Development Agency For
Source: Training and Development Agency For Schools Schools
 Source:
Lesson 2
   “The only way to improve
    outcomes is to improve
    instruction.”
Improving teacher quality can have substantial impact in a short
time frame (1/2)
There had been no improvement in literacy levels in English schools for 50 years. A strategic
approach to raising teacher quality lead to significant improvements in just 3 years.


                                                                     Implementation of strategies to
                                                                        improve teacher quality


         % students       80
         achieving target
         literacy level   75

                                   70

                                   65

                                   60

                                   55

                                   50
                                          1948*             1997             1998             1999              2000


      * Literacy levels prior to the introduction of national assessments were extrapolated from available data sources
Source: Department for Education and Skills (UK), Trends in Standards of Literacy and Numeracy in the United Kingdom 1948-1996, McKinsey
          analysis                                                                                                                         20
Improving teacher quality can have substantial impact in a short time
frame (2/2)

                             % of Boston students meetings the target
                             standard in Grade 10 MCAS*

                                                             77
                                                74




                                                      43


                                    25




                                  1998        2004   1998   2004
                                         Math           Reading


      * Massachusetts state assessment exam
Source: Boston Public Schools
Top-performers took professional development inside the classroom (1/2)
Professional Development in Shanghai and Japan


           Enabling teachers to share best practice, learn from each others strengths
            and weaknesses, and jointly develop and disseminate excellent practice


         Peer observation: All       Lesson study:              Demonstration
         teachers in Shanghai        Teachers in both           lessons: Teachers
         are required to visit and   Shanghai and Japan         demonstrate excellent
         observe at least eight      work in teams to           practice to a wider
         lessons by colleagues       analyse and develop        group of instructors,
         each term. The              model lessons. The         followed by discussion
         requirement makes           study requires each        and feedback sessions.
         visiting other teachers‟    teacher to reflect in      The lessons are used
         classrooms, observing       depth on their own         to give each teacher
         their practice, and         practice, with the         access to examples of
         helping them to             assistance of their        excellent practice, to
         improve the norm in         peers. The final sample    recognise development,
         Shanghai schools            lessons are recorded       and to hold teachers
                                     and distributed.           accountable for the
                                                                quality of their
                                                                instruction


Source: Interviews                                                                       22
Top-performers took professional development inside the classroom (2/2)
Common planning time in Boston



                                    • Teachers were timetabled so that all of the teachers
        Creating space                teaching the same subject at the same grade had
        for discussion                free classes at the same time
                                    • The classes were used for joint planning of teaching

                                    • Discussions were data-driven, using individual
                                        student data to identify strong and weak points in
           Making the                   each teacher‟s instruction
            sessions                •   Use of the data created shared accountability and
            effective                   drive towards results
                                    •   The sessions were facilitated, either by the principal
                                        or one of the literacy coaches

                                    • Teachers spent more time watching each other
         Individuals to                 lessons. Some schools were built on an open plan,
             teams                      so teachers were constantly observing each others
                                        practice

Source: Interviews, Boston Public Schools, McKinsey                                              23
Lesson 3
    “High performance requires
     every child to succeed.”
Inspections and examinations enable schools to continuously track their
performance and improve
      School               School review/ System-wide   School exit                                       Not separated
      System               inspections*   assessments** examinations**
                                                                                                          Separate unit
      Alberta                                                                                             within Ministry
                                                                                                          External
      Boston
                                                                                                          organization
      Chicago
      England
      Finland
      Hong Kong
      Korea
      Netherlands
      New York
      New Zealand
      Singapore


      * Formal school reviews conducted by a person to whom the school is not directly accountable
     ** Assessments of students during the first 10 grades; School Exit examinations refers to leaving qualifications
Source: Team analysis
Finland’s Special Education identifies students in need and provides them
with intensive support
 • Additional 1-on-1 or small group
   tuition to support those who are
   falling behind (called „special
   education‟)
                                                  Students are
 • 30% of all students will receive               integrated             Class teachers
   special education during any given             back into              identify students
   year                                           normal                     who need
                                                                                 additional
 • Most special education is focused              classes
                                                                                 support
   on Mathematics and Finnish
   language
 • Special education teachers
   receive an additional year of
   training and are paid slightly
   higher salaries
 • Special education teachers work                    Students receive additional
   with a wider support team –                           support from special
   psychologists, nurses, special                         education teachers
   needs advisors - to provide a
   comprehensive support


Source: Interviews, Thematic Review on Equality                                               26
Lesson 4
   “Every school needs a great
    leader”
Top-performers recruit and train excellent school leaders: Singapore


          “We train our teachers and vice-principals to apply best practices; we train
                                our principals to create them”


         6 month programme to develop new principals

          Management and leadership courses taken from leading executive
           training programmes

          One day a week in schools where candidates are assigned to
           develop innovative approaches to the toughest problems

          Group projects where candidates work in teams

          2-week overseas placement with a major corporation (e.g., IBM, HP,
           Ritz Carlton), where they shadow top private-sector executives

          Rigorous evaluation – only candidates who demonstrate the required
           competencies will succeed

Source: NIE                                                                              28
It is easy to create a few good schools, the challenge is to create a system
that can deliver the same quality at scale
                                 How to make 100,000 great math lessons happen
                                 simultaneously, every day, all over a country




A great math lesson




Source: McKinsey                                                             29
APPENDIX
Variance in student performance between schools on PISA 2006 science
% of the average variance in student performance in OECD countries
         Bulgaria                            70         Luxembourg                                   31
        Germany                             66         United States                                 29

         Slovenia                          65                Portugal                            28
  Czech Republic                          62                Thailand                            26
           Austria                      61                    Mexico                            26
         Hungary                        61                  Lithuania                           26
      Netherlands                       60                 Colombia                             25
          Belgium                      57         Russian Federation                            24
        Argentina                    53              United Kingdom                         24
              Chile                  53                  Montenegro                        20
            Japan                    53                New Zealand                         20
               Italy                 53                     Australia                  20
                                                                                                            OECD
          Greece                   49                          Jordan                  20
                                                                                                          average is
   Chinese Taipei                 46                       Indonesia                   19                    33%
             Israel             44                     Macao-China                     19
             Brazil            41                         Azerbaijan                   18
  Slovak Republic              41                            Canada                    18
           Turkey              41                              Ireland                17
         Uruguay              40                              Estonia                 16
      Switzerland            38                             Denmark               15
         Romania            36                                  Latvia            15
            Serbia         34                                    Spain           13
 Hong Kong-China           34                                  Poland            12
           Croatia         34                                Sweden              12
           Tunisia        32                                  Norway         10
            Korea        32                                   Iceland        9
       Kyrgyzstan        31                                   Finland    5
Source:   PISA 2006
Despite high spending increases in OECD, education outcomes have
stagnated

                 Change in primary and                 Differences in reading        Differences in math
                 secondary expenditure/                performance between 2006      performance between 2006
  OECD countries student (1995-2004)*                  and 2000                      and 2003
          Germany           105                                            11                      1
                Italy       105                            -19                               -4
        Switzerland         105                                        5                           3
            Norway           109                           -21                                -5
            Sweden            117                                -9                          -7
    United Kingdom             120
           Denmark             121                                -2                          -1
            Finland            122                                     0                  -15
    Czech Republic              124                              -9                          -7
              Japan             127                        -24                             -11
             Mexico              130                         -11                                       20
      United States              130                                                        -9
        Netherlands               136                                                        -7
               Spain              136                    -32                                  -5
           Australia              138                       -15                               -4
           Portugal                  154                               2                           0
    Slovak Republic                  155                                                     -6
           Hungary                    157                              2                           1
             Ireland                        181                  -9                           -1
             Poland                         183                                 29                 5
            Greece                            192           -14                                        14
             Turkey                              211                                               1



      * 1995=100, 2004 constant prices
Source: PISA 2006                                                                                               32
PISA 2006: Science

          PISA 2006 – Science Achievement , 15-year olds
           Rank    Country           Mean score            Rank   Country              Mean score
              1    Finland               563                 30   Slovak Republic          488
              2    Hong Kong-China       542                 31   Spain                    488
              3    Canada                534                 32   Lithuania                488
              4    Chinese-Taipei        532                 33   Norway                   487
              5    Estonia               531                 34   Luxembourg               486
              6    Japan                 531                 35   Russian Federation       479
              7    New Zealand           530                 36   Italy                    475
              8    Australia             527                 37   Portugal                 474
              9    Netherlands           525                 38   Greece                   473
             10    Liechtenstein         522                 39   Israel                   454
             11    Korea                 522                 40   Chile                    438
             12    Slovenia              519                 41   Serbia                   436
             13    Germany               516                 42   Bulgaria                 434
             14    United Kingdom        515                 43   Uruguay                  428
             15    Czech Republic        513                 44   Turkey                   424
             16    Switzerland           512                 45   Jordan                   422
             17    Macao-China           511                 46   Thailand                 421
             18    Austria               511                 47   Romania                  418
             19    Belgium               510                 48   Montenegro               412
             20    Ireland               508                 49   Mexico                   410
             21    Hungary               504                 50   Indonesia                393
             21    Sweden                503                 51   Argentina                391
             23    Poland                498                 52   Brazil                   390
             24    Denmark               496                 53   Colombia                 388
             25    France                495                 54   Tunisia                  386
             26    Croatia               493                 55   Azerbaijan               382
             27    Iceland               491                 56   Qatar                    349
             28    Latvia                490                 57   Kyrgyzstan               322
             29    United States         489


Source:    PISA 2006
PISA 2006: Reading

          PISA 2006 – Reading Achievement, 15-year olds
           Rank    Country           Mean score           Rank   Country              Mean score
              1    Korea                 556                30   Croatia                  477
              2    Finland               547                31   Portugal                 472
              3    Hong Kong-China       536                32   Lithuania                470
              4    Canada                527                33   Italy                    469
              5    New Zealand           521                34   Slovak Republic          466
              6    Ireland               517                35   Spain                    461
              7    Australia             513                36   Greece                   460
              8    Liechtenstein         510                37   Turkey                   447
              9    Poland                508                38   Chile                    442
             10    Sweden                507                39   Russian Federation       440
             11    Netherlands           507                40   Israel                   439
             12    Belgium               501                41   Thailand                 417
             13    Estonia               501                42   Uruguay                  413
             14    Switzerland           499                43   Mexico                   410
             15    Japan                 498                44   Bulgaria                 402
             16    Chinese-Taipei        496                45   Serbia                   401
             17    United Kingdom        495                46   Jordan                   401
             18    Germany               495                47   Romania                  396
             19    Denmark               494                48   Indonesia                393
             20    Slovenia              494                49   Brazil                   393
             21    Macao-China           492                50   Montenegro               392
             21    Austria               490                51   Colombia                 385
             23    France                488                52   Tunisia                  380
             24    Iceland               484                53   Argentina                374
             25    Norway                484                54   Azerbaijan               353
             26    Czech Republic        483                55   Qatar                    312
             27    Hungary               482                56   Kyrgyzstan               285
             28    Latvia                479
             29    Luxembourg            479


Source:    PISA 2006
PISA 2006: Mathematics

          PISA 2006 – Mathematics Achievement, 15 year-olds
           Rank    Country           Mean score        Rank   Country              Mean score
              1    Chinese-Taipei        549             30   Lithuania                486
              2    Finland               548             31   Latvia                   486
              3    Hong Kong-China       547             32   Spain                    480
              4    Korea                 547             33   Azerbaijan               476
              5    Netherlands           531             34   Russian Federation       476
              6    Switzerland           530             35   United States            474
              7    Canada                527             36   Croatia                  467
              8    Macao-China           525             37   Portugal                 466
              9    Liechtenstein         525             38   Italy                    462
             10    Japan                 523             39   Greece                   459
             11    New Zealand           522             40   Israel                   442
             12    Belgium               520             41   Serbia                   435
             13    Australia             520             42   Uruguay                  427
             14    Estonia               515             43   Turkey                   424
             15    Denmark               513             44   Thailand                 417
             16    Czech Republic        510             45   Romania                  415
             17    Iceland               506             46   Bulgaria                 413
             18    Austria               505             47   Chile                    411
             19    Slovenia              504             48   Mexico                   406
             20    Germany               504             49   Montenegro               399
             21    Sweden                502             50   Indonesia                391
             21    Ireland               501             51   Jordan                   384
             23    France                496             52   Argentina                381
             24    United Kingdom        495             53   Colombia                 370
             25    Poland                495             54   Brazil                   370
             26    Slovak Republic       492             55   Tunisia                  365
             27    Hungary               491             56   Qatar                    318
             28    Luxembourg            490             57   Kyrgyzstan               311
             29    Norway                490


Source:    PISA 2006
Some school systems are able to achieve high quality and equity
Performance in science and the impact of socio-economic background
            600        Above-average level of student                                                                                                     Above-average level of student
                       performance in science                                                                                                                   performance in science
                       Above-average impact of socio-economic                                                                                             Below-average impact of socio-
                                                                                                                                     Finland
                       background                                                                                                                                 economic background
            550                                                                                                                            Canada
                                                                                                                 Chinese-Taipei                       Hong Kong-China
                                                                                           NZ                                         Estonia       Japan
                                                        Liechtenstein        Germany         Netherlands          Australia                     Korea
                                                                                                  Austria UK                                                              Macao-China
            500      OECD mean                        Hungary            Belgium
                                                                                    Slovenia          Poland Ireland
                                                                                                            Denmark          Sweden
                                                       France                 Switzerland Czech Rep.
                                                                                                                       Latvia          Iceland
                                                 Luxembourg                                                    Croatia
                                                                         Slovak    US                    Spain                    Norway
                                                                         Republic          Lithuania                   Italy
PISA                                                                                  Portugal Greece
                                                                                                                                 Russian
                                                                                                                                 Federation
2006    450                                                                                                               Israel
Science                                         Bulgaria       Chile
                                                                           Uruguay         Turkey                       Serbia
score                                                                                            Thailand                         Jordan
                                                                                    Romania
        400                                                                                                                                               Montenegro
                                                                                       Mexico                                     Indonesia

                                                                                                                 Colombia                       Tunisia                 Azerbaijan
                                                                        Argentina       Brazil

            350



                                                                                                     OECD mean
                       Below-average level of student                                                                                                      Below-average level of student
                       performance in science                                                                                                                    performance in science
                       Above-average impact of socio-economic                                                                         Kyrgyzstan
                                                                                                                                                          Below-average impact of socio-
            300        background                                                                                                                                 economic background

                  30                                                    20                                                             10                                                   0
                                                         Percentage of variance in performance in science explained
                                                         by PISA index of economic, social and cultural status


   Note: OECD mean used in this figure is the arithmetic average of all OECD countries
Source: PISA 2006
TIMSS 2003: mathematics

      TIMSS 2003 – Mathematics Achievement 8TH Grade
       Rank Country                     Mean score               Rank   Country               Mean score
          1    Singapore                     605                  25    Bulgaria                 476
          2    Korea                         589                  26    Romania                  475
          3    Hong Kong                     586                        International Average    467
          4    Chinese Taipei                585                  27    Norway                   461
          5    Japan                         570                  28    Moldova                  460
          6    Belgium (Flemish)             537                  29    Cyprus                   459
          7    Netherlands                   536                  30    Macedonia                435
          8    Estonia                       531                  31    Lebanon                  433
          9    Hungary                       529                  32    Jordan                   424
         10    Malaysia                      508                  33    Iran                     411
         11    Latvia                        508                  34    Indonesia                411
         12    Russia                        508                  35    Tunisia                  410
         13    Slovakia                      508                  36    Egypt                    406
         14    Australia                     505                  37    Bahrain                  401
         15    United States                 504                  38    Palestine                390
         16    Lithuania                     502                  39    Chile                    387
         17    Sweden                        499                  40    Morocco                  387
         18    Scotland                      498                  41    Philippines              378
         19    Israel                        496                  42    Botswana                 366
         20    New Zealand                   494                  43    Saudi Arabia             332
         21    Slovenia                      493                  44    Ghana                    276
         21    Italy                         484                  45    South Africa             264
         23    Armenia                       478
         24    Serbia                        477

Source: TIMSS (Trends in International Math and Science Study), 2003
TIMSS 2003: science

      TIMSS 2003 – Science Achievement 8TH Grade
        Rank Country                    Mean score             Rank    Country                 Mean score
          1    Singapore                     578                  25   Jordan                     475
          2    Chinese Taipei                571                   –   International Average      474
          3    Korea                         558                  26   Moldova, Rep. of           472
          4    Hong Kong                     556                  27   Romania                    470
          5    Estonia                       552                  28   Serbia                     468
          6    Japan                         552                  29   Armenia                    461
          7    Hungary                       543                  30   Iran, Islamic Rep. of      453
          8    Netherlands                   536                  31   Macedonia, Rep. of         449
          9    United States                 527                  32   Cyprus                     441
         10    Australia                     527                  33   Bahrain                    438
         11    Sweden                        524                  34   Palestine                  435
         12    Slovenia                      520                  35   Egypt                      421
         13    New Zealand                   520                  36   Indonesia                  420
         14    Lithuania                     519                  37   Chile                      413
         15    Slovakia                      517                  38   Tunisia                    404
         16    Belgium (Flemish)             516                  39   Saudi Arabia               398
         17    Russia                        514                  40   Morocco                    396
         18    Latvia                        512                  41   Lebanon                    393
         19    Scotland                      512                  42   Philippines                377
         20    Malaysia                      510                  43   Botswana                   365
         21    Norway                        494                  44   Ghana                      255
         21    Italy                         491                  45   South Africa               244
         23    Israel                        488
         24    Bulgaria                      479

Source: TIMSS (Trends in International Math and Science Study), 2003
OECD PISA RESULTS (2003) – AVERAGE SCORE
OECD countries*
       Country                         Score                        Country         Score
       Finland                            545                       Iceland          501
       Korea                              538                       Germany          499
       Hong Kong                          533                       Austria          496
       Liechtenstein                      529                       Poland           495
       Japan                              527                       Denmark          494
       Canada                             526                       Norway           493
       Netherlands                        525                       Hungary          492
       Australia                          525                       United States    490
       New Zealand                        522                       Slovak           487
       Macao                              517                       Luxembourg       485
       Belgium                            515                       Spain            484
       Switzerland                        513                       Italy            476
       Sweden                             510                       Portugal         471
       Czech Republic                     509                       Greece           466
       Ireland                            508                       Turkey           433
       France                             506                       Mexico           397

       Average                            498


      * And 3 top non-OECD countries (Hong Kong, Macao, Liechtenstein)
Source: PISA; McKinsey
   PIRLS Results
   10 years old, tests conducted in mid-2006




         Russia             565   Nova Scotia      542   Israel              512
         Hong Kong          564   Latvia           541   Iceland             511
         Alberta            560   United States    540   Belgium (Fr)        500
         British Columbia   558   England          539   Moldova             500
         Singapore          558   Austria          538   Norway              498
         Luxembourg         557   Lithuania        537   Romania             489
         Ontario            555   Chinese Taipei   535   Georgia             471
         Hungary            551   Quebec           533   Macedonia           442
         Italy              551   New Zealand      532   Trinidad & Tobago   436
         Sweden             549   Slovak           531   Iran                421
         Germany            548   Scotland         527   Indonesia           405
         Belgium (Fl)       547   France           522   Qatar               353
         Bulgaria           547   Slovenia         522   Kuwait              330
         Netherlands        547   Poland           519   Morocco             323
         Denmark            546   Spain            513   South Africa        302




Source: PIRLS