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Diseases of Pigs

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					   Diseases of Pigs




Scott P. Terrell, DVM, Diplomate ACVP

Veterinary Pathologist, Disney’s Animal Programs
Instructor in Wildlife Pathology, UF CVM
North American Veterinary
Licensing Examination (NAVLE)


 360      multiple choice questions
     6 blocks of 60 questions
          Approx. 60 images
          (xrays, diagrams, photos, microscope images, etc)
     Total 7.5 hours
     55-65% to pass (90% pass)
North American Veterinary
Licensing Examination (NAVLE)
 Blueprint       by species
        Small animal
          •   Canine                       26%
          •   Feline                       22%
          •   Pet bird                     3%
          •   Other (fish, lab, exotics)   3%
        Food animal
          • Bovine                         15%
          • Pigs                           7%
          • Sheep / goat                   2%
        Horses                            16%
        Public health, poultry            6%
Gram positive or gram negative?
SS BECLR DAMN (a ship)


       S - Staphylococcus sp.
       S - Streptoccoccus sp.
       B - Bacillus sp.
       E - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
       C - Clostridium sp.
       L - Listeria monocytogenes
       R - Rhodococcus equi
       D - Dermatophilus congolensis
       A - Actinomyces (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes
       M - Mycobacterium sp. (acid fast)
       N - Nocardiasp.
On to the pigs....
Ages of pigs are important

 Neonates            0-3 weeks
       <4 kg
 Weanlings/nursery   3-10 weeks
       4-25 kg
 Growers/finisher    10-26 weeks
       25-120 kg
 Breeders/adults     >6-8 months
       >120 kg
Pig management

 Backyard     herds
 All in / all out
 SPF
 Segregrated early weaning
 Depop / repop
Pig medicine

 Blood    collection
      Jugular vein / anterior vena cava
 IV   injection
      Auricular vein
      Rubberband
Orderly thinking...


  Multisystemic Diseases
  Respiratory Diseases
  Gastrointestinal Diseases
  Neurologic Diseases
  Musculoskeletal Diseases
  Reproductive Diseases
  Dermatology
  Miscellaneous
Multisystemic diseases


 Erysipelas (Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae)
 Glasser’s disease (Haemophilus parasuis)
 Salmonella
 PRRS (arterivirus)
 PWMWS (circovirus)
 Pseudorabies virus (herpes virus)
 Vitamin E / selenium deficiency
Erysipelas


 Erysipelothrix      rhusiopathiae
        Gram positive rod
 Environmental        contaminant
        most herds have carriers
 Septicemia
        diamond skin, arthritis, endocarditis, necrosis
Diamond skin
disease
Valvular endocarditis
Erysipelas cont...


 Treatment
       Penicillin
       Tetracyclins
 Prevention     and control
       Sanitation
       Vaccinate at weaning and then q6 months
Glasser’s disease
(polyserositis)
 Haemophilus        parasuis
        Gram negative coccobacillus
 Endemic,  initiated by stress
 Polyserositis, septicemia (fibrinous)
        Pleuritis
        Pericarditis
        Peritonitis
        Meningitis!!!
Glasser’s disease
Glasser’s cont...

   Diagnosis
         Culture is difficult (but try it)
         Go with suspicion from gross lesions
   Treatment
         Penicillins
         Tetracyclins
   Prevention     and control
         Reduce stress
         Vaccine at weaning then again 3-4 weeks later
Salmonella sp.


   Salmonella cholerasuis
   Salmonella typhimurium
         Zoonotic
   Low-levelendemnicity, carriers
   Septicemia
         pyrexia, anorexia
         purple discoloration of the ears (infarction)
         Small or large intestinal diarrhea (button ulcers)
         Pneumonia
         Rectal strictures
Salmonella
Salmonella cont...

  Diagnosis
        Aerobic culture
  Treatment
        Neomycin in the feed/water for whole group
        Naxcel (ceftiofur) for individual
  Prevention     and control
        Sanitation
        All in - all out operation
        Various vaccines (live avirulent)
PRRS


 Porcine  reproduction and respiratory
  syndrome
 Arterivirus
 Clinical signs - neonates
        anorexia, lethargy, fever
        cyanosis of the ears, respiratory distress
        secondary bacterial pneumonia
        delayed or abnormal estrus cycle with increased
         numbers of stillborns/mummies
PRRS cont...


 Diagnosis
        serology, virus isolation
        IFA, IHC most common test used in the USA
 Treatment
        Supportive care, treat secondary bacteria
 Control
        closed herds
        change feed if contaminated by mycotoxins (*)
        RespPRRS vaccine
Post weaning multisystemic wasting
syndrome (PWMWS)



   Porcine circovirus -2
   Relatively new disease
   Responsible for many of the clinical
    signs associated with “atypical PRRS
    virus”.
PWMWS

 Clinical   signs
        Wasting in weanling pigs
        Enlarged peripheral lymph nodes
        Evidence of pneumonia
 Diagnosis
        Necropsy-
          • Granulomatous lymphadenitis and pneumonia
          • Intracytoplasmic inclusions
        Serology, IFA
PWMWS

 Treatment
        None
        Supportive care
        Euthanasia of affected animals
 Control
        Difficult at this time
        Carrier animals are important
Pseudorabies


 Aujesky’s disease
 Herpes virus
 Dogs, cats, domestic ruminants
 Not humans!
Pseudorabies cont...

 Baby    piglets
        up to 100% mortality
        neurologic dz, vomiting, diarrhea
        Ulcers on oral cavity and esophagus
 Weanling/growers
        up to 60% mortality in weanlings, 0-15% in
         finishers
        pneumonia impt, neurologic dz, vomiting,
         extreme pyrexia
 Adults    - often inapparent
        can cause stillbirth/abortion
Pseudorabies cont...
  Reportable       disease!
  Diagnosis
        Necropsy -
          • histologic lesions in brain, ulcers in gi tract
        Serum neutralization is standard test
        ELISA can be used as a screening test
  Treatment       - none
  Prevention
        closed herd! quarantine! restrict wildlife
        vaccination
Pseudorabies
Pseudorabies

 Regulation
     use of vaccine regulated by states
     federal regulations for monitoring
          all animals over 6mo old must be tested
          25% of herd tested q3months or...
          10% of herd tested q1month
White muscle disease / Mulberry
heart disease


 Nursery or grower pigs
 Vitamin E / Selenium deficiency
        Propionic acid destroys Vit E / Sel
        Rancid fat can destroy
        Midwest U.S. is selenium deficient
 Clinical   signs
        acute death (mulberry heart disease)
        muscle weakness (white muscle disease)
Vit E / Selenium cont...

 Diagnosis
       Necropsy - hydropericardium, fibrinous epicarditis,
        myocardial hemorrhage
       Diffise hepatic necrosis - hepatosis dietetica
       Liver selenium < 0.5 ug/g
Mulberry heart disease
Cardiovascular disease

 Encephalomyocarditis   virus
 Hog  cholera
 African swine fever
 Erysipelas
 Vitamin E / selenium deficiency
EMC virus

 Cardiovirus
 Clinical   signs
        • neonates - sudden death
        • older pigs - subclinical chronic myocarditis

 Pathology
        •    Epicardial hemorrhage often only lesion
        •    May see white streaks or spots in myocardium
        •    Heart may be enlarged, soft and pale
        •    Hydropericardium, hydrothorax, pulmonary edema, etc.
        •    Non-suppurative myocarditis, meningitis, encephalitis
        Pig
EMC virus myocarditis
Other cardiovascular
conditions

 Hog  cholera - FAD
 African swine fever - FAD
 Erysipelas - valvular endocarditis
 Vitamin E / selenium deficiency
        Mulberry heart disease
        Necrosis / degeneration
         of myocardium
Respiratory diseases


 Atrophic rhinitis
 Swine influenza
 Mycoplasma pneumoniae
 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
 Pasteurella
 Verminous pneumonia
Atrophic rhinitis


 Bordatella bronchiseptica
 Pasteurella multocida
 High  ammonia
 Clinical signs
        sneezing, sniffling
        twisted snouts
        excessive lacrimation
        epistaxis
Atrophic rhinitis cont...


 Diagnosis
        Necropsy - cut snout at 2nd premolar
        Nasal culture for either organism
 Treatment
        tetracyclines in the feed
        LA200 to neonates
 Control     and prevention
        all in all out, reduce stress, clean air
        vaccinate sows
Atrophic rhinitis
Swine influenza


 Influenza     virus
 Zoonotic
          associated with movement or
 Outbreaks
 extreme weather changes
        up to 100% morbidity
        low mortality unless secondary bacterial infection
         complicates things
Swine influenza cont...


 Diagnosis
       Necropsy - cranioventral pneumonia
       Fluorescent antibody test
 Treatment     - supportive
 Prevention
       closed herd
       control secondary infections
       keep away from humans (no shows!)
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

 Enzootic pneumonia
 Most common cause of chronic
  pneumonia
 Chronic, non-productive cough
 Low mortality
 Secondary bacterial complication
Mycoplasma cont...


 Diagnosis
       Necropsy - “plum colored”or pale cranio-ventral
        pneumonia
       Culture to rule out secondary bacteria
       Fluorescent
             antibody test
                on lung
Mycoplasma cont...



 Treatment    - Lincomycin in feed

 Prevention   - improve management
Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia


 Intensive   swine operations
 Inapparent carriers
 Peracute, acute, and chronic forms
 Clinical signs
        severe respiratory distress
        death
Actinobacillus cont...

  Diagnosis
         necropsy - fibrinous pleuropneumonia
         often diaphragmatic lobes most severe
         culture is difficult
         complement fixation serology
  Treatment
         ceftiofur (Naxcel) and procaine penicillin
  Control
         vaccination of young pigs
Contagious
pleuropneumonia
Pasteurella multocida


 Most    common bacterial isolate from pig
  lungs
 opportunistic pathogen
        mycoplasma, influenza, actinobacillus, stress
 clinical   signs
        moist productive cough
        dyspnea
        some die
Pasteurella cont...


 Diagnosis
        necropsy - suppurative cranio-ventral
         bronchopneumonia
        may be pleuritis similar to actinobacillus
        culture
 Treatment       - penicillin, tetracyclines
 Control
        look for underlying disease
        medicate feed and water (tetracyclines)
Pasteurella pneumonia
Verminous pneumonia

 Ascarissuum - direct life cycle
 Metastrongylus elongatus - earthworm intermediate
 Problem   with pasture pigs
 Clinical signs
        poor doer
        respiratory distress

 Secondary  bacterial infection
 “Milk spots” liver, worms in the GI
 Levamisole, ivermectin
Gastrointestinal diseases


 Stomach
       Ulcers
 Small   intestine
       E. coli (piglets)
       TGE (piglets)
       Clostridium (piglets)
       Coccidiosis (>7 days)
       Rota virus (post weaning)
       Salmonella (any)
Gastrointestinal disease cont...


 Large   intestine
       Swine dysentery (grower/finishers)
       Proliferative enteropathy (grower/finishers)
          • Hemorrhagic bowel syndrome
          • Proliferative illeitis
       Whipworms (growers)
       Salmonella (any)
Gastric ulcer disease


   Almost always the pars esophagea
   Non-specific lesions
   Can lead to “bleed-out”
   Predisposing factors...
         Finely ground feed
         Stress
         Vit E/Selenium def
   Melena,ulceration of squamous portion
   of stomach, anorexia
“Bleed out”
Colibacillosis


 E. coli
 Most impt cause of diarrhea in piglets <5
  days old!!!
 Clinical signs
          clear watery to pasty brown feces
          dehydration and depression
          death losses higher in younger pigs
Colibacillosis cont...


 Diagnosis
        ph of feces (>8)
        culture of organism (large number)
        necropsy - dilated gas filled small intestine
 Treatment
        Ampicillin, tetracyclin, gentamicin, fluids
 Control
        sanitation, vaccination of sow
Colibacillosis
TGE -     transmissable gastroenteritis


  Coronavirus   (similar to FIP)
  Epidemic form (all ages)
  Endemic form (1-8 weeks old)
  WINTER disease
  Clinical signs
         Neonates - diarrhea with undigested milk
         Growers, finishers - diarrhea recovers <7days
          and mortality high in pigs
  Morbidity
  <2weeks old
TGE cont...

  Diagnosis
         ELISA, immunoflourescence of gut contents
         Necropsy
           • undigested milk in small intestine
           • thin walled, transparent small intestine

  Treatment       - supportive
  Control
         isolate new additions for 2 weeks, keep dogs and
          bird away (carriers)
         Immunization of sows or piglets
         Grind up piglet guts and feed to pregnant sows
TGE
Clostridial enteritis


 Clostridium     perfringens type C
 sudden   death in 1-2 day old piglets
 Clinical signs
        BLOODY DIARRHEA
 Diagnosis
        Necropsy - blood in jejunum with flecks of
         mucosa, necrosis of small intestine
        Clinical signs
        Histopathology - large gram positive rods
Clostridial enteritis
Clostridial enteritis cont....


 Treatment
        usually die too quickly
        type C antitoxin
 Control
        Sanitation
        Type C antitoxin within minutes of birth
        Vaccination of sow
        Prophylactic bacitracin or penicillin to piglets
Coccidiosis


 Isospora      suis
 piglets 5 days old to weaning
 Clinical signs
        diarrhea (7-10 days of age)
        no blood
        acidic feces (in contrast to E. coli)
        Dehydration
Coccidiosis cont...


 Diagnosis
        Diarrheas in pigs <7days old are not Isospora!
        Necropsy - fibrinonecrotic enteritis
        Histopathology - oocysts, merozoites
        Fecal flotation can be falsely negative
 Treatment
        Adding coccidiostats to feed is ILLEGAL
        amprolium to piglets
 Control    - disinfection of farrowing area
Coccidiosis
Rota virus


 Reovirus
 Almost all pigs are infected
 Diarrhea in post-weaned pigs
 Diagnosis - difficult
       Necropsy-thin walled small intestine
       Histopathology
       Flourescent antibody test
       Electron microscopy
Rota virus cont...


 Treatment
        Glucose and fluids
        Antimicrobials for concurrent infections
          • E. coli
          • Isospora

 Control
        Wean pigs on good nutritional diet
        MLV vaccine at 7 and 21 days (in water)
Dont forget Salmonella
  Salmonella   typhimurium
  Salmonella cholerasuis
  Fibrinonecrotic enteritis or colitis at
   necropsy
  Rectal strictures
  Culture of organism
Swine dysentery


 Serpulina   hyodysenteriae
 Grower / finishers
 Mortality can be up to 30%
 Clinical signs
        diarrhea sometimes with blood
        eventually watery, bloody, mucoid
        most recover in 2 weeks but 30% may die
Swine dysentery cont...

  Diagnosis
         Necropsy - mucohemorrhagic colitis
         histopathology
         Spiral shaped organism on dark field microscopy
         Culture is definitive
  Treatment
         Lincomycin in water
  Control
         medicated water, depopulation, close herd
         vaccine only reduces clinical signs
Swine dysentery
Swine dysentery
Proliferative enteropathy

  Lawsonia     intracellulare
        proliferative illeitis, hemorrhagic bowel syndrome
  Large  intestine
  Weanlings and older
  Clinical signs
        intermittant diarrhea
        can be hemorrhagic diarrhea
        anemia (think gastric ulcer first)
Proliferative enteropathy
cont...
 Diagnosis
       Necropsy - “garden hose” ilium and colon
             – can be hemorrhagic or fibrinonecrotic
       Histopathology - intracellular, silver positive
       DNA probes
 Treatment      and control
       No specific treatment
       Reduce stress
       Medicate feed - tetracyclines, carbadox
Proliferative illeitis
Whipworms

 Trichuris    suis
 2-6  months of age
 Large intestine
 Clinical signs
        diarrhea with mucus and blood
        anemia (2 DDX?)
 Diagnosis  - fecal float, fibrinnecrotic colitis
 Control - dichlorvos and fenbendazole
Whipworms
Don’t forget Salmonella!


 Salmonella typhimurium
 Salmonella cholersuis
        associated with rectal strictures?
 Can  be large intestine
 Fibrinonecrotic colitis
 Rectal strictures
 Culture
Parasites of pigs
 Trichuris suis - colon
 Ascaris suum - small intestine, milk spots
 Stephanurus edentatus - kidney
 Macrocanthorynchus hirudinaceous -small
  intestine
Neurological diseases


 Hypoglycemia
 Streptococcus   suis
     poisoning
 Salt
 Edema disease
Hypoglycemia


 Newborn    piglets
 Blood glucose <50 may develop signs
 Clinical signs
       convulsions
       shivering
       hypothermia
       gait abnormalities
Hypoglycemia cont...


 Diagnosis
        Blood glucose
        Empty stomach
 Treatment
        20ml/kg 5% glucosa, warm em up
 Control
        make sure the milk is flowing
Streptococcus suis


 Streptococcal  meningitis
 3-12 weeks of age
 Clinical signs
        fever, anorexia, depression
        tremors, blindness, ataxia, convulsions
 Diagnosis
        Necropsy - suppurative meningitis
        Culture of CSF or meningeal swab
Strep suis cont...


 Treatment
        penicillin, tetracyclines
        must be quick!
 Control
        minimize stress
        prophylactic antibiotics
 Can    be zoonotic - meningitis, headaches
Streptococcal meningitis
Salt poisoning


 Usually  due to water deprivation rather
  than too much Na
 Causes hyperosmalarity of CNS resulting
  in swelling and edema
 Clinical signs
        thirst, constipation
        depression, blindness, convulsions
Salt poisoning cont...


 Diagnosis
        History
        Clinical pathology-eosinopenia, hypernatremia
        Histopathology - eosinophilic meningitis
 Treatment
        None
 Control
        provide free access to water
        reduce salt in diet
Edema disease

  E.   coli - toxin differs from GI form
           Shiga like toxin - vascular injury - edema
  1-3  weeks post weaning
  Clinical signs
           sudden death
           ataxia, convulsions, palpebral edema

  Diagnosis
           palpebral edema, widespread edema in multiple sites
           Culture - pure culture from SI or colon
           Detection of toxin
Edema disease
Edema disease cont...


 Treatment
        ineffectual if clinical signs have developed
 Control
        Antibiotics in feed/water
        High fiber diets?
Musculoskeletal diseases

  Arthritis
         S. suis, Erysipelothrix, A. pyogenes
         Mycoplasma hyosynoviae
  Myodegenerative          disease
         Malignant hyperthermia (PSE)
         White muscle disease
  Rickets
  Fibrocartilagenous        infarcts
  Osteochondrosis
Suppurative arthritis

 Streptococcus   suis
 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
 Actinomyces pyogenes
 May  see loss of cartilage
 Due to fighting, surgical contamination
 Distended joints, abscesses
 Penicillin - treatment often no good
Suppurative arthritis
Mycoplasmal arthritis

 Mycoplasma   hyosynoviae
 4-12 weeks of age
 acute or chronic lameness
 non-suppurative arthritis/synovitis
 edema of synovial tissue
 Lincomysin to treat
Mycoplasmal arthritis
Malignant hyperthermia

 Porcine stress syndrome, Pale soft
  edudative pork
 Autosomal recessive gene
 Stress predisposes
        Fighting, movement, handling
        Halothane anesthesia
 Clinical   signs
        muscle tremors, dyspnea, red areas of skin,
         increased body temperature, muscle rigidity
Malignant hyperthermia

 Treatment
        Remove stress
        Cool
        Dantrolene
 Control
        genetic selection - DNA probe
        avoid stress
Malignant hyperthermia
White muscle disease / Mulberry heart
disease


 Nursery or grower pigs
 Vitamin E / Selenium deficiency
        Propionic acid destroys Vit E / Sel
        Rancid fat can destroy
        Midwest U.S. is selenium deficient
 Clinical   signs
        acute death (mulberry heart disease)
        muscle weakness (white muscle disease)
Vit E / Selenium cont...

 Diagnosis
       Necropsy - hydropericardium, fibrinous epicarditis,
        myocardial hemorrhage
       hepatic necrosis - hepatosis dietetica
       Liver selenium < 0.5 ug/g
 Treatment      and control
       Vit E or selenium injection
       feed supplements
Mulberry heart disease
Rickets

 Ca/P imbalance or Vit D deficiency
 Decreased mineralization of bone
 3-5 months of age
 Pathologic fractures
 Distorted bones
 Adjust diet
Osteochondrosis

 Grower  pigs
 Rapid growth
 Usually involves humero-radial joint
     Stifle less common
Fibrocartilagenous infarcts

 Heavily muscled lean pigs
 Usually present down in hindlimbs
 Evidence of discospondylitis
 Rupture of nucleus pulposus
 Embolism of nucleus pulposus with
  subsequent infarction of spinal cord
Reproductive disease


 Parvovirus
 Leptospirosis
 PRRS
 Cystitis/ pyelonephritis
 Brucellosis
Porcine parvovirus

 100%  prevalence
 Signs depend on time of infection
          <30days - embryo resorbed
          30-70days - mummy
          >70days - dead or weak, survive normally
          no other signs of illness
 SMEDI - stillbirth, mummy, embryonic death, infertility
 Diagnosis - detection of virus in mummy by
  immunofluorescence or by rising titer
Parvo - SMEDI
Porcine parvovirus cont...

 Control
     Natural infection of gilts before breeding
     Commingle gilts with sows
     Grind up mummies and feed to gilts
     Vaccination!
          • may still get some losses
Leptospirosis

 Leptospira      interrogans
        serovar pomona - most common
        serovar bratislava
 Clinical   signs
        Pyrexia, last trimester abortion, stillbirths
 Diagnosis
        Culture difficult
        Dark field microscopy of fetal fluids, urine
        Serology (<1:800)
Leptospirosis cont...

 Treatment
        Chlortetracycline in feed
 Control
        Vaccination
        Gilts twice before first breeding
        Sows before every breeding
PRRS

 Porcine reproductive/respiratory syndrome
 Premature farrowing
 Small weak piglets or stillborns
 increased numbers of mummies
 Delayed or abnormal estrus
 Serology to diagnose
 Vaccination for prevention
Cystitis / Pyelonephritis

 Eubacterium        suis
 Clinical   signs
        pyrexia, blood or pus in urine
        high urine pH
 Diagnosis
        necropsy - hemorrhagic cystitis
        Culture difficult - anaerobic
 Treatment       - penicillin
Brucellosis

 Brucella  suis
 Clinical signs
        abortion at any time in gestation
        infertility - many sows coming back into heat
        infected sows recover and deliver normally
 Lesions
        mild endometritis
        arthritis
        orchitis
Brucellosis
Brucellosis cont...

 Diagnosis
          Serology - card test
          Culture
 Treatment         and control
     Test and slaughter
     Zoonotic
Abortions/stillbirths

 Parvo   virus
 PRRS
 Pseudorabies
 Lepto
Dermatologic diseases


 Mange
 Greasy   pig disease
 Swine pox
 Erysipelas
 Pityriasis rosea (JPPD)
 PRRS associated
  vasculitis/glomerulonephritis
Mange
  Sarcoptes      scabei var suis
  Young   nursery or grower pigs
  Clinical signs
         intense pruritis, thickened skin
         poor production
         susceptible to other diseases
  Diagnosis- clinical signs, skin scrape
  Treatment and control
         acaricide (amitraz) topically, ivermectin
          injection
Mangy piglet
Mangy piglet
Sarcoptes scabei
Histopath
Greasy pig disease
 Exudative     dermatitis
 Staphylococcus       hyicus
 Affects  late preweaning pigs
 Clinical signs
        exfoliation of skin, excess sebaceous secretion
        pruritis not a feature unless complicated my mange
 Diagnosis     - clinical signs and culture
Greasy pigs
Greasy pig disease cont...

 Treatment
        Injectible penicllin, oxytetracyline
        Tetracyclines in feed
 Control
        Sanitation
        Control external parasites
        Good nutrition
Swine pox
  Swine  pox virus
  Only pigs less than 4months old
  Clinical signs
        papules 1-6 mm in diameter
        pustules, crusts
        clear spontaenously
  Diagnosis    - clinical signs, biopsy
        intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies
  Treatment     - not necessary
Swine pox
Erysipelas
  Erysipelothrix     rhusiopathiae
  Diamond    skin disease
  pigs 3months - 3years old
  Clinical signs
         widespread ecchymotic hemorrhages due to
          microthrombi
         arthritis, endocarditis
  Diagnosis
         Diamond skin lesions pathognomonic
         Culture of blood, joints, lung, liver
Diamond skin
disease
Erysipelas cont...

 Treatment
        Penicillin is the drug of choice
 Control
        General sanitation
        Bacterins or attenuated live vaccines
Pityriasis rosea
 Juvenillepustular psoriaform dermatitis
 Pseudo-ringworm
 Spontaneous regression
PRRS associated
Vasculitis/glomerulonephritis

 Newly described condition associated with
  PRRS virus infection
 Type III hypersensitivity reaction
      Causing vasculitis
     Dermal and cutaneous infarction
     Large red sloughing skin lesions usually over
      rear and legs
 Commonly      associated renal disease
PRRS vasculitis/glomerulonephritis
Miscellaneous diseases


 Swine lice
 Baby piglet anemia
 Eperythrozoonosis
Swine lice

 Haematopinus         suis
 Indicator  of poor management
 Clinical signs
        pruritis (mild), anemia, poor growing
 Diagnosis
        visible to naked eye
 Treatment      - same as for mange
Baby pig anemia
  Iron  deficiency
  Piglets iron demand is greater than the
   sows milk
  Clinical signs
         anemia within 2-3 days of birth
         dyspnea, edema, pale skin, lethargy
  Diagnosis - clinical signs, CBC
  Treatment - 200mg iron dextran at 1-3
   days of age
Eperythrozoonosis
  Eperythrozoan        suis
  Obligate   intracellular parasite of RBC’s
  Clinical signs
         pyrexia, icterus, anemia
         intravascular hemolysis
         necropsy - large spleen
  Diagnosis     -
         Giemsa stained blood smear
         Serology - 1:80 considered positive
Eperythrozoonosis cont...

 Treatment
        Oxytetracycline injected or in feed
 Control
        Control lice and fomite transmission
        Surgical instruments, needles, etc...
Pigweed

 Amaranthus   retroflexus
 Common   in southeast
 Severe perirenal edema
Fumonensin

 Fusarium   moniliforme
     Hypertension
     Arteriolar medial proliferation
     Hemorrhagic pleural and pulmonary edema*
Foreign diseases

 Hog    cholera
        pestivirus - splenic infarction is pathognomonic
 African    swine fever
        iridovirus - hemorrhage in multiple areas
Vesicular diseases of
swine
        Foot and mouth disease - apthavirus*
        Swine vesicular disease - enterovirus
        Vesicular exanthema - calicivirus
        Vesicular stomatitis - rhabdovirus
Case #1


 Signalment: 10 weanling pigs
 History: dead and dying
 Necropsy findings:
       yellow fibrin covering lungs
       yellow fibrin covering abdominal organs
       meninges are reddened
 DDX?
Case #2


 Signalment:   several growers
 History: poor doers, chronic cough
 Clinical signs:
        non-productive cough
        harsh lung sounds
 Euthanize     and necropsy:
        cranioventral pneumonia, plum-red color
 DDX?
Case #3

  Signalment:   2 grower pig females
  History: diarrhea, weak
  Clinical signs:
         pale mucous membranes
         perineum stained with feces
  One    dies - necropsy findings:
         Large intestine markedly thickened and
          contains small amount of blood
  DDX
Case #4


 Signalment:   1 piglet just weaned
 History: sudden death
 Clinical signs: dead!
 Necropsy findings:
        subQ expanded by fluid, eyelids swollen
        mesentery and omentum expanded by fluid
 Diagnosis?
 How    do you confirm?
Case #5

 Signalment:       breeding sows
 History:
        decreased fertility
        litters have contained dried up small fetuses
 Clinical   signs:
        none in the sows
 DDX?
 How    do you confirm your top differential?
Case #6


 Signalment:   many weanlings
 History: lameness
 Clinical signs
        swollen painful hocks
        fever, one has pulmonary edema on xrays
 Aspiration    of joint reveals pus
 DDX?
Case #7


 Signalment:   young nursery pigs
 History: very itchy, bad skin
 Clinical signs:
        dermatitis, pustules
        intense pruritis, self trauma
 DDX?
 Diagnostic      tests?
THE END!!!

				
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