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					MSDs - facts and figures
from the EU and from EU
Member States




Dr. Elke Schneider,
European Agency for
Safety and Health at Work
This presentation:




      o The Agency and its European risk observatory
      o The problem
      o Risk observatory data – only some to stimulate
        debate: Women, young workers, healthcare,
        temporary agency workers, teleworkers
      o Issues to be considered - conclusions
European risk observatory

   Provide an overview of OSH/MSDs in Europe (no
    benchmarking or country comparisons)
   Highlight trends on OSH/MSDs outcomes and risk
    factors
   Provide early identification of newly emerging risks
    in the workplace
   Identify areas/issues where more information
    needed

         http://riskobservatory.osha.europa.eu/
MSDs affect……


   Muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves in the
    back, neck, shoulders and upper/lower limbs
   The risk factors, working alone or in combination,
    include:
     o physical - force, repetitive movements, vibration,
       awkward postures
     o organisational - low autonomy/job satisfaction, repetitive
       work at a high pace
     o individual - medical history, physical capacity, age
Most common recognised occupational disease in Europe
(% of total ODs , EODS 2002-2005. EU15, except Germany, Greece and Ireland)



 90
 80
 70                                                                                                                       59,0
 60                                                                                                               52,9 55,2
                                                                                                                     53,0
 50
 40                                                                                                  34,7 38,1
                                                                                                  35,0 36,3
 30                                    18,4 20,9
                                    17,9 19,0
 20                                                  13,1 13,7
                                                        13,9 12,8    13,7 15,6
                                                                        14,5 14,3   11,1 8,0
                                                                                       10,7
                     4,54,75,25,1                                                           7,1
 10   0,90,80,60,5
  0
       Infections     Cancers        Neurologic       Diseases of    Respiratory    Skin diseases Musculoskeletal MSD + carpal
                                      diseases      sensory organs    diseases                      diseases        tunnel

                                                   2002   2003   2004   2005
EU data – Recognised occupational diseases by gender
(% of total ODs , EODS 2002-2005. EU15, except Germany, Greece and Ireland)

 90                                                                                                                                  84,8
                                                                                                                                  82,1
                                                                                                                               77,4
                                                                                                                            77,3
 80



                                                                                                                                            
 70
 60
 50                                                                                                          43,3 45,3
                                                                                                          43,6 45,2
                                                39,6
 40                                     33,8 37,0
                                           34,1
 30
                                                                                         15,6
                                                                                            15,1
 20                                                                                            11,19,3
 10   1,1 1,01,1 0,7                                                     4,24,7 3,83,5
                       0,70,6 0,70,8                    0,9 1,11,1 0,8
  0
       Infections        Cancers         Neurologic      Diseases of     Respiratory     Skin diseases    Musculoskeletal   MSD + carpal
                                          diseases     sensory organs     diseases                          diseases          tunnel

 90                                                      2002     2003   2004    2005
 80
 70
 60
                                                                                                                                    46,0
 50                                                                                                                         41,8 42,8
                                                                                                                               41,8


                                                                                                                                            
 40                                                                                                               34,5
                                                                                                          31,1 32,2
                                                                                                             30,7
 30                                                       19,8 18,7
                                                       18,6 19,5         18,1 21,0
                                                                            19,0 19,8
 20                                        11,2 11,6
                                        10,7 10,6                                        9,1 8,76,6 5,9
                       6,2 6,67,3 7,2
 10   0,8 0,70,4 0,4
  0
       Infections        Cancers         Neurologic      Diseases of      Respiratory    Skin diseases    Musculoskeletal   MSD + carpal
                                          diseases     sensory organs      diseases                         diseases          tunnel

                                                         2002     2003   2004    2005
EU data - MSDs (EODS 2002-2005)

   Trends:
     o MSD + carpal tunnel sdr increased by 32% from
       2002 to 2005 (by 39% among women)
     o MSD + carpal tunnel sdr accounted for 59% of
       all recognised disease covered by EODS in
       2005 (about 85% of all ODs among women)
   Focuses mainly on upper-limb disorders
     o mostly three diseases: hand/arm tenosynovitis,
       epicondylitis of the elbow and carpal tunnel
       syndrome
MSDs – occupational diseases data from Member States
are variable, but indicate that it is an important issue

   UK- MSDs most commonly reported type of work-
    related illness, with an estimated 1,012,000 people
    affected
   Spain: The number of MSD has fluctuated since 2000
    between 12 884 to 20 489 (83,3% to 86,4% of the
    total of occupational diseases)
   Germany: The highest number of working days lost
    due to MSDs (2002: 26%, 2004: 24,3%)
   Poland: cases of vibration syndrome are the most
    common chronic musculoskeletal disease
Costs due to MSDs (source: eurogip)
Groups at risk - Trends in employment (2004 data)

     More than 66% of the workforce is employed in
      the services industry
     Biggest employers manufacturing industry (19%),
      wholesale and retail trade (16%), health (10%)
      and education (7%)
     In 2003, among the jobs created in newly born
      enterprises in that year, about 72 % were within
      services and 17 % in construction.
     Employment has also risen substantially in the
      elementary occupations and in ―service workers
      and shop and market sales workers‖
    -
        -
+

+
MSDs in service sectors increasing
Spain - occupational diseases - MSD

                             EVOLUTION OF MSD
                          (% TOTAL OF THE SECTOR)


    90,0
    85,0
                                                           AGRICULTURE
    80,0
                                                           FISHING
    75,0
                                                           INDUSTRY
    70,0
                                                           CONSTRUCTION
    65,0
                                                           SERVICES
    60,0
                                                           TOTAL
    55,0
    50,0
           2000        2001           2002          2003



                  Source: Occupational Diseases File
Spain – body part affected by MSDs by sector




       Source: VI Encuesta Nacional (2006)
Spain, main postures at workplaces

     60
                           52,5
     50                              44
                                  42,1
     40      36,5                                                      Agriculture
                             31,7
                 28                                                    Industry
     30
                                                  20,3                 Construction
          16,2      18,2
     20                                    15,7                 14,5   Services
                                                           10,5
     10                                   6,2 7,7        4,6 4,5

     0
            Standing,       Standing,      Sitting,       Sitting,
          rarely walking    frequently     without       getting up
                              walking     getting up


              Source: VI Encuesta Nacional (2006)
Gender dimension


   activities where the majority of the EU-27 workforce
    were women in 2006:
     o textiles,clothing, leather + footwear manufacturing
     o retail trade and repair
     o hotels and restaurants
     o financial services
     o health care and social work
Recognised MSDs – EU data by gender
(absolute number of MSDs and carpal tunnel sdr, EODS 2002-2005. EU15,
except Germany, Greece and Ireland)

30000
                                                                                                                                                                          25458
25000                                                                                                                                                                  23145
                                                                                                                                                                    21951


                                                                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                                                 20232
20000


 15000

 10000                                                                                                                               8748
                                                                                                                                   7885
                                                                  6901                                                          7064
                                                                                                                              6617
            5821 6397
         5153 5721
                                                               6113
                                                            5861
                                                         5033
 5000
                                             662 621
                                           657 721                                          1258 1257
                                                                                               1196 1197       888 1123
                                                                                                             733 987
                         85 84 82 76                                       345312315307                                                        35163 64 88
    0



                                                                                                                                                                                  
         Carpal tunnel   Arthrosis of       M eniscal    Hand or wrist      Bursitis of      Bursitis of        M edial          Lateral       Arthrosis of      Total M SDs +
25000        sdr          the elbow          lesions     tenosynovitis        elbow            knee          epicondylitis    epicondylitis     the wrist                 23588
                                                                                                                                                                  carpal tunnel
                                                                                                                                                                       20542
20000                                                                                                                                                               18694
                                                                           2002      2003   2004      2005                                                       17026

 15000
                 10996
              9243
 10000      8236
         7420
                                                                6061
                                                           5385 6
                                                         4994 551                                                                    5402
                                                                                                                                   4945
 5000
                                                                                                                                441
                                                                                                                              4031 9

                          4 6 5 5          36 32 30 51                     35 26 25 178     79 73 90 93           0 776
                                                                                                             39651 682                         31 7 6 26
    0
         Carpal tunnel   A rthro sis o f    M eniscal    Hand o r wrist     B ursitis o f    B ursitis o f      M edial          Lateral       A rthro sis o f   To tal M SDs +
             sdr          the elbo w         lesio ns    teno syno vitis       elbo w           knee         epico ndylitis   epico ndylitis     the wrist        carpal tunnel

                                                                           2002      2003   2004      2005
Spain – Health problems of workers by body part and gender


Neck ache significantly more frequent in women than men (32 vs.24 %)
                                                                        24,0
               Nape/Neck                                                             32,2
                Should ers
                                                    10,0
                                                     10,7
                                                                                                                       Base:
           Arms/Forearms
                                                        12,5
                                                      11,4
                                                                                                                       Total of
                   Elbows
                                 1,5
                                 1,2
                                                                                                                       workers
                                             6,8
      Hands/Wrists/Fingers                    7,5
               Upper Back
                                                                         25,2
                                                                                 29,6
                                                                                                              Male     Source:
              Lower Back
                                                                                                  40,9
                                                                                                  40,6
                                                                                                              Female   National
            Buttocks/Hips
                                       4,6
                                       4,4                                                                             Survey of
                   Thighs
                                 1,2
                                 1,0                                                                                   Working
                   Knees               4,5
                                             7,2                                                                       Conditions
                     Legs                               12,7
                                                               16,6                                                    (published
               Feet/Ankles
                                           6,0
                                            6,7                                                                          2007)
                             0         5          10     15      20     25      30      35   40          45
                                                                 % workers
Groups at risk – women in manufacturing
(EU data from EWCS 2005)

  80                                                                   73,1
  70                                                                                     66
                                                                              62 62,3             59,6
                                                                                              56,1
  60                                  50,3
  50                                              45,5
                                             42
  40
       27,7                                                                                               30
  30          24,7   26                                  25,8                                                     24,2
           22,3           20,822,8                          20,522,5
  20
                                                                                                               10,1
  10
  0
       Backache      Muscular        Tiring/painful       Overall        Repetitive     Work at very     Vibration (at
                      pains          positions (at        fatigue        hand/arm        high speed      least 25% of
                                      least 25% of                     m ovem ents      (at least 25%      the tim e)
                                       the tim e)                      (at least 25%     of the tim e)
                                                                        of the tim e)

                               Fem ale Manufacturing        Fem ale Total EU27    Total EU27
Health care sector, Europe
   About 78% are female.
   + 10% from 2000-2006 in the EU-27 as compared to
    the total: 8.6% to 9.5 % of all workers
   Within the female working population it has increased
    from 15 to 17%.
   About 3 % of the EU working population (or 6.8
    million) are women who work in the health care
    sector and who have to lift or move people.
   In the health care sector, an estimated 6-7 million
    women lift or move people and 3-4 million report
    backpain
Health care workers carry more than construction
workers (Germany, BAuA survey, published Nov.2007)

   2 in 3 have to carry heavy loads (compared to 1 in 2 for
    construction workers)
   93,8% have to do their work standing
   36% have to work in unfavourable postures (kneeling,
    bending, squatting, etc.)
   71% have to do more than one task at a time
   More than ¾ (76%) work shifts
   More than half work nights (51%)
   Almost all work Saturdays, Sundays and holidays (94%,
    91,5%)
Health care workers carry more than construction workers
(Germany, BAuA survey, published Nov.2007)

   57% men and 64 % women have back pain
   66 % women and 54% men have pain in neck and
    shoulders
   37% of the women have pain in the legs
   > 40% suffer from high emotional load (compared to 11
    % on average)
   More than 1 in 4 feel that they hardly cope (27 vs 16.6
    %)
   Twice as many as on average have sleeping problems
              (37% vs. 19%)
Groups at risk –Young workers
  Physically demanding tasks common among young
   workers which means that they are at considerable risk
   of developing MSDs.
  ES: > 75% newly declared occupational diseases of
   young workers in 2004 MSDs
  estimated 4 million young workers in the EU under the
   age of 25 have backpain
  BE: In a study of 716 healthcare and distribution workers
   (aged 25-29) 13 % had developped back pain lasting > 7
   days within 1 year
Groups at risk – young workers in manufacturing
(EU data from EWCS 2005)


      100
                                      87,7
       90                                    78,7
                                                    72,9         76,2
       80                                                                              69,9 67,3
                                                                        66,1 62,3
       70                                                                                          59,6
       60    51,9
       50           41,9
       40                  35
       30
       20
       10
        0
            Carrying/m oving         Standing/w alking            Repetitive         Work at very high
             heavy loads (at        (at least 25% of the          hand/arm          speed (at least 25%
            least 25% of the                tim e)             m ovem ents (at         of the tim e)
                 tim e)                                        least 25% of the
                                                                     tim e)

                                <=24 Manufacturing         <=24 Total EU27     Total EU27
Vibration exposure notable for women and young workers
(EU data from EWCS 2005 (for YW) and 2000/2005)

   100
                                   87,7
    90                                    78,7
                                                 72,9         76,2
    80                                                                               69,9 67,3
                                                                     66,1 62,3
    70                                                                                           59,6
    60     51,9                                                                                         49,3               YW
    50            41,9
    40                   35
                                                                                                               26,1 24,2
    30
    20
           20                                           18
    10     18
     0     16                                                               13,9
           14
                     13
         Carrying/m oving
           12
                                 Standing/w alking              Repetitive         Work atEU15 high Vibration (at least
                                                                                           very
                                                                      9,2
          heavy loads (at
           10                     (at least 25% of
                                              8                 hand/arm                   (at least
                                                                                    speedNMS12       25% of the tim e)
            8
         least 25% of the             the tim e)             m ovem ents (at       25% of the tim e)
            6
            4 tim e)                                         least 25% of the
            2
            0
                                                                   tim e)                               Women
                          1995              2000/2001*                   2005
                                    <=24 Manufacturing               <=24 Total EU27    Total EU27
Temporary Agency work – an example
(Germany, SUGA 2006)

   Most of the jobs are in manufacturing, unskilled labour,
    eg. in construction, and service jobs, including retail and
    low-skilled office work – increasing trend (x 3 1995-2006)
   About half of these workers have contracts with a duration
    between 1 week and 3 months
   Working conditions of temporary agency workers
     o   More standing (76% vs. 57%)
     o   More carrying of heavy loads (37 vs. 24 %)
     o   More unfavourable postures (19 vs. 16%)
     o   More noise, unfavourable climatic conditions, PPE use
     o   More paced work (39 vs. 32 %)
     o   Less job control (31 vs. 25 %)
Temporary Agency work – an example
(Germany, SUGA 2006)

   Health problems of temporary agency workers
     o More:
        • pain in hands and arms (32 vs. 22%)
        • pain in legs and feet (29 vs. 22%)
        • pain in the knees (25 vs. 19%)
        • tiredness, exhaustion (48 vs. 43%)
     o Less satisfied with
        • physical working conditions (26 vs 16 %)
        • training opportunities (46 vs. 30%)
        • type and content of work (21 vs. 7%)
        • opportunity to apply skills (24 vs. 13%)
Teleworkers - UK-horizon scanning

   Currently, 8% of the
    workforce are teleworkers.
   It is suggested that by
    2015, 70-80% of workers
    could be, at least partially,
    working from a remote
    location.
   mainly increase in people
    working in different places
    using home as a base,
    rather than working from
    home, levels of which have
    remained relatively stable.
Points for consideration and discussion
    Include groups normally not at focus of attention (young
     workers, women, temporary agency workers)
    Consider changes in employment patterns (move from
     industry to service professions, working at home, home carers,
     working from a remote location, temporary agency work, short-
     term contracts)
    Include workers on shift work, night and weekend work,
     and part-time workers – working time patterns are changing!
    Include exposure to vibrations
    Detailed monitoring is necessary, and important, also to
     assess gender differences
    Look closer at risks involving lower limbs
    Addressing the ―whole load on the body‖ — i.e. all the strains
    Tailor rehabilitation policies to include all groups
National policies - how Member States address MSDs
Examples

    UK-horizon scanning, issues for OSH: agency
     workers, use of keyboards and of mobile devices,
     increased wireless use (e.g. ‗BlackBerry Thumb‘),
    Austria: 2007 programme and new OSH stategy:
     for health sector and transport
     assessment of MSDs risk factors, training of labour
     inspectors and development of tools to monitor
     exposure for inspection and for the enterprise level
    Germany: OSH strategy has identified the decrease in
     MSDs as one of its main strategic goals
Where to find out more

   There is more help and advice on how to stay
    safe and healthy at work on the Lighten the
    Load website - http://ew2007.osha.europa.eu
   And the MSDs Single Entry Point -
    http://osha.europa.eu/topics/msds
   And the Risk observatory Webpage:

     http://riskobservatory.osha.europa.eu/
Thank you
 for your
attention!

				
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