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					 Coaching for
Differentiation
By Lori Comallie-Caplan
The success of education
depends on adapting teaching
to individual differences
among learners.
 Yuezheng, in fourth century B.C. Chinese treatise,
                       Xue Ji



                                        (Snow, 1982)
                                    Differentiation
                       Is a teacher‟s response to learner‟s needs

                     Guided by general principles of differentiation


  Respectful tasks            Flexible grouping            Continual assessment

                          Teachers can differentiate through        Building Community
Quality Curriculum


       Content            Process             Product       Affect/Environment

                            According to students‟

          Readiness               Interest        Learning Profile

             Through a variety of instructional strategies such as: Choice
             Menus, Anchor Activities, Cubing, RAFTS, 6 Thinking Hats,
             Structured Academic Controversy, The profiler, Tri-minder, etc
                      to Differentiate Content
• Reading Partners / Reading Buddies
       •   Read/Summarize
       •   Read/Question/Answer
       •   Visual Organizer/Summarizer
       •   Parallel Reading with Teacher Prompt
•   Choral Reading/Antiphonal Reading
•   Flip Books
•   Split Journals (Double Entry – Triple Entry)
•   Books on Tape
•   Highlights on Tape
•   Digests/ “Cliff Notes”
•   Notetaking Organizers
•   Varied Texts
•   Varied Supplementary Materials
•   Highlighted Texts
•   Think-Pair-Share/Preview-Midview-Postview
                                                   Tomlinson – ‘00
TO DIFFERENTIATE PROCESS

  • Fun & Games
  • RAFTs
  • Cubing, Think Dots
  • Choices (Intelligences)
  • Centers
  • Tiered lessons
  • Contracts
           to Differentiate Product
• Choices based on readiness, interest, and learning
  profile
• Clear expectations
• Timelines
• Agreements
• Product Guides
• Rubrics
• Evaluation
       A Differentiated Classroom in Balance



            F
            L
            E                                                               Shared
                                                                                                   Shared
                                                                                                   Vision
            X                                                                goals

            I                        Inviting
                                                        Focused
                                                                                     Shared
                                                                                  responsibility
            B             Concept-
                           based
                                           Product
            L                              Oriented
            E                                             Sense
                          Resource                         Of                                  On-going                Feedback
Time                                                    Community                            assessment                   and
                 Groups                                                                      to determine               grading
                                                                                                 need
                                                                                  Respect                    ZPD
       Approaches                                                                   For                     Target
                                                Safe                              Group
       to teaching                                          Respect for
       and learning                             Affirming    individual    Shared
                                                                          Challenge                              Tomlinson-oo
   Differentiation is
 responsive teaching
rather than one-size-
   fits-all teaching.
“It means teachers proactively plan
    varied approaches to what
 students need to learn, how they
 will learn it, and/or how they will
show what they have learned
in order to increase the likelihood
  that each student will learn as
    much as he or she can, as
      efficiently as possible.”
       What is differentiation?
Differentiation is
classroom practice
 that looks
eyeball to eyeball
with the reality
that kids differ, and the most effective
teachers do whatever it takes to hook
the whole range of kids on learning.
                               -Tomlinson (2001)
    “Differentiation is making sure that
      the right students get the right
 learning tasks at the right time. Once
      you have a sense of what each
    student holds as „given‟ or „known‟
  and what he or she needs in order to
   learn, differentiation is no longer an
     option; it is an obvious response.”
Assessment as Learning: Using Classroom Assessment to Maximize Student Learning
                                  Lorna M. Earl
                      Corwin Press, Inc. – 2003 – pp. 86-87
  “It‟s a way of thinking about
the classroom with the goals of
     honoring each student‟s
learning needs and maximizing
each student‟s learning capacity
     while developing a solid
     community of learners.”
 Differentiation doesn’t suggest
 that a teacher can be all things
 to all individuals all the time. It
 does, however, mandate that a
 teacher create a reasonable
   range of approaches to
  learning much of the time, so
that most students find learning
      a fit much of the time.
  At its most basic level,
differentiating instruction
means “shaking up” what
 goes on in the classroom
   so that students have
    multiple options for
   taking in information,
  making sense of ideas,
       and expressing
      what they learn.
        It‟s teaching so that “typical”
     students; students with disabilities;
         students who are gifted; and
      students from a range of cultural,
      ethnic, and language groups can
             learn together, well.
           Not just inclusion, but inclusive
                       teaching.

Based on Peterson, J., & Hitte, M. (2003). Inclusive teaching: Creating effective schools for all learners.
  Boston: Allyn & Bacon, p. xix.
        Differentiating Instruction:
             Rules of Thumb
• Be clear on the key concepts and
  generalizations or principles that give
  meaning and structure to the topic,
  chapter, unit, or lesson you are planning.
• Lessons for all students should emphasize
  critical thinking.
• Lessons for all students should be
  engaging.
• In a diffentiated classroom, there should
  be a balance between student-selected and
  teacher-assigned tasks and working
  arrangements.
  It Begins with Good Instruction
Lynn Erickson: We know from brain research that
students need to see patterns and connections, and any
learner is looking at information and trying to pattern and
sort it into what they already have in their brains as far as
past experience, past learnings. And if they have no way
to make sense of this massive amount of information
that's coming at them, then they tend to get confused.
We also know that they tend to forget a lot of what they
have learned. It just becomes "traipsing over trivia"
because it doesn't make much sense to them. So, moving
to a conceptual level for the structure of that information
is going to be beneficial to students.
 Planning a Focused Curriculum Means
 Clarity About What Students Should …
                      KNOW
                       – Facts
                       – Vocabulary
• UNDERSTAND           – Definitions
 – Principles/
   generalizations
                      • BE ABLE TO DO
 – Big ideas of the
   discipline           –Processes
                        –Skills
                        KNOW
Facts, names, dates, places, information

•   There are 50 states in the US
•   Thomas Jefferson
•   1492
•   The Continental Divide
•   The multiplication tables
              UNDERSTAND
Essential truths that give meaning to the topic
Stated as a full sentence
Begin with, “I want students to understand
  THAT…” (not HOW… or WHY… or WHAT)

  – Multiplication is another way to do addition.
  – People migrate to meet basic needs.
  – All cultures contain the same elements.
  – Entropy and enthalpy are competing
       forces in the natural world.
  – Voice reflects the author.
       Understanding
Understanding is more a matter
  of what people can DO than
     something they HAVE.
 Understanding involves action
     more than possession.

      D.N. Perkins, Educational Leadership, 10/91
                 BE ABLE TO DO
Skills (basic skills, skills of the discipline, skills of
  independence, social skills, skills of production)
Verbs or phrases (not the whole activity)

   – Analyze
   – Solve a problem to find perimeter
   – Write a well supported argument
   – Evaluate work according to specific criteria
   – Contribute to the success of a group or team
   – Use graphics to represent data appropriately
“There is no such thing as genuine
knowledge and fruitful understanding
except as the offspring of doing… This
is the lesson which all education has to
learn.”

                       --John Dewey
KNOW (facts, vocabulary, dates, rules, people, etc.)
 ecosystem, elements of culture (housing/shelter,
 customs, values, geography)

UNDERSTAND (complete sentence, statement of truth
  or insight - want students to understand that . . .)

DO (basic skills, thinking skills, social skills, skills of the
  discipline, planning skills---verbs)
  Compare and contrast         Draw conclusions
  Work collaboratively         Develop a timeline
  Use maps as data             Compare and contrast
            Write a unified paragraph
            Examine varied perspectives
                                                   Tomlinson • 02
“Assessment is today’s means of
understanding how to modify
tomorrow’s instruction.”

                Carol Tomlinson
         WHAT CAN BE ASSESSED?
  READINESS             INTEREST             LEARNING
                                              PROFILE

                      • Interest Surveys   • Areas of Strength
                      • Interest Centers     and Weakness
           Content    • Self-Selection     • Work Preferences
Skills                                     • Self Awareness
          Knowledge


    Concepts
“Assessment should always have
more to do with helping students
grow than with cataloging their
mistakes.”
                 Carol Tomlinson
Most teachers assess students at the
end of an instructional unit or sequence.

When assessment and instruction are
interwoven, both the students and the
teacher benefit. The next slide suggests
a diagnostic continuum for
ongoing assessment.
         On-going Assessment:
         A Diagnostic Continuum


Preassessment        Formative Assessment       Summative Assessment
 (Finding Out)   (Keeping Track & Checking -up)     (Making sure)
            On-going Assessment:
            A Diagnostic Continuum
                         Feedback and Goal Setting


Preassessment                Formative Assessment       Summative Assessment
 (Finding Out)           (Keeping Track & Checking -up)     (Making sure)



Pre-test                    Conference        Exit Card         Unit Test
Graphing for Greatness      Peer evaluation   Portfolio Check   Performance Task
Inventory                   3-minute pause    Quiz              Product/Exhibit
KWL                         Observation       Journal Entry     Demonstration
Checklist                   Talkaround        Self-evaluation   Portfolio Review
Observation                 Questioning
Self-evaluation
Questioning
             Preassessment Is...
Any method, strategy or process used to determine a
student’s current level of readiness or interest in order to
plan for appropriate instruction.
Preassessment:
• provides data that can determine options for students to
  to take in information, construct meaning, and to
  demonstrate understanding of new information

• helps teachers anticipate differences before planning
 challenging and respectful learning experiences

• allows teachers to meet students where they are
 Formative Assessment Is...
A process of accumulating information about a student’s
progress to help make instructional decisions that will
improve his/her understandings and achievement levels.
Formative Assessment:
• depicts student’s life as a learner
• used to make instructional adjustments
• alerts the teacher about student misconceptions
  “early warning signal”
• allows students to build on previous experiences
• provides regular feedback
• provides evidence of progress
• aligns with instructional/curricular outcomes
Summative Assessment Is...
A means to determine a student’s mastery and
understanding of information, skills, concepts, or
processes.
Summative Assessment:
• should reflect formative assessments that precede it
• should match material taught
• may determine student’s exit achievement
• may be tied to a final decision, grade or report
• should align with instructional/curricular outcomes
• may be a form of alternative assessment
  GET TO
  KNOW
YOUR KIDS
       Student Traits

There are four student traits
that teachers must often
address to ensure effective
and efficient learning. Those
are readiness, interest,
learning profile, and affect.
         Student Traits

Readiness refers to a student’s
knowledge, understanding, and skill
related to a particular sequence of
learning. Only when a student works
at a level of difficulty that is both
challenging and attainable for that
student does learning take place.


                Tomlinson, 2003
        Student Traits

Interest refers to those topics or
pursuits that evoke curiosity and
passion in a learner. Thus, highly
effective teachers attend both to
developing interests and as yet
undiscovered interests in their
students.

               Tomlinson, 2003
          Student Traits

Learning profile refers to how
students learn best. Those include
learning style, intelligence
preference, culture and gender. If
classrooms can offer and support
different modes of learning, it is likely
that more students will learn
effectively and efficiently.
                  Tomlinson, 2003
        Student Traits

Affect has to do with how
students feel about themselves,
their work, and the classroom as
a whole. Student affect is the
gateway to helping each student
become more fully engaged and
successful in learning.

              Tomlinson, 2003
              Learner Profile Card

                                 Gender Stripe

 Auditory, Visual, Kinesthetic            Analytical, Creative, Practical



                             Student’s Interests




Multiple Intelligence Preference                   Favorite Subject


       NOTE: Put the student’s name on the back of the card so decisions
       can initially be made without knowing the particular student.
                  Intelligence Preference
Human brains are “wired” differently in different individuals. Although all
normally functioning people use all parts of their brains, each of us is
“wired” to be better in some areas than in others (Gardner, Sternberg).


Differentiation based on a student’s intelligence preference generally
suggests allowing the student to work in a preferred mode to develop that
capacity further.


Sometimes teachers also ask students to extend their preferred modes of
working, or they opt to use a student’s preferred areas to support growth
in less comfortable areas.
       Sternberg’s Three Intelligences

                      Creative           Analytical


                               Practical



•We all have some of each of these intelligences, but are usually stronger
in one or two areas than in others.
•We should strive to develop as fully each of these intelligences in
students…
• …but also recognize where students’ strengths lie and teach through
those intelligences as often as possible, particularly when introducing new
ideas.
Using Anchor(ing) Activities
Anchor Activities
A task to which a student automatically moves
          when an assigned task is finished,

TRAITS OF EFFECTIVE ANCHOR ACTIVITIES:

Important—related to key knowledge, understanding,
          and skill,
Interesting—appeals to student curiosity, interest,
          learning preference,
Allow Choice—students can select from a range of
          options
Clear Routines and Expectations—students know
          what they are to do, how to do it, how to
          keep records, etc.
Seldom Graded—teachers should examine the work
          as they move around the room. Students may
          turn in work for feedback. Students may get
          a grade for working effectively, but seldom for
          the work itself. The motivation is interest
          and/or improved achievement.
    RAPID ROBIN




The “Dreaded Early Finisher”
“I’m Not Finished” Freddie



            “It takes him
            an hour-and-a-half
            to watch 60 Minutes.”
One premise in a differentiated
        classroom:
                “ In this class we
                  are never
                  finished---
                 Learning is a
                 process that
                 never ends.”
       Anchor Activities
ê Anchor activities
  are ongoing
  assignments that
  students can work
  on independently
  throughout a unit
  of study or longer.
 The Purpose of an Anchor
      Activity is to:
Provide meaningful work for students when they finish an
assignment or project, when they first enter the class or when
they are “stumped”.
Provide ongoing tasks that tie to the content and instruction.
Free up the classroom teacher to work with other groups of
students or individuals.
              Using Anchor Activities to
                   Create Groups
1       Teach the whole class to work independently and
        quietly on the anchor activity.


2                                 Flip-Flop

     Half the class works                         Other half works on
     on anchor activity.                          a different activity.



3
    1/3 works on                                             1/3 works with
                            1/3 works on a
    anchor activity.        different activity.             teacher---direct
                                                              instruction.
           ANCHOR ACTIVITIES
Can be:
used in any subject

whole class assignments

small group or individual assignments

tiered to meet the needs of different readiness levels

Interdisciplinary for use across content areas or teams
      ANCHOR ACTIVITIES
Work best:
ê when expectations are
  clear and the tasks are
  taught and practiced
  prior to use.
ê when students are held
  accountable for on task
  behavior and/or task
  completion.
             Planning for Anchor Activities
Subject/Content Area:



Name and description of anchor activity:



How will activity be introduced to students?


How will the activity be managed and monitored?
- Points                 - Percentage of Final Grade
- Rubric                 - Portfolio Check
- Checklist                        - Teacher/Student Conference
- Random Check           - Peer Review
- On Task Behaviors      - Other _______________
             Some Anchor Activities
ê “Brain Busters”
ê Learning Packets
ê Activity Box
ê Learning/Interest Centers
ê Vocabulary Work
ê Accelerated Reader
ê Investigations
ê MSPAP or CRT Practice Activities
ê Magazine Articles with Generic Questions or Activities
ê Listening Stations
ê Research Questions or Projects
ê Commercial Kits and Materials
ê Journals or Learning Logs
ê Silent Reading (Content Related?)
          Examples of Possible Anchor Activities
Skills practice at the computer
Reading from supplementary material
Completing math applications
Working on final products
Free reading
Journal writing
Analyzing cases (or writing them)
Vocabulary extension
Learning about the people behind ideas
Learning about key ideas at work in the world
Independent Studies
Orbitals
Current events reading
Designing or completing “virtual” science experiments
Developing or completing relevant organizers
An idea for an improvement, invention, innovation
ETC.

Generally, homework is not an acceptable anchor activity—and anchor
activities are typically completed individually.
Beginning Anchor Activities…

    •Teach one key anchor activity to the whole class very carefully.
              Later, it can serve as a point of departure for other anchors.
    •Explain the rationale.
              Let students know you intend the activities to be helpful
                          and/or interesting to them.
              Help them understand why it’s important for them to work
                          productively.
    •Make sure directions are clear and accessible, materials readily
              available, and working conditions support success.
    •Think about starting with one or two anchor options and expanding the
              options as students become proficient with the first ones.
    •Monitor student effectiveness with anchors and analyze the way they
              are working with your students.
    •Encourage your students to propose anchor options.
    •Remember that anchor activities need to stem from and be part of
              building a positive community of learners.
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about
                    ________________
                  Write as much as you can.


         Description of
        Description the        Steps in Developing It
         Strategy




      Useful For                      Place to Use It in the
                                      Curriculum




                                         Tomlinson - 02
Choice Menu’s
            CHOICE Menus
Learning menus outline a variety of
instructional options targeted toward
important learning goals.
Students are able to select the choices
which most appeal to them.
The teacher directs the menu process,
but the student is given control over
his/her choice of options, order of
completion, etc.
               Kinds of Menus
���� MENU: Main Dishes, Side Dishes, and
Desserts (for younger learners).
���� THINK TAC TOE: Complete a row,
column or diagonal line of activities.
All three options can be differentiated
according to interest, learning profile, or
readiness (see enclosed examples).
                Use this template to help you plan a menu for your classroom.

MENU PLANNER

Menu for: _________________________                        Due: __________

All items in the main dish and the specified number of side dishes must be
complete by the due date. You may select among the side dishes and you may
decide to do some of the desserts items, as well.


          Main Dishes (complete all)


 1

 2


 3


 4



          Side Dishes (Select _____)


 1

 2


 3


 4



          Desserts (Optional)

 1


 2


 3
MENU PLANNER

Menu for: Algebra 1 – “Probability”         Due: __________

All items in the main dish and the specified number of side dishes must be
complete by the due date. You may select among the side dishes and you may
decide to do some of the desserts items, as well.


          Main Dishes (complete all)


 1     Complete the “meteorology simulation” on p. 88-89 of your textbook.


 2     Create a list of 10 pairs of events. 5 pairs should contain events that are dependent;
       5 pairs should contain events that are independent. Explain each classification.

 3     Complete the “frequency table” assignment on p. 506-507 of your textbook.

 4     Examine the attached list of functions and determine which functions represent
       probability distributions.


          Side Dishes (Select_2 )


 1     Work with a partner to analyze the game of “Primarily Odd.” See your teacher
       for game cubes and further instructions.

 2     Design a “game spinner” that has this probability distribution: P(red) =0.1;
       P(green) = 0.2; P(blue) = 0.3; P(yellow) = 0.4.

 3     Suppose a dart lands on a dartboard made up of four concentric circles. For the
       center of the board (the “bull’s eye”), r=1.5; the remaining rings have widths of
       1.5. Use your understanding of area and probability to determine the probability
       of 1) hitting a “bull’s eye” and 2) landing in the outermost ring.



          Desserts (Optional)


 1     Figure the probability of “Murphy’s Law” and make a case for whether or not it
       should indeed be a “law.”

 2     Use a frequency table to chart the colors that your classmates wear for a week.
       Then, use probability to predict how many students will wear a certain color on a
       given day.
                                         Appetizers                         Main Course


                                  Something I can always be                     Required
     Microorganism                      working on.                  These labs must be completed
         Menu                     These are assignments that will      and turned in for credit.
                                       reinforce concepts.          •Enormous E
  Name:
                                 •Vocabulary Words/Definitions      •Focus on Scopes
  Class:
                                 •Word Searches                     •Pond Water Culture
                                 •Idea Maps                         •Your Choice
         Appetizers:             •Matching Worksheets
      Can always work on                                            •Chapter 8 Test
                                 •Label the Microorganism/Cell

        Soups/Salads:                   Soups/Salads                            Desserts
           Homework


         Main Course:                Homework Assignments            Things I can do to challenge
            Required              All homework must be completed               myself.
                                      and turned in for a grade.     These are not required unless you have
                                                                        been given specific instructions.
                                  •Transparency #13
           Desserts:                                                 •Movie Notes
           Challenges             •Transparency #16
                                                                     •Make a Slide
                                  •Study Guide 8.1
                                                                     •Guess the Disease
                                  •Study Guide 8.2
                                                                     •Write a Letter
Created by Meri-Lyn Stark         •Study Guide 8.3
                                                                     •Microbe Mysteries
Elementary Science Coordinator
Park City School District                                            •http://www.microbeworld.org
                   Diner Menu – Photosynthesis

Appetizer (Everyone Shares)
•Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis.

Entrée (Select One)
•Draw a picture that shows what happens during photosynthesis.
•Write two paragraphs about what happens during photosynthesis.
•Create a rap that explains what happens during photosynthesis.

Side Dishes (Select at Least Two)
•Define respiration, in writing.
•Compare photosynthesis to respiration using a Venn Diagram.
•Write a journal entry from the point of view of a green plant.
•With a partner, create and perform a skit that shows the
differences between photosynthesis and respiration.

Dessert (Optional)
•Create a test to assess the teacher’s knowledge of photosynthesis.



                                                                      65
Knowledge        Comprehension    Application




  Analysis        Synthesis        Evaluation




Comprehension    Application or   Knowledge or
 or Evaluation
                  Evaluation        Analysis
Knowledge                         Comprehension                   Application
list, define, tell, describe,     summarize, describe,            apply, demonstrate, calculate,
identify, show, label, collect,   interpret, contrast, predict,   complete, illustrate, show,
                                  associate, distinguish,         solve, examine, modify, relate,
examine, quote, name,
                                                                  change, classify, experiment,
who, when, where                  estimate, discuss, extend


Analysis                          Synthesis                       Evaluation
analyze, separate, order,         combine, integrate, modify,     assess, decide, rank,
explain, connect, classify,       rearrange, substitute, plan,    grade, test, measure,
arrange, divide, compare,         create, design, invent, what    recommend, convince,
select, explain, infer            if?, compose, formulate,        select, judge, explain,
                                  prepare, generalize, rewrite    discriminate, support,
                                                                  conclude, compare

Comprehension                     Application or                  Knowledge or
or Evaluation                     Evaluation                      Analysis
          THINK-TAC-TOE
            Book Report
Draw a picture of    Perform a play     Write a song
    the main         that shows the    about one of the
   character.        conclusion of a    main events.
                          story.
 Write a poem        Make a poster     Dress up as your
about two main       that shows the favorite character
 events in the      order of events in  and perform a
     story.             the story.      speech telling
                                         who you are.
 Create a Venn         Write two          Write two
     diagram          paragraphs         paragraphs
 comparing and       about the main    about the setting.
 contrasting the       character.
 introduction to
   the closing.

                                                            68
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about
                    ________________
                  Write as much as you can.


         Description of
        Description the        Steps in Developing It
         Strategy




      Useful For                      Place to Use It in the
                                      Curriculum




                                         Tomlinson - 02
Cubing Activities
              What is Cubing
• Cubing is an instructional strategy that asks
  students to consider a concept from a variety
  of different perspectives.
• The cubes are six-sided figures that have a
  different activity on each side of the cube.
• A student rolls the cube and does the activity
  that comes up.
Cubing
 1.   Describe It
      Look at the subject closely (perhaps with your senses in mind).
 2.   Compare It
      What is it similar to? What is it different from?
 3.   Associate It
      What does it make you think of? What comes to your mind
      when you think of it? Perhaps people? Places? Things?
      Feelings? Let your mind go and see what feelings you have for
      the subject.
 4.   Analyze It
      Tell how it is made. If you can‟t really know, use your
      imagination.
 5.   Apply It
      Tell what you can do with it. How can it be used?
 6.   Argue for It or Against It
      Take a stand. Use any kind of reasoning you want—logical, silly,
      anywhere in between.
Example
Creating a Cubing Exercise                                                              Compare one of the
                                                                                        story characters to
                                                                                        yourself. How are
 •   Start by deciding which part of your unit lends itself                             you alike and how
     to optional activities. Decide which concepts in this                              are you different?
                                                                 •   Third Step:
     unit can you create a cube for. Is it possible for you
     to make 3 cubes for 3 different interests, levels, or            – Always remember to have an easy problem on
     topics?                                                                each cube and a hard one regardless the levels.
 •   First Step: (use one of the cubes)                               – Color code the cubes for easy identification and
       – Write 6 questions that ask for information on                      also if students change cubes for questions.
            the selected unit.                                        – Decide on the rules: Will the students be asked to
       – Use your 6 levels of Bloom, intelligence levels,                   do all 6 sides? Roll and do any 4 sides? Do any
            or any of the cubing statements to design                       two questions on each of the 3 cubes?
            questions.
       – Make questions that use these levels that
            probe the specifics of your unit.                         Places to get questions:
       – Keep one question opinion based-no right or                     Old quizzes, worksheets,
            wrong.
 •   Second Step: (use other cubes)                                      textbook-study problems,
       – Use the first cube as your “average” cube,                      students generated.
            create 2 more using one as a lower level and
            one as a higher level.
       – Remember all cubes need to cover the same
            type of questions, just geared to the level,
            don’t water down or make too busy!
       – Label your cubes so you know which level of
            readiness you are addressing.
       – Hand your partner the cubes and ask if they
            can tell high, medium, or low. If they can’t tell,
            adjust slightly.
    Ideas for Kinesthetic Cube

•   Arrange _________into a 3-D collage to show_________
•   Make a body sculpture to show__________________
•   Create a dance to show_______________________
•   Do a mime to help us understand_________________
•   Present an interior monologue with dramatic movement
    that________________________
•   Build/construct a representation of________________
•   Make a living mobile that shows and balances the
    elements of __________________
•   Create authentic sound effects to accompany a reading of
    ________________
•   Show the principle of _____________with a rhythm
    pattern you create. Explain to us how that works.
    Ideas for Cubing in Math…
•   Describe        how you would solve_____________
•   Analyze         how this problem helps us use
      mathematical thinking and problem solving.
•   Compare         this problem to one on p._____
•   Contrast        it too.
•   Demonstrate how a professional (or just a regular
      person) could apply this kind of problem to their work
      or life.
•   Change          one or more numbers (elements, signs) in
      the problem. Give a rule for what that change does.
•   Create          an interesting and challenging word
      problem from the number problem. (Show us how to
      solve it too)
•   Diagram or Illustrate the solution to the problem.
      Interpret the visual so we understand.
                              Cubing Fractions

Each student at a table rolls two dice a designated number of times. The 1st dice/cube
 tells students what to do with a fraction.

          Order/compare all the fractions from the smallest number to the largest.

          Add 2 rolled fractions together.

          Subtract 2 rolled fractions.

          Divide 2 rolled fractions.

          Multiply 2 rolled fractions.

          Model 2 rolled fractions using circles or bars of paper.


•The 2nd cube/dice contains the fraction which can vary in complexity based on student
number readiness.



                                  Lynne Beauprey, Illinois
                                              The Cube
First graders have been studying weather. They visit the Review Center at various times
    throughout the week as a way to review what they have learned about weather.

Draw it                                            Associate it
Divide your paper into 4 sections.                 Choose one type of weather.
Label each section with a season and               Create a web with this weather in the
draw what the playground might look like.          Center. Write words in the bubble
                                                   connecting to the center that describe
Compare it                                         how you feel when you see it.
Choose 2 seasons. Use a Venn diagram
to compare them.                                   Describe it
                                                   Work with a partner.
                                                   Draw a card from the jar.
Explain it                                         Describe the weather type on the card
Talk with a partner about your favorite            so your partner can guess.
type of weather.
                                                   Analyze it
                                                   Work with a partner.
Jessica Ramsey/2004                                Read a book about rain.
Adapted slightly from:
http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/departments/eii/Cubing
                                                   Talk about why we need rain.
  Third Grade Unit: Cubing Example
  Adapted by Joy Peters, Nebraska
                               Compare your favorite
                               picture in the story to a
                               similar activity in your life.
                               You may use words and/or
                               pictures.
                                        List words that describe your feelings about
                                        the Mexican as you look at each picture in
                                        the story.
                                                                                 Using a Venn
                                                                                 Diagram, chart your
                                                                                 favorite things and
                       Describe your favorite picture in the                     compare them to the
                       Story Family Pictures. Tell why you                       favorite things you
                       picked that one.                                          found in the story.
Justify why it is
important to meet                                                                Find common areas
people who speak a                                                               that you and the
different language     Analyze the favorite things in the                        story share.
and have a different   story by understanding
culture.               why these might be traditions in
                       the culture. If you were a
                       researcher asked about the
                       important things in the Mexican             Red Cube
                       culture, what would you say?                   Using Family
                                                                      Pictures by Carmen
         Third Grade Unit: Cubing Example
         Adapted by Joy Peters, Nebraska
                                    Compare, using the compare and
                                    contrast graphic organizer and
                                    look at areas of food, shelter,
                                    traditions, family life, and
                                    recreational activities.


                                           Choreograph a dance or mime to
                                           represent the three main ideas that you
                                           learned about the Mexican culture.        Find and critique
                                                                                     another story at the
                                                                                     reading center.
                                                                                     Compare it to Family
                         Describe the Mexican culture using                          Pictures and discuss
                         at least three sentences with three                         what elements you liked
                         describing words in each sentence.                          and did not like of
Pretend that you are a                                                               either story.
child from Mexico.
Tell me about your
day. What would your
chores be? What
would you eat? How        Create your own family album by
would you spend your      drawing at least five special
free time? Tell me        activities your family shares.
why?

                                                                     Orange Cube
                Cubing with Charlotte’s Web
Basic Cube                               Abstract Cube
1.   Draw Charlotte as you think she     1.   Use a graphics program on the computer
                                              and create a character web for Wilbur.
     looks.
                                         2.   Use symbols on a Venn diagram to
2.   Use a Venn diagram and                   compare Wilbur and Charlotte.
     compare Charlotte and Fern.         3.   Draw the farm and label the items, people,
3.   Use a comic strip to tell what           and buildings.
     happened in this chapter.           4.   Use a storyboard to show the progress of
4.   Shut your eyes and describe the          the plot to this point.
     barn. Jot down your ideas.          5.   What is the message that you think the
                                              writer wants people to remember? Draw
5.   Predict what will happen in the
                                              a symbol that illustrates your ideas.
     next chapter using symbols.
                                         6.   When you think of the title, do you agree
6.   In your opinion, why is Charlotte        or disagree that it is a good choice? Why
     a good friend?                           or why not?
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about
                    ________________
                  Write as much as you can.


         Description of
        Description the        Steps in Developing It
         Strategy




      Useful For                      Place to Use It in the
                                      Curriculum




                                         Tomlinson - 02
         ThinkDots


   An Instructional Strategy for
        Differentiation by
Readiness, Interest or Learning Style
       Kay Brimijoin, 1999
                                                          ThinkDOTs
•
•           After a conceptual unit has been presented and students are familiar with the
    ideas and associated skills, “Think DOTS” is an excellent activity for students to
    construct meaning for themselves about the concept they are studying. The instructor
    first defines readiness levels, interests or learning styles in the class, using on-going
    assessment.
•           Each student is given a set of activity cards on a ring, a die, and an activity
    sheet. Each student rolls the die and completes the activity on the card that
    corresponds to the dots thrown on the die. Each student then completes the activity
    on the activity sheet.
•           Materials:
•   1.      8 ½ x 11 inch paper
•   2.      Hole punch
•   3.      Metal or plastic rings
•   4.      Dice
•   5. Scissors
•   6. Markers or dots
•   7. Laminating materials
                                               ThinkDOTs pg. 2
Construction:
1. For each readiness level, six activities should be created.
2. On an 8 ½ x 11 inch page divided into six sections (this can be done easily on
    the computer by creating a 2 x 3 cell table and saving it as a template), the
    activities should be written or typed in each section.
3. On the back of each page, dots corresponding to the dots on the faces of a die
    should be either drawn or affixed (you can use Avery adhesive dots) on each
    of the six sections of the page.
4. The pages should be laminated for durability.
5. Then each page should be cut into the six sections.
6. Use a hole punch to make holes in one corner or in the top of each activity
    card.
7. Use a metal or plastic ring to hold each set of six cards together (you can get
    100 metal rings from Office Suppliers in Roanoke for $9.00)
8. Create an Activity Sheet to correspond to the lesson for easy recording and
    management.
                                      ThinkDOTs pg. 3
Suggestions:
1. Use colored paper and/or colored dots to indicate different
   readiness levels, interests or learning styles.
2. Have students work in pairs.
3. Let students choose which activities – for example: roll the die and
   choose any three; create complex activities and have students
   choose just one to work on over a number of days.
4. After students have worked on activity cards individually, have them
   come together in groups by levels, interest or learning style to
   synthesize
                            ThinkDOTs pg. 4
Application:
• 1. Use “ThinkDOTS” to lead students into
  deeper exploration of a concept.
• 2. Use “ThinkDOTS” for review before
  assessment.
• 3. Use “ThinkDOTS” as an assessment.
                    Think Dots:
                      Grade 2 Math
• What students should know
   –   Count by fives
   –   Count up to sixty
   –   Tell time to the half hour
   –   4 quarters is equal $1.00
   –   3 fives makes fifteen
   –   There is quarter after and a quarter till
   –   Clock is divided into 4 parts and is similar to 4 quarters
       equaling $1.00
• What students should understand
   – Time helps people plan their lives better.
   – Time helps people communicate.
• What students should be able to do
   – Tell time to the quarter hour
                                 Think Dots:
                                  Grade 2 Math
Students will tell and write time to the quarter hour, using
  analog and digital clock.
Think Dots Version 1: Time


                ●                             ●●                            ●●●
  How many fives are in the        If it is 5:15pm, how many      How many minutes are in
       number 60?                    minutes after 5 is it?         quarter after 2:00?




              ●●                              ●●                            ●●●
              ●●                               ●                            ●●●
      A soccer player has                                        Create an interesting word
   practice at 6:00pm. Draw                   ●●                  problem using the times
   what the clock face would       How many minutes are in          4:00pm and 5:15pm.
  look like if soccer practice        quarter till 3:00?
   were an hour and fifteen
             minutes.

                      The Think Dots could be used the following ways:
                      Anchor Activity, Pre-assessment, Review, Post-assessment     Dawn LoCassale
                               Think Dots:
                                  Grade 2 Math
Students will tell and write time to the quarter hour, using
  analog and digital clock.
Think Dots Version 2: Time


               ●                              ●●                            ●●●
   Explain the similarities        It is 4:15pm and dinner         Explain the difference
   between quarter till and        starts at 6:00pm. How           between 5:15 and 5:45.
       quarter after.             many minutes until dinner?




              ●●                              ●●                            ●●●
              ●●                               ●                            ●●●
   It’s 3:15 in Egypt. What                                        Explain the difference
  do you think the people of                  ●●                   between 12:00am and
        Egypt are doing?            Create a word problem                 12:00pm.
                                  using the times 9:00pm and
                                            7:00am.


                      The Think Dots could be used the following ways:
                      Anchor Activity, Pre-assessment, Review, Post-assessment     Dawn LoCassale
“Generic” ThinkDOTS for High School Literature – Concept :
                       Prejudice

Prejudice
• Discuss how prejudice and discrimination are not only harmful to the victim, but also to
    those who practice them.
Scapegoating
• Imagine a group of people that could be scapegoats. List and describe stereotypes of
    this group and the treatments they received because of them.
Articles
• Read the article. What could be reasons for the persecution? How can you justify and
    minds of those responsible?
Photography
• Photographs tell stories. Write a caption for the photo and explain why you chose it.
Genetics
• Certain characteristics are blamed on genetics. Do genetics impact the characteristics of
    your group? Explain the reasoning behind your answer. Use your science knowledge.
Stereotypes
• Your group was persecuted. Identify a group who has been persecuted in more recent
    years. Compare the two and give reasons why.
      “Generic” ThinkDOTS for High School Literature –
                    Concept : Prejudice
Prejudice
• Is it possible to grow to adulthood without harboring some prejudice? Why or why not?
Scapegoating
• What is scapegoating? Explore the word’s etymology and hypothesize about its present
    day meaning. How was your group scapegoated?
Articles
• Read the article. What is genocide? Did the people in your article face genocide? Why?
Photography
• Look at the clothing, hair, setting, body language, and objects to help determine social,
    economic, country of origin and so on. Can you see the emotions in the people? How?
    Do you think they are related?
Genetics
• Do genetics cause brown hair? How? List one way genetics affects your group (in your
    opinion). If genetics don’t affect your group explain why.
Stereotypes
• Identify stereotypes your group faced. Pick a clique in the school and discuss the traits
    of that group. Are they stereotyped?
“Generic” ThinkDOTS for High School Literature – Concept :
                       Prejudice
Prejudice
• Discuss the following statement: “Genocide can never be eliminated because it is
    deeply rooted in human nature.” Do you agree or disagree? Provide evidence from your
    readings for your position.
Scapegoating
• Identify and discuss the scapegoating that took place in your group. Compare the
    scapegoating of your group to that of a present day group.
Articles
• Read the article. If you were the person behind the persecution and were asked why
    you did what you did, what would you say?
Photography
• Compare two photographs taken of similar events. What are the similarities and
    differences? What might be the significance of these similarities and differences?
Genetic
• Did genetics have an impact on the Aryan race? Why? Does it in the group you are
    studying? Why?
Stereotypes
• Name a group you stereotype and discuss those traits that you stereotype. What were
    the stereotypes your group had?
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about
                    ________________
                  Write as much as you can.


         Description of
        Description the        Steps in Developing It
         Strategy




      Useful For                      Place to Use It in the
                                      Curriculum




                                         Tomlinson - 02
   R      A     F      T




              RAFT



Doug Buehl cited in: Teaching Reading
in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then
    Who BillMeyer & Martin, 1998
• The ROLE of writer, speaker, artist, historian, etc.

• An AUDIENCE of fellow writers, students, citizens,
  characters, etc.

• How to produce a written, spoken, drawn, acted, etc.
  FORMAT

• A deeper level of content within the TOPIC studied.
                                RAFT

RAFT is an acronym that stands for
Role of the writer. What is the writer’s role: reporter, observer,
   eyewitness?

Audience. Who will be reading this writing: the teacher, other students,
   a parent, people in the community, an editor?

Format. What is the best way to present this writing: in a letter, an
   article, a report, a poem?

Topic. Who or what is the subject of this writing: a famous
   mathematician, a prehistoric cave dweller, a reaction to a specific
   event?
RAFT Activities
 Role                  Audience        Format            Topic
 Gingerbread Man       Our Class       Oral Response     I never should
                                                         have listened to
                                                         the fox
 Squanto               Other Native    Pictographs       I can help the
                       Americans                         inept settlers
 Band Member           Other Band      Demo Tape         Here’s how it
                       Members                           goes
 Monet                 Van Gogh        Letter            I wish you’d shed
                                                         more light on the
                                                         subject
 Water Vapor           Water           A Love Letter     You make me so
                                                         hot
 Battery               Loose Wire      A Newspaper       Man has shocking
                                       Article           experience
 Multiplication Fact   Division Fact   Invitation to a   Here’s how we’re
                                       Family Reunion    related
                                 RAFT Activities
      Role                 Audience                      Format                            Topic
   Semicolon           Middle Schoolers                 Diary entry                 I Wish You Really
                                                                                Understood Where I Belong
   N.Y.Times                 public                    Op Ed piece              How our Language Defines
                                                                                      Who We Are
   Huck Finn              Tom Sawyer            Note hidden in a tree knot       A Few Things You Should
                                                                                         Know
   Rain Drop            Future Droplets              Advice Column                 The Beauty of Cycles
     Lung                    Owner                    Owner’s Guide              To Maximize Product Life
  Rain Forest            John Q. Citizen         Paste Up “Ransom” Note             Before It’s Too Late
    Reporter                 Public                      Obituary                      Hitler is Dead
 Martin Luther        TV audience of 2010                 Speech                   The Dream Revisited
     King
Thomas Jefferson      Current Residents of       Full page Newspaper Ad         If I Could Talk to You Now
                           Virginia
   Fractions            Whole Numbers                     Petition             To Be Considered A Part of the
                                                                                         Family
A word problem       Students in your class          Set of Directions            How to Get to Know Me

 Format based on the work of Doug Buehl cited in Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then Who?
                                        Billmeyer and Martin, 1998
                     Grade 6
               Social Studies RAFT
Students will
Know:
         Names and roles of groups in the feudal class system.
Understand:
         Roles in the feudal system were interdependent. A person’s
   role in the feudal system will shape his/her perspective on events.
Be Able to Do:
         Research
         See events through varied perspectives
         Share research & perspectives with peers
                Feudal System Raft
                                          cont’d

      Role              Audience                   Format                  Topic
       King             The Subjects            Proclamation          Read My Lips,
                                                                       New Taxes
      Knight                 Squire           Job Description          Chivalry, Is it
                                                                        for You?
       Lord                   King                  Contract           Let’s Make a
                                                                           Deal
       Serf                 Animals            Lament Poem             My So Called
                                                                           Life
      Monk                  Masses                 Illuminated         Do As I Say,
                                                   Manuscript          Not As I Do
       Lady                  Pages                   Song                ABC, 123

Following the RAFT activity, students will share their research and perspectives in
mixed role groups of approximately five. Groups will have a “discussion agenda”
to guide their conversation.                                                   -Kathryn Seaman
                    Self Portrait RAFT
                     High School Art
Students will
Know:
         Characteristics of self portrait
         Appropriate use of artistic materials
         Principles of Design
         Definition of artistic expression
Understand:
         Each artist has a personal style
         Personal style reflects the individual’s culture, time, and
         personal experiences.
         Use of materials and style are related
Be Able to Do:
         Analyze an artist’s personal style and use of materials
         Create a facsimile of an artist’s personal style and use of
         materials
            Self Portrait RAFT
  Role        Audience        Format           Topic
 Norman         Masses        Illustration   What You See
 Rockwell                                     is What You
                                                  Get
 Van Gogh         Self        Oil Painting    Can I Find
                                              Myself In
                                               Here?
Andy Warhol   Someone you     Photograph     Now you see
              want to know                   Me, Now you
               the true you                     Don’t
  Rueben          Self        Oil Painting   Props Make
                                             the Person
   Goya          School        Charcoal      On the Side,
                                             but Central
                                          Technology Safety R.A.F.T.
     Directions:
• Select one of the following prompts, The “Role” is the character you will become, and from those perspective that you
  will write. The “Audience” is to whom that character will be writing. The “Format” is the form in which the opinion
  will be expressed. The “Topic” is just that -- your topic! “Points of Discussion” are those things that you should be sure
  to include in your project.
• All products must ...1) Include all necessary “Points of Discussion,” 2) Use a combination of words and pictures,
  Communicate the topic clearly and forcefully, and 4) Be of Professional quality - fit for publication for next year‟s class.
      Role             Audience           Format               Topic                       Points of Discussion
Teen magazine’s     Middle school Double-page      “Here‟s what‟s „IN‟ in
                                                                                          Eye wear; ear-wear; long hair;
                      Students     Magazine        Technology-Education
Fashion Editor                                                                          baggy clothes; jewelry; long sleeves
                                     spread               Fashion
   Referee         Middle School   Instructional “Instant Replay Out-takes:              Running: horseplay; injuries;
                   “Tech-thletes”    Playbook Fouls in the Technology Lab”                    anchor activities;
                                                   “Wanted: Students Caught               Your three primary “clean-up”
The Technology       The Public         Wanted      In the Act of Breaking                      in your work area
                                        Posters         Clean-up Laws”
                       Fauquier                      “Undercover in the TMS             Proper handling of hand tools,
   Newspaper                           Expose‟       Tech Lab: What Materials
                    Times Democrat                                                         heavy items, materials;
     Writer                            Cover Story     Talk About at Night”
                        Reader
                                                                                      Drill Press: speed, chuck key;long end of Board
   Scroll Saw                                        “What We Wish Middle Scroll Saw: cut line & fingers; when the blade
      And            Each Other        Comic Strip   School Students Knew     binds; hold-down; upper guide adjustment
   Drill Press                                     About How to Handle Us...” Both; brush; holding work flat on table


 A Computer        A “New”         Power Point                                        All items on “Technology Computer
                                                        “These Are Your Rights!”
 who “works”       Computer on his Presentation                                                  Rules” handout
 in the Tech Lab   1st day at work
                                                                                        Kristina Doubet - University of Virginia - 2003
                              Technology Safety R.A.F.T.
  Circle the ROLE that you plan to pursue. Decide what materials you’ll need (digital
  camera, computer, poster, etc.) Plan your presentation, and clear. It with your teacher
  before you begin working. You may use your notes to help you.

   Directions: As your classmates present their RAFTS, take notes on what
               you learn about lab safety from their projects.

SUBJECT         CLASSMATE                                            NOTES
                PRESENTING




                          KRISTINA DOUBET -- UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA -- 2003
                        RAFT Assignments: Grade 10 English


Know: Voice, Tone, Style

Understand:
•Each writer has a voice.
•Voice is shaped by life experiences            Role           Audience         Format             Topic
   & reflects the writer.
                                           Edgar Allen Poe    10th grade         Letter        Here’s How I
•Voice shapes expression.
                                                                writers                       Found My Voice
•Voice affects communication.              Garrison Keillor   10th grade         E-mail        Here’s How I
                                                                writers                       Found My Voice
•Voice and style are related.
                                           Emily Dickinson        Self        Diary Entry     Looking For My
                                                                                                  Voice

Be Able to Do:                              10th Grader         English      Formal request   Please Help Me
                                                                Teacher                        Find My Voice
•Describe a writer’s voice and style.
                                              Teacher         10th graders     Interior           Finding a
•Mimic a writer’s voice and style.                                            monologue       Balance Between
                                                                                                 Voice and
•Create a piece of writing that reflects                                                        Expectation
   a writer’s voice & style.                  3 Authors        The public        Visual         Here’s What
                                                                             symbols/logos     Represents My
                                                                               annotated           Voice
                                           3 Authors from     One another    Conversation     What Shaped My
                                           different genres                                   Voice and Style
                              Tom Sawyer’s R.A.F.T.
                                                (Page 1)
Overview
This RAFT is designed for use by students when they have finished reading the novel, Tom Sawyer, by Mark
Twain. The RAFT synthesizes the unit’s exploration of characterization and allows students to “step into the
skin” of one of the supporting characters to get a look at the protagonist from his/her perspective. A final
jigsaw activity allows students to view Tom form multiple perspectives in order to reinforce the unit’s essential
understandings (students share their RAFTs in mixed groups and complete a synthesis writing piece in which
they draw conclusions about Tom based on all perspectives aired in the group).

Raft Goals
              Students should KNOW…
              •The definition of characterization
              •The six supporting characters’ relationships with Tom Sawyer
              Students should UNDERSTAND that…
              •Individuals have their own unique perspectives determined by their experiences and
              relationships.
              •In order to gain a true understanding of a person or event, multiple perspectives must be
              considered.
              Students should BE ABLE TO…
              •Assume the voice of a supporting character
              •Characterize Tom Sawyer using the methods discussed in class
              •Draw conclusions synthesizing multiple and varied perspectives
                               Tom Sawyer’s R.A.F.T.
                                              (Page 2)



Differentiation: This RAFT is differentiated according to readiness and interest.
           Readiness:
           •The first three strips should be given to more advanced students, as these three options are
           more conceptual.
                 •The roles and topics represent less accessible points of view and are designed for
                 student who are ready to tackle the novel at a more abstract level and/or
                 •The formats are designed for students who are reading and writing on or above grade
                 level (and are thus able to handle more complex modes of expression).
           •The second three “strips” offer options that are simpler and more straightforward.
                 •The roles and topics represent more accessible views and are designed for students
                 who understand the novel at a more basic level, and/or
                 •The formats are accessible for students who are struggling readers/writers.
            Interest: Each student has three options from which to choose, so he/she can      select a
     “strip” that appeals to them in some way (affinity with a character,        interest/talent in the
     format’s expression, interest in the topic, etc.)
Directions:                          Tom Sawyer’s R.A.F.T.
•Select one of the following prompts. The “Role” refers to the character‟s perspective that you will assume.
The “Audience” refers to whom that character will be addressing his/her opinion; The “Format” refers to the
form in which the opinion will be expressed; The “Topic” is just that - your topic!
•Circle the ROLE that you plan to pursue, and clear it with your teacher before you begin working. Use your
text to help you.

  ROLE          AUDIENCE                FORMAT                                   TOPIC
    Sid          Aunt Polly               Affidavit                 Why Tom should get a lickin’

   Huck              Self             Poem or Song               Who am I without my friend, Tom?

   Aunt            Widow                 Dialogue              Nobody knows the troubles I’ve seen
   Polly           Douglas                                             (because of Tom)!


  Becky              Tom                   Letter                   How I really feel about you…
   Injun             Self               Drawing of              Why I’m going to get even with Tom
    Joe                                  Dream                              Sawyer…
                                                                        and HOW I’ll do it!
   Muff         Townspeople               Speech                      Why I thank goodness for
  Potter                                                                  Tom Sawyer….

                               Authors: Kristina Doubet, Marla Capper, and Christie Reed - 2003
                                      RAFT EXAMPLE
This RAFT is designed to be used by student in a second grade class as they
are learning about endangered and extinct animals in science and natural
resources in social studies. Students have been studying both topics for a
number of days before they do the RAFT. The activity serves as a culmination
to this period of study.
Know:
•Basic needs of plants and animals
•The role of natural resources in lives of people and animals
Understand:
•Our actions affect the balance of life on Earth.
•Animals become endangered or extinct when natural
  resources they need are damaged or limited.
•Natural resources are not unlimited and must be     ROLE            AUDIENCE        FORMAT             TOPIC
  used wisely.
                                                     The Earth       Aliens who      A written set of   What you need
Be Able To:                                                          might want to   rules with         to know and do if
•Identify causes of problems with misuse of                          live on earth   reasons            you want to live
natural resources.
                                                                                                        here
•Propose a useful solution to the problems.
                                                     An endangered   Humans          A poster with      Why I need you
                                                     animal                          an exhibit card    and you can help
                                                                                     to explain it      save me
   Directions: Pick one of these
   rows to help you show                             A natural       Our class       A speech           What people
   what you know and why                             resource                                           need to know
   taking care of natural                                                                               about using us
   resources is important to the                                                                        well and why that
   balance of life in our world.                                                                        matters anyhow
                       AP Statistics RAFT
 Characteristics of Discrete and Continuous Random Variables

Know:
        Definitions of discrete and continuous random variables
        What graphs of discrete and continuous random variables look like
Understand:
        Discrete and continuous random variables have distinct, identifiable
             attributes.
Be Able to Do:
        Look at a graph and identify whether it represents discrete or continuous
             random variables
        Interpret a word problem to determine whether it involves discrete or
             continuous random variables
        Draw a probability histogram of discrete and continuous
            random variables
                         Directions for the RAFT ACTIVITY


Students will pick one of four RAFT groups located in the four corners of the
room, with the understanding that the groups must have equal numbers of
participants.

Students will work with their groups for 30 minutes to develop their RAFT
assignment. During the last 15 minutes of class, students will meet in
groups of 4 that contain a representative of each of the RAFT strips to present
their work and see the other formats (2-3 minutes each).

The teacher will move around the class and may select one example
of each strip for presentation at the beginning of the next day’s
class.
                              The RAFT Activity

      Role              Audience             Format                   Topic


Recruiter for         Discrete          Persuasive           Why it’s worth your
continuous            random            campaign to join     while to become a
random variables      variables         continuous RV        continuous RV
Recruiter for         Continuous        Persuasive           Why it’s worth your
discrete random       random            campaign to join     while to become a
variables             variables         discrete RV          discrete RV
Bounty Hunter         Variable          Wanted posters for Here’s what to look for
                      population        discrete and
                                        continuous
                                        random variables
Designer              AP Stats          A design             Here’s the plan
                      Students          representing
                                        discrete and
                                        continuous
                                        random variables

                  Kathie Emerson, Timberline High School, Boise, ID
                  High School Biology RAFT

Know: (See terms below the RAFT)

Understand:
      Plants and animals have a symbiotic relationship with
          photosynthesis and respiration.
      Photosynthesis and respiration are essential to human life.

Be Able to Do:
      Explain the relationship between photosynthesis in plants
          and respiration in humans
      Explain and connect the equations for photosynthesis and
           respiration
      Explain the nature of human dependence on plants
        ROLE             AUDIENCE FORMAT                                    TOPIC
An animal of            A plant of your     Song             Why I am grateful to you
your choice             choice
Trees & shrubs in the Real Estate           Numbered         Our needs, why you should care,
local park            Developer             List             and what you should do about them

Athlete                 Coach               Letter (with     For better or worse: What plants
                                            sketches, if     have to do with my performance
                                            you’d like)      this year
High school biology     3rd Grader          Annotated        What plants have to do with you
student                                     diagram

Scientist preparing     Financial           Presentation     Plants—and plant substitutes: The
for a Mars mission      backers for the                      unsung heroes of the mission
                        trip
A kid                   Mom                 Conversation The lettuce is turning yellow! Are we
                                                         threatening the balance of nature?!


Important Terms: photosynthesis, respiration, carbon dioxide, sunlight, blue light or green light
(or other colors), sugar, water, mitochondria, chloroplast, stoma (stomata), lactic acid, aerobic
respiration, anaerobic respiration, autotroph, heterotroph, sunny, cloudy, cool, warm, long sunny days,
short days, lungs, light energy, food energy
                          Annette Hanson, Timberline High School, Boise, Idaho
                   RAFT Planning Sheet
   Know
   Understand
   Do
How to Differentiate:
• Tiered? (See Equalizer)
• Profile? (Differentiate Format)
• Interest? (Keep options equivalent in
   learning)
• Other?

    Role               Audience           Format   Topic
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about
                    ________________
                  Write as much as you can.


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                                         Tomlinson - 02
Six Thinking Hats
     Procedures for Thinking Hats
              Analysis
• Explain that the purpose of this activity is to practice
  analyzing a topic as a class using multiple Thinking Hats.
• Present the topic to analyze.
• One by one, go through each Thinking Hat and ask
  students to call out ideas or suggestions for analysis of
  the topic using the specific hat.
• Record student input on the presentation material.
• Provide feedback throughout.
• Lead the class in a discussion of the points made from all
  of the different Thinking Hats.
• Summarize the results of the activity.
  Procedures for Thinking Hats Jigsaw
• Explain that the purpose of this activity is to practice analyzing
  a topic in groups using a specific Thinking Hat.
• Divide students into small groups.
• Provide each group with the handout of the topic to analyze.
• Assign each group a Thinking Hat with which to analyze the
  topic.
• Have students analyze the topic from the perspective of their
  assigned Thinking Hat.
• Have each group present the results of their analysis.
• Provide feedback.
• Summarize the results of the activity.
     Procedures for Changing Hats
• Explain that the purpose of this activity is to practice analyzing a
  topic in groups using multiple Thinking Hats.
• Divide students into small groups.
• Provide each group with the handout of the topic to analyze.
• Assign each group a Thinking Hat with which to analyze the topic.
• Have students analyze the topic from the perspective of their
  assigned Thinking Hat within a specific time frame.
• When time is up, assign each group a new Thinking Hat to analyze
  the topic within a specific time frame. Continue this until all of the
  groups have analyzed the topic with all of the Thinking Hats.
• Have a few groups present their analysis.
• Provide feedback throughout.
• Summarize the results of the activity.
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about
                    ________________
                  Write as much as you can.


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                                         Tomlinson - 02
Structured Academic Controvery
          SAC promotes
–Consensus-building

–Expansion of content knowledge

–Expansion of students' world views

–Motivation (Mead & Scharmann)
         SAC promotes…
–Sense of learning community

–Respect for multiple perspectives

–Acceptance that an individual can use
 multiple ways of knowing the world
            SAC Does NOT
• Present right or wrong
• Ask students personal beliefs
• Marginalize unique views
• Accept all types of knowledge as
  equivalent
• Allow Debate
   1. Assign each pair of students the
             following tasks:
• a.) Learning their position and its supporting
  arguments and information
• b.) Researching all information relevant to their
  position
• c.) Giving the opposing pair any information found
  supporting the opposing position
• d.) Preparing a persuasive presentation to be given
  to the other pair
• e.) Preparing a series of persuasive arguments to be
  used in the discussion with the opposing
• pair
    2. Have each pair PRESENT ITS
        POSITION to the other.
• Presentations should involve more
• than one medium and persuasively advocate the
  best case for the position. There is no arguing
• during this time. Students should listen carefully to
  the opposing position. Students are told:
• As a pair, present your position forcefully and
  persuasively. Listen carefully and learn the
• opposing position. Take notes, and clarify anything
  that you do not understand.
 3. Have students openly DISCUSS THE ISSUE by freely
       exchanging their information and ideas.
• For higher-level reasoning and critical thinking to occur, it is
  necessary to prove and push each other’s statements, clarify
  rationales, and show why their position is a rationale one.
• Students refute the claims being made by the opposing pair
  and rebut the attacks on their own position.
• Students are to follow the specific rules for constructive
  controversy.
• Students should also take careful notes on and carefully study
  the opposing position. Sometimes a “time out” period needs
  to be provided so that pairs can caucus and prepare new
  arguments. Teachers encourage more spirited arguing, take
  sides when a pair is in trouble, play devils’ advocate, ask one
  group to observe another group engaging in a spirited
  argument, and generally stir up the discussions.
 4. Have the pairs REVERSE PERSPECTIVES
     AND POSITIONS by presenting the
     opposing position as sincerely and
           forcefully as they can.
• It helps to have the pairs change chairs. They
  can use their own notes, but may not see the
  materials developed by the opposing pair.
  5. Have the group members drop their
advocacy positions and REACH A DECISION
             BY CONSENSUS.
• This process will likely require looking at the
  nuances of both sides and seeking a moderate
  position between the two extreme positions.
  The group should prepare a consensus paper,
  project, or other statement that expresses the
  collective understanding and opinions of all
  group members.
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about
                    ________________
                  Write as much as you can.


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                                      Curriculum




                                         Tomlinson - 02
The Profiler
        What is “The Profiler”?
• A way to assess and provide activities geared
  toward the different intelligence
  types/learning styles represented in the
  classroom
• A means of providing students with
  connections to the working world, as well as
  with roles and/or audiences for their work
• A tool useful for introducing new material or
  synthesizing previously learned material
      How to Create a “Profiler”
            Assignment
• The teacher
  – selects the knowledge, skills, and essential
    understandings that s/he would like students to
    either 1) begin to explore, or 2) synthesize and
    demonstrate mastery of.
  – through which students could demonstrate this
    learning.
  – selects jobs/occupations that are associated with
    the different learning styles
 How to Create a “Profiler” Assignment
• Examples of intelligence preferences and
  associated jobs/occupations
  –   Visual-Spatial – Artist, Cartoonist, Magazine layout editor
  –   Logical-Mathematical – Architect, Engineer, Mathematician
  –   Interpersonal – Counselor, Tour Guide, Teacher
  –   Musical/Rhythmic – Songwriter, Performing Artist
  –   Verbal-Linguistic – Writer, Commentator, Announcer
  –   Bodily-Kinesthetic – Actor, Builder
  –   Intrapersonal – Poet, Songwriter
  –   Naturalistic – Forest Ranger, Botanist
How to Create a “Profiler” Assignment
•   Remember that…
•    … many intelligence preferences overlap
•   with one another, and
•    …most children have more than one
•   preference;…
•   …therefore, it is not necessary to use them all!
    Simply select those that are most conducive to
    the demonstration of your learning goals.
The Maturation of Tom Sawyer
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark
Twain
This culminating product assignment is designed to
examine the character of Tom Sawyer in terms of his
maturation in the novel. Below are multiple
approaches to this examination. Students may
choose the entry point that is most appealing to
them; the teacher will then determine the level that is
best suited for each student. Actual student handouts
of assignment descriptions/instructions are attached.
Learning      Level 1 – On or                    Level 2 – On or above
Preference:   below grade level                  grade level

Artist        The Writing’s on the Wall          Life is Like a Box of Chocolates
              You ARE Tom Sawyer. You will       Illustrate Tom’s growth or maturation through the
              create a “Growth Mural” of         use of an
              yourself to give to Becky in       extended metaphor or simile that compares
              order to show her how much         Tom’s growth
              you’ve matured.                    process to _______________.


Announcer:    Hannibal on a Wire                 Tommy Goes to Hollywood
              Create an audio recording of the   Create and produce an NPR (National Public
              scene that you                     Radio) segment in which the hosts of the show
              feel was the most important to     interview Steven Spielberg about his upcoming
              Tom’s growth.                      film adaptation of The Adventures of Tom
                                                 Sawyer.

Writer:       Growth Report Card                 Investigative Report
              You are a psychologist hired by    Develop a Private investigator’s Report about
              Aunt Polly to                      Tom’s emotional
              examine Tom’s behavior and         and mental growth and well-being.
              assess his growth.

Actor:        Lights, Camera, Action!            Live with Dr. Phil!
              Choose an important scene that     Act out an episode of the Dr. Phil show in which
              demonstrates Tom’s growth of       characters from the book will discuss whether or
              character, and act it out using    not they believe that Tom has grown or changed
              props, costumes, etc.              and how.
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about
                    ________________
                  Write as much as you can.


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                                         Tomlinson - 02
                         TRI-MIND

Creative Intelligence                           Practical Intelligence




                        Analytic Intelligence
       Sternberg’s Three Intelligences

                      Creative           Analytical


                               Practical



•We all have some of each of these intelligences, but are usually stronger
in one or two areas than in others.
•We should strive to develop as fully each of these intelligences in
students…
• …but also recognize where students’ strengths lie and teach through
those intelligences as often as possible, particularly when introducing new
ideas.
     Three Minds are Better than
               One…
• TriMind is a planning tool to use in order to
  differentiate for different thinking styles.
• Robert Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of
  Intelligence (see included slides) posits that
  people have strengths in one or more types of
  intelligences: creative, analytical, or practical.
  Successful intelligence is the ability to
  recognize which strengths we possess, and to
  steer toward careers/activities which require
  these strengths.
       For ANALYTICAL Thinkers
Analytical = Linear – Schoolhouse Smart -- Sequential


•Show the parts of _____________ and how
     they work.
•Explain why _____________ works the way
     it does.
•Diagram how _________ affects ________.
•Identify the key parts of _______________.
•Present a step-by-step approach to _____.
       For PRACTICAL Thinkers
Practical = Street Smart – Contextual – Focus on Use

•Demonstrate how someone uses ________ in
their life or work.
•Show how we could apply ______ to solve this
real life problem: _________________.
•Based on your own experience, explain how
_________________ can be used.
•Here’s a problem at school, ________.
•Using your knowledge of __________,
develop a plan to address the problem
          For CREATIVE Thinkers
      Creative = Innovator – Outside the Box –
               “What if?” – Improver

•Find a new way to show _____________.
•Use unusual materials to explain ___________.
•Use humor to show ____________________.
•Explain (show) a new and better way to ______.
•Make connections between _____ and _____ to
help us understand ____________.
•Become a _____________ and use your “new”
perspective to help us think about __________.
                               I Like…
   • Designing new things          • Inventing (new recipes,
   • Coming up with ideas            words, games)
   • Using my imagination          • Supposing that things were
   • Playing make-believe and        different
     pretend games                 • Thinking about what would
   • Thinking of alternative         have happened if certain
     solutions                       aspects of the world were
                                     different
   • Noticing things people
     usually tend to ignore        • Composing (new songs,
                                     melodies)
   • Thinking in pictures and
     images                        • Acting and role playing



Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2000
                                   CREATIVE
                               I Like…
 • Taking things apart and fixing   • Advising my friends on their
   them                               problems
 • Learning through hands on        • Convincing someone to do
   activities                         something
 • Making and maintaining friends   • Learning by interacting with
                                      others
 • Understanding and respecting
   others                           • Applying my knowledge
 • Putting into practice things I   • Working and being with others
   learned                          • Adapting to new situations
 • Resolving conflicts


                                    PRACTICAL

Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2000
                           I Like…
                                 • Appealing to logic
• Analyzing characters
  when I’m reading or            • Judging my & others’
                                   behavior
  listening to a story
                                 • Explaining difficult problems
• Comparing & contrasting          to others
  points of view                 • Solving logical problems
• Criticizing my own &           • Making inferences & deriving
  others’ work                     conclusions
• Thinking clearly &             • Sorting & classifying
  analytically                   • Thinking about things
• Evaluating my & others’
  points of view
                                   ANALYTICAL
  Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2000
      Tips for Teaching Triarchically
• Some of the time, teach analytically, helping students learn to
  analyze, evaluate, compare and contrast, critique, and judge.
• Some of the time, teach creatively, helping students learn to
  create, invent, imagine, discover, explore, and suppose.
• Some of the time, teach practically, helping students learn to
  apply, use, utilize, contextualize, implement, and put into
  practice.
• Some of the time, enable all students to capitalize on their
  strengths. Most of the time, enable all students to correct or
  compensate for their weaknesses.
• Make sure your assessments match your teaching, calling upon
  analytical, creative, and practical as well as memory skills.
• Value the diverse patterns of abilities in all students.
                      TRI-MIND Template
             Learning Goals for Activities:




Creative Assignment               Topic          Practical Assignment




                           Analytic Assignment
                        TRI-MIND Template




                            Understanding
Creative Task:                                   Practical Task:
                               Number
Write and/or recite a                            Find as many things as
riddle poem about 5                              you can at school and at
that helps us                                    home that have
understand the                                   something to do with 5.
number in many,                                  Share what you find with
unusual, and
                           Analytic Task:        us so we can see and
                           Make a number chart   understand what you
interesting ways.
                           that shows all ways   did.
                           you can think of to
                           show 5.
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about
                    ________________
                  Write as much as you can.


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                                         Tomlinson - 02
          Tiered Assignments

In a heterogeneous classroom, a teacher uses
varied levels of activities to ensure that
students explore ideas at a level that builds on
their prior knowledge and prompts continued
growth. Student groups use varied
approaches to exploration of essential ideas.
              Tiered Assignments

                  Rationale for Use
• Blends assessment and instruction
• Allows students to begin learning where they are
• Allows students to work with appropriately challenging
  tasks
• Allows for reinforcement or extension of concepts and
  principles based on student readiness
• Allows modification of working conditions based on
  learning style
• Avoids work that is anxiety-production (too hard) or
  boredom-producing (too easy)
• Promotes success and is therefore motivating
              Tiered Assignments

                   Guidelines for Use
•   Be sure the task is focused on a key concept or
    generalization essential to the study
•   Use a variety of resource materials at differing
    levels of complexity and associated with different
    learning modes
•   Adjust the task by complexity, abstractness,
    number of steps, concreteness, and
    independence to ensure appropriate challenge
•   Be certain there are clear criteria for quality and
    success
               What Zone Am I In?

            Too Easy                  On Target                   Too Hard
•   I get it right away…   •   I know some things…   •   I don’t know where to
                                                         start…
•   I already know how… •      I have to think…
                           •   I have to work…       •   I can’t figure it out…
•   This is a cinch…
                                                     •   I’m spinning my wheels…
•   I’m sure to make an A… •   I have to persist…
                           •   I hit some walls…     •   I’m missing key skills…
•   I’m coasting…
                           •   I’m on my toes…       •   I feel frustrated…
•   I feel relaxed…
                           •   I have to re-group…   •   I feel angry
•   I’m bored…
                           •   I feel challenged…    •   This makes no sense…
•   No big effort
    necessary…             •   Effort leads to       •   Effort doesn’t pay off…
                               success…




       THIS is the place to be… THIS is the achievement zone…
Tiering a Lesson

 What range of learning needs   What should students know,      What’s your “starting point
 are you likely to address?     understand, and be able to do   lesson?” How will you hook
                                as a result of the lesson?      the students?

                                Know:

                                Understand:

                                Be Able to Do:
 What’s your first cloned       What’s your second cloned       What’s your third cloned
 version?                       version of this activity?       version of this activity?
             Tiered Assignments
• In a differentiated classroom, a teacher uses varied levels of
  tasks to ensure that students explore ideas and use skills at a
  level that builds on their prior knowledge and prompts
  continued growth.

• While students work at varied degrees of difficulty on their
  tasks, they all explore the essential ideas and work at high
  levels of thought.

• Assessment-based tiering allows students to work in their
  “Zones of Proximal Development” or in a state of “moderate
  challenge.”
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about
                    ________________
                  Write as much as you can.


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                                         Tomlinson - 02
Student Learning Contracts


        An   agreement
          between
        teacher and
        student(s).
Learning Contracts Are:
            Written agreements
            between teachers &
            students that outline:
            • what students will
              learn
            • how they will learn it
            • the time period for
              the learning
              experience
            • how they will be
              evaluated
              CONTRACTS---
•   help students learn to make decisions about their learning
•   help students learn to manage their time
•   may involve the student in curriculum planning
•   can be used to support students with learning difficulties
•   can be used to facilitate learning for other students




• help the teacher manage group work, individual projects or
  investigations, learning centers or curriculum compacting
    Types of Contracts
•   Structured
•   Partially Structured
•   Mutually Structured
•   Unstructured
      Contract Components
• OUTCOMES

• RESOURCES

• LEARNING
  ALTERNATIVES

• REPORTING
  ALTERNATIVES &
  ASSESSMENT
             Components of Contracts:
1. Outcome(s) - specify what is to be accomplished, the conditions
   under which learning will be demonstrated, and the level of
   proficiency required to meet the outcome.
2. Resources - including print, media, and human
3. Learning Alternatives - include reading, writing, viewing, creating,
   interviewing, and other activities the student experiences to
   accomplish the outcome.
4. Reporting Alternatives and Assessment - should provide evidence
   as to whether the outcomes have been accomplished. Conferences,
   tests, projects, presentations, real world products, portfolios of
   work are examples of reporting alternatives.
    Contract Do’s & Don’ts
DO:
• explain the role & function of contracts
• start small (1 or 2 day) contracts
• negotiate contracts with students whenever possib
• help set realistic deadlines
• renegotiate the contract if it isn’t working
• solicit student feedback on process
• gradually involve students in contract developmen
           Contract Do’s & Don’ts

Don’t:
• expect all students to use contracts
  effectively at the beginning
• expect all students to like contracts.
• assume contracts can take the place
  of regular instruction
• use contracts without a good management
  system
 Some Thoughts about Learning Contracts:

Contracts provide efficient means of prescribing for students, based on
assessed needs, strengths, or interests.

Contracts are usually negotiated between the teacher and the student and
sometimes the parent.

Both the teacher and the student(s) share responsibility for the
completion of the terms of the contract.

A contract may require a student to use certain resources or to contact other
people in the school or in the community.

A contract may have certain prerequisites as conditions that the
student has to meet before beginning a study or investigation.
      Designing a Differentiated Learning
      Contract the following
A Learning Contract has
components
1. A Skills Component
       Focus is on skills-based tasks
       Assignments are based on pre-assessment of students’ readiness
       Students work at their own level and pace
2. A content component
       Focus is on applying, extending, or enriching key content (ideas, understandings)
       Requires sense making and production
       Assignment is based on readiness or interest
3. A Time Line
       Teacher sets completion date and check-in requirements
       Students select order of work (except for required meetings and homework)
4. The Agreement
       The teacher agrees to let students have freedom to plan their time
       Students agree to use the time responsibly
       Guidelines for working are spelled out
       Consequences for ineffective use of freedom are delineated
       Signatures of the teacher, student and parent (if appropriate) are placed on the agreement
 Differentiating Instruction: Facilitator’s Guide, ASCD, 1997
                 Name_________________
                     Poetry Contract
Creating a Rhyming Wheel       Use Your Rhyming Wheel              Write an Acrostic Poem

Use your spelling lists as a   To write a poem that sounds         Be sure it includes alliteration
way to get started             like Shel Silverstein might
                               have written it
Write                          Computer Art                        Write About You

A cinquain (check that you     Use kid pix or other clip art to    Use good descriptive words in
have the right pattern)        illustrate a simile, metaphor, or   a poem that helps us know
                               analogy on our class list, or       and understand something
                               ones you create                     important about you
Interpret                      Research a Famous Person            Illustrate a Poem
                                                                   Find a poem we’ve read that
“How to Eat a Poem”            Take notes, Write a clerihew        you like, illustrate ii to help
                               that uses what you learned          show its meaning.
Student choice #1              Student choice #2                   Student choice #3
___________________            ___________________                 ___________________
___________________            ___________________                 ___________________
                  Name_________________
                      Poetry Contract
Creating a Rhyming Wheel     Use Your Rhyming Wheel             Write an Acrostic Poem

Use your vocabulary lists    To write a poem that includes      Be sure it includes alliteration,
as a way to get started      humor that would make Shel         onomatopoeia, and allusion
                             Silverstein smile
Write                        Computer Art                       Write About You

A diamante (check that you   Use kid pix or other clip art to   Use good figurative language
have the right pattern)      illustrate a simile, metaphor, &   in a poem that helps us know
                             analogy for one idea or image.     and understand something
                                                                important about you
Interpret                    Research a Famous                  Illustrate a Poem
                             Person                             Find a poem we’ve read
“Unfolding Bud”                                                 that you like. Illustrate it to
                             Take notes, Write a bio-poem       help reveal its meaning.
                             that uses what you learned
Student choice #1            Student choice #2                  Student choice #3
___________________          ___________________                ___________________
___________________          ___________________                ___________________
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about
                    ________________
                  Write as much as you can.


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                                         Tomlinson - 02
EXIT CARDS
                EXIT CARDS
Exit Cards (AKA “Tickets To Leave”) are used to gather
information on student readiness levels, interests, and/or learning
profiles.

The teacher hands out index cards to students at the end of an
instructional sequence or class period. The teacher asks the
students to respond to a pre-determined prompt on their index
cards and then turn them in as they leave the classroom or
transition to another subject.

The teacher reviews the student responses and separates the cards
into instructional groups based on preset criteria.
 EXIT CARD GROUPINGS
                           Group 2


    Group 1               Students with
                       some understanding
                        of concept or skill
 Students who are
 struggling with the
     concept or
        skill
                                      Group 3


                                      Students who
                                     understand the
                                     concept or skill

Readiness Groups
Examples of Exit Cards
           Let’s take a look at
           some examples---
        EXIT CARDS
Today you began to
learn about decimal
fractions
• List three things
  you learned
• Write at least one
  question you have
  about this topic
         EXIT CARDS
Today you began to
learn about hyperbole.
• List three things you
  learned.
• Write at least one
  question you have
  about this topic.
EXIT CARDS
     We have been learning about The
    Greenhouse Effect. Explain or
    depict your understanding of this
    important environmental issue.

    What questions do you have about
    this topic?
EXIT CARDS
    We have begun a study
    of author’s craft.

    List and identify three
    examples of figurative
    language used in the
    novel Morning Girl by
    Michael Dorris.
           EXIT CARDS
On your Exit Card---

Explain the difference
between prime and
composite numbers.
You may wish to give
some examples of each
as part of your
explanation.
        EXIT CARDS
On your exit card---
Explain the difference
between simile and
metaphor. Give some
examples of each as
part of your
explanation.
EXIT CARDS - Learning Profile
             We used the following
             learning strategies in this
             lesson:
                      3 minute pause
                      T-P-S
                      Visualizing

             What learning strategy or
             strategies seemed to work best
             for you?
      3-2-1 Summarizer
After reading over my rough draft---
3 revisions I can make to improve
 my draft.
2 resources I can use to help improve
 my draft.
1 thing I really like about my first
 draft.
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about
                    ________________
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                                         Tomlinson - 02
These ideas square with my
beliefs:
                                      Three
                                  points I want
                                 to remember:


 These are the ideas
that are going around                     Some of the ideas
      in my head:                    I am leaving here with today
                                                are…..




   This made me wiggle in my seat:
SIMULATION
         Do as I Do

Modeling Differentiation through
  Professional Development
                  Agenda
• Introduction
• Top ten misunderstandings about
  differentiation
• Model differentiated staff development
  activity (by interest)
  Steps in a Differentiated Lesson
Identification of Common Learning Goals
Pre-Assessment
Differentiated Activity
Whole-Group Discussion
Post-Assessment
Further Instruction
Differentiate Staff Development
        Experiences By…
       Readiness
    Interest/Choice
    Learning Profile
  10 Common Misunderstandings
       about Differentiation
• Differentiation is a set of strategies.
  – DI is an entire teaching philosophy grounded in
    knowing students and responding to their needs.
• Differentiation is group work.
  – Differentiation employs thoughtful, purposeful
    flexible grouping. Sometimes students work alone,
    sometimes in pairs, sometimes as a whole class,
    and sometimes in small groups– depending upon
    demonstrated student need
  10 Common Misunderstandings
• “I already differentiate.”
  – While many of us may use a strategy associated
    with differentiation or may differentiate
    reactively, few have fully, proactively
    differentiated classrooms– these classrooms
    develop and grow over time in response to student
    need.
• Differentiated lessons have to be creative,
  “cute,” and fun.
  – While engaging students is an important part of
    differentiation, it is more important that the
    lesson be grounded rich curriculum.
  10 Common Misunderstandings
       about Differentiation
• Differentiation is just the next educational
  fad.
  – Because differentiation is a philosophy of meeting
    a broad range of students’ needs, only when
    students cease being different will the need for
    differentiation disappear.
• Providing choice= differentiation.
  – Different activities have to be held together by
    clear learning goals.
  10 Common Misunderstandings
       about Differentiation
• Differentiation isn’t fair.
   – Fair does not always mean “the same.” In order
     for students to reach the same goals, they may
     need to take different paths to get there.
• Differentiation means “dumbing down” the
  curriculum for less advanced learners.
   – Differentiation means providing appropriate
     scaffolding to help all learners reach common
     learning goals.
  10 Common Misunderstandings
       about Differentiation
• Differentiation only works when kids are
  well-behaved.
  – Creating a responsive classroom can be a great
    way to improve student behavior, as students’
    needs are being met.
• Preparing a differentiated lesson takes a huge
  amount of time.
  – Creating any high-quality lesson takes time. As we
    get our heads wrapped around the process, we
    become more efficient and develop storehouses of
    differentiated lessons to adapt.
           Goals for the Lesson
• KNOW:
  – Strategies for differentiation (TriMind, Cubing,
    etc.)
  – Differentiation is NOT simply a set of strategies
• UNDERSTAND:
  – Differentiation is a teacher’s proactive response to
    individual student needs.
• DO:
  – Analyze teaching situations and consider a variety
    of appropriate teaching strategies for those
    situations
            Strategies Jigsaw
You will choose one of the following strategies
  on which to become an expert:
• Anchor Activities
• Choice Menus/Think Tac Toe
• Cubing/Think Dots
• Rafts
• Six Thinking Hats
• Structured Academic Controversy
• The Profiler
• The Tri-Minder
          Today’s Strategies Jigsaw
• Anchor Activities: a storehouse of activities that you create
  that students work on when they’ve completed other work. A great
  strategy for dealing with “ragged time.” Can be completed independently,
  in pairs, or in groups

• Choice Menus: a type of learning contract that provides a
  “menu” of activities– some that all students must do, and some that allow
  students choices. Great for providing students with a sense of control over
  their own learning.

• Six Thinking Hats: an approach that encourages students to
  think about the various ways they think about ideas– through judgment,
  optimism, metacognition, objectivity, creativity, or emotions. Teaches
  students about various ways of thinking and encourages them to switch
  between modes. Encourages students to be aware of and flexible with
  various modes of thinking.
           Today’s Strategies Jigsaw
• Structured Academic Controversy:                            A strategy, based
   on the principles of information gathering, synthesis, and debate, that
   encourages students to consider all sides of an issue before making a
   decision. GREAT for gifted students.

• Cubing/Think Dots:                Cubing is an instructional strategy that
   asks students to consider a concept from a variety of different
   perspectives.

• Rafts: …is a creative, fun strategy that encourages writing across the
   curriculum. Great for all subjects, but ideal for English.
    – a way to encourage students to assume a role, consider their
       audience, while examining a topic from their chosen perspective, and
       writing in a particular format

• The Profiler
          Today’s Strategies Jigsaw
• The Profiler: A way to assess and provide activities geared toward
  the different intelligence types/learning styles represented in the
  classroom. A means of providing students with connections to the working
  world, as well as with roles and/or audiences for their work.

• The Tri-Minder: The idea behind TriMind is that you provide
  students with assignments, centered around the same learning goals, that
  are designed for their intelligence strengths. This way, students learn the
  material more efficiently and successfully.
                   Jigsaw
• A cooperative learning strategy in which all
  students become experts on a small piece of a
  topic and then teach each other.
         Jigsaw Format

                Home Group



Expert                                    Expert
                    Expert




                 Home Group



             Whole Class Discussion


         Individual Understanding Check
    Strategies Jigsaw Procedures
• Read the materials about your strategy in the
  folder you were provided at your table
• Together with the people at your table,
  discuss what the strategy is, how it works, and
  what you think the pros & cons of the strategy
  are
• Create a sample activity using this strategy to
  take back and share with your home groups
 Jigsaw
Seven Choices
                     At your table…..
1. Learning Centers • Decide who will be responsible
2. Cubing             for working with others and
3. RAFT               reviewing the information in
                      your packet for a particular
4. Think DOTS         strategy at each station group
5. Journal Prompts • Representatives becomes the
6. Exit Cards         expert about the strategy and
7. Learning           returns to the table to share
                      her/his expertise with the
   Contracts          group.
               Jigsaw Graphic Organizer
Strategy       What it is   Why you’d like to What you like   Considerations
                            use it

Anchor

Choice


Six Hats


Cubing

Structured
Academic
Controversy
The Profiler

Tri-Minder

Rafts
                   Where Do I Begin?
                   Start small – but start!
    First Steps:

*
*
* Next Steps

*
*
*      Leaps
                                        Who will help or support
*                                       you?
*                                       ___________________
*                                       ___________________
       Bounds
                                        ___________________
*                                       ___________________
*
                 Exit Card
• Name:
• Which strategy/strategies seemed most
  applicable to your classroom:
• What questions do you still have about these
  strategies?
• What do you think the purpose of an
  instructional strategy is?
Define “differentiation.”
Discovery is a given
Doing is a way of life
All students learn to do better
 than what they perceive to be
 their best
School is the place to be
Learning is the thing to do!
    Adapted from: Tomlinson, C.A. (2003). Deciding to teach them all. Educational Leadership,
                                                                                 61 (2), 7-11.
        Reference and Resources

• Differentiation: Simplified, Realistic, and Effective by
  Bertie Kingore ISBN 0-9716233-3-3

• Differentiated Instruction: A Hotlist of Web Sites
  http://www.frsd.k12.nj.us/rfmslibrarylab/di/different
  iated_instruction.htm

• Differentiated Instruction
  http://tst1160-35.k12.fsu.edu/mainpage.html

				
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