Sensory Perception

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Sensory Perception Powered By Docstoc
					Cooking and eating is all about using our
   Taste
   Sight
   Smell
   Touch
   hearing
   Taste buds in our mouth detect
    ◦   Sweet – tip of tongue
    ◦   Sour – side back of tongue
    ◦   Salty – side front of tongue
    ◦   Bitter – back of tongue
    ◦   Unami (savory): 1st identified in Japan meaning
        delicious, it refers to a meaty, brothy flavor of food
        that is not sweet. Has no identified part of tongue.
   Usually our first experience with a food dish
   Food should look good
   Should have appealing colors
   We can identify foods just by their smells.
   Aromatic refers to a strong smell
   Smell will help determine like or dislike of a
   Texture - how a food feels
   Temperature - hotness or coldness of food
   Something that is thick and chewy will stay in
    the mouth longer
   The way a food tastes, its texture,
    appearance, doneness, and temperature
   We use our sensory perceptions to help
    determine the flavor of food by combining
    taste, aroma and other sensations.
   Taste: the sensations when food comes in
    contact with the taste buds
   Ripening or aging - richest flavor
   Temperature - cold is less flavorful
   Consistency - thicker foods have less intense
   Preparation and cooking - this changes the
    taste most significantly
   Look
    ◦   Opaque: light doesn’t pass through
    ◦   Translucent: some light passes through
    ◦   Transparent: clear
    ◦   By color
   Smell
    ◦ by the name of the food
    ◦ Descriptive words: perfumed, pungent, earthy,
      stale, musty, fresh, strong, intense
   Feel
    ◦ Descriptive words: firm, hard, soft, crisp,
      crunchy, crumbly, warm, cold, watery
   Sound
    ◦ Descriptive words: snap, sizzle, pop,
      crackle,crunch, fizz
   Our perception of taste can be compromised
    ◦ Age - taste perception declines with age as taste
      buds quit working
    ◦ Health - colds interfer with smell and some
      medications interfer with taste
    ◦ Smoking - less sensitive to odors and tastes
   Ingredients added to food to improve the
   Seasonings are used to:
    ◦ Enhance the natural taste
    ◦ Balance tastes
    ◦ Cut the richness
   4 basic seasoning: salt, pepper, sugar & light
    sweeteners, & acids
   High sodium foods: soy sauce, parmesan cheese,
    bacon, olives
   Table salt: refined of other minerals and impurities
   Iodized salt: has iodine added
   Sea salt: not refined so has minerals
   Kosher salt: made without additives
    ◦ Use twice the amount when substituting for table
   Rock salt: less refined, used in ice cream makers
   Monosodium Glutamate (MSG): comes from
    seaweed and is not actually a salt but used as one-
    -provides the umami taste
   Pepper: a spice that brings out flavor
    ◦ Black - unripe berries available as whole berries, cracked,
      or ground. Grind pepper for a fresher more aromatic taste
    ◦ White - ripe berries that are dried and used in light colored
   Sugar: universally used to enhance flavor
    ◦ Brown sugar is a flavoring agent not a seasoning
    ◦ Liquid sweeteners include corn syrup, honey, maple syrup
   Acids: gives a tart/sour flavor from lemon/ orange juice,
    vinegar, wine and also improves the appearance and texture
   An ingredient that adds a new taste to food
    and alters the natural flavor
   Done using herbs, spices, vinegars,
   Layering: adding flavor on top of other
    flavors to create pleasing combinations
   When flavoring, more is used as compared
    to seasoning where a small amount is used.
   Can be used dried or fresh but both will
    lose flavor as they age
   Certain herbs are associated with certain
    ◦ Italian - oregano, basil
    ◦ Greek - oregano, mint
   Dried herbs should have a pleasant smell.
    Herbs older than 6 mo. Will have no aroma
   Fresh herbs
    ◦ should have intense flavor, good color
    ◦ leaves should be intact and stems firm
    ◦ Store loosely wrapped in a damp paper towel in
      a loosely closed plastic bag
    ◦ Should be cut right before cooking
   For a more intense flavor add herbs at the
    end of cooking
   1 tsp. dried herb = 1 T fresh herb
   From the bark, seed, bud/berries of plants
   Once very costly
   Whole spices last longer than ground spices
   Ground spices last about 6 months.
   Include:
    ◦ Curry powder
    ◦ Chinese 5 spice powder
    ◦ Jamaican jerk seasoning

   Spices and herbs don’t add fat or calories to
   Vegetables: onion, garlic, leeks, green
    onions, mushroom, celery, tomato
   Fruit: lemon, lime, orange
    ◦ Zest: the outer peel of fruit
    ◦ Forms: zest, juice, dried
   Liquids: broth, wine, brandy, liqueurs, stock,
   Oil:any fat that remains liquid at room
   Smoke point: the temperature at which fat
    breaks down and smokes
   Flash point: the temperature at which fat
   Rancid: fat that is spoiled
   Vegetable - odorless, neutral flavor, cholesterol
   Canola - no cholesterol, high monounsaturated fat
   Nut - strong flavor and aroma, heat diminishes the
   Olive - from fruit and labeled by acidity level (low
    acid is preferable)
    ◦ Extra virgin is 1% or less acidity, virgin is 3% or
   Flavored: bread dips, marinades, dressings, sauces
   Once included any item used to flavor foods
    (herb, spice, vinegar), but now includes
    cooked or prepared mixtures used to flavor
    or season foods
   Can be used in preparation or added by the
    individual diner
   Can make from scratch, buy fresh, bottled,
    canned, or jarred
   Can use a little or a lot
◦ Relish: cooked or pickled sauce of vegetables or
◦ Chutney: a relish of fruit, spices, & herbs
◦ Ketchup: American tomato sauce
◦ Mustard: mustard seeds, vinegar, salt & spices
◦ Dijon mustard: named after town in France
◦ Soy sauce: fermented liquid from cooked soy
  beans, wheat, and salt
   Sour liquid made from fermenting wine or
    ◦   Wine vinegar
    ◦   Malt vinegar
    ◦   Distilled vinegar (grain alcohol)
    ◦   Cider vinegar
    ◦   Rice vinegar
    ◦   Flavoered vinegars
   Use of more than 1 flavoring
   3 most common types
    ◦ Mirepoix
    ◦ Sachet d’epices
    ◦ Bouquet garni

Additional Aromatic Ingredients
    ◦ Aromatic fruits and vegetables
    ◦ Aromatic liquids
    ◦ Cured and smoked foods
   Mirpoix is a combination of vegetables with
    5common types:
    ◦ Standard: onion, carrot, celery - used in stock and
    ◦ White - parsnips are used in place of carrots -
      used in white stock/soup
    ◦ Cajun trinity - onion, celery, green pepper
    ◦ Matignon - onion, carrot, celery, ham
    ◦ Battuto - fat, garlic, onion, parsley, carrot, celery
      and sometimes green pepper - used in Italian
1.   Rinse onions, carrots, celery.
2.   Trim all ingredients.
3.   Cut ingredients to correct size.
4.   Add mirepoix at the correct time.
5.   Cook long enough to flavor the dish.
   Sachet d’Epices
    ◦ Mixture of fresh and dried herbs and spices in a
      cheescloth bag
      peppercorns, thyme, parsley
   Bouquet Garni
    ◦ Only fresh herbs and aromatic vegetables tied in
        Herbs: Thyme, parsley, rosemary, citrus peels
        Vegetables: leeks, garlic, scallions

   The cheesecloth bags are simmered in food
    dishes then removed and discarded.
   Condiments: prepared mixtures used to season
    and flavor foods.
    ◦ Something extra
      served on the side
      added by to food by the dinner
   Changes food by:
    ◦ Adding flavor (spicy, sweet, sour, salty, etc.)
    ◦ Add color or texture to look of food
   When purchasing condiments, make sure container
    is intact without leaks, bulges, or dents.
   Before using condiments check for freshness, off
    odors, if container date if past prime, off-taste
   Nuts are the fruit of various trees
   Exception: peanut is part of the root
   Come in shell or shelled
   Come uncooked, roasted, blanched
   Come whole, halved, slice, slivered,
   Tahini: the butter or paste produced from
    sesame seeds
   Examples: almond, cashew, chestnut,
    hazelnut, macadamia, pecan, pine nut,
    peanut, pistachio, walnut
   Part of the plant that can grow into a new
   Comes from herbs, flowers, vegetables
   Used whole: sesame, poppy
   Used as flavoring: mustard seeds, cumin,
    nutmeg, fennel seeds
   Best stored in cool, dry place
   If vacuum packed will last long time
   In shell up to 6 months
   Roasted keep about a month
   Sliced or chopped nuts - not more than 3-4
    weeks unless stored in sealed container in the
   Butters: follow label instructions
1.   Shell nuts or seeds.
2.   Add to a dry, hot saute pan.
3.   Stir constantly.
4.   Toast until aromatic and slightly brown.
5.   Transfer to a cool bowl.

If nuts and seeds are overcooked they can
    become bitter.