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					II. Cereal based fermented sweets and snacks
  1. Jilebi
  2. Gulgule
  3. Seera
  4. Chhuchipatra pitha
  5. Podopitha
  6. Bhaturu
  7. Kulcha
  8. Chitou
  9. Selroti
               Other cereal based fermented foods - Manna, Kurdi, Thuktal, Aska, Anarshe,
     Torani, Aenkadu/Askalu, Aet, Aktori, Baari, Babroo, Bhatooru, Chhangpa, Chhura, Doo,
     Khatta, Khawalag, Mande/Manna, Malpude, Mangjangkori, Marpinni/Marjag, Patande,
     Tchhoso roti, Tchog, Tcung, Thuktal, Tiskori, Sang, Shunali.
1. Jilebi
     Place of origin/usage: South India.
     Nature of food: Cereal based.
     Time of consumption: Festival seasons.
     Usual composition/ingredients: Wheat, sugar and curd.
     Method of preparation of initial batter/raw materials: The batter is prepared using
       refined wheat flour having 40-45% solids mixed with curd (2-3%) which is obtained by
       auto fermentation of milk similar to yoghurt. The batter is allowed to ferment overnight.
     Condition(s) of fermentation: Fermentation at an ambient condition (25-30°C), for 14 -
       16 hours resulting in fermented batter which is thick but free flowing.
     Microorganism(s) involved: L. fermentum, S. lactis, Lactobacillus buchneri S. faecalis
       and Saccharomyces bayanus
     Whether native fermentation or inoculum is added: Curd is used as an inoculum.
     Method of cooking: The batter is filled into a jilebi forming device and by manually
       operating the lever, the batter is extruded as, cylindrical strands of 6-8mm diameter on to
       hot (175-180°C) vegetable oil. During the flow of batter, the hand held forming device
       is moved in such a manner, to form two or three concentric circles (3-8cm diameter) of
       the extended stands. These are deep fat fried till the crust becomes crisp and then the
       product is removed and dipped for 2 min in warm sugar syrup (55-60°Brix) to get jilebi
       having characteristic crisp crust and syrup core.
     Changes in physical and chemical profile: The pH decreases from 4.4 to 3.3 and there is
       a 9% volume increase in the batter. Both amino nitrogen and free sugar decrease during
       fermentation
     Reference(s): Ramakrishnan 1977, Prakash et al., 2004.

2. Gulgule
     Place of origin/usage: Himachal Pradesh.
     Nature of food: Cereal based.
     Time of consumption: Religious and social ceremonies.
     Usual composition/ingredients: Wheat flour and starter material (‘Malera’ – see the
       chapter ‘Prepared Starter for fermented food production’).
    Whether native fermentation or inoculum is added: Inoculum in the form of starter
        ‘Malera’ (previously fermented left over dough) is added.
    Method of cooking: Wheat flour is made into viscous slurry by adding water, sugar and
       ‘Malera’ (starter). This sweetened slurry is made into small oval shape to be deep fried
       in oil until brown.
     Reference(s): Thakur et al., 2004.

3. Seera
    Place of origin/usage: Himachal Pradesh.
    Nature of food: Cereal based.
    Time of consumption: Festival seasons.
    Usual composition/ingredients: Wheat, sugar and ghee.
    Method of preparation of initial batter/raw materials: Wheat grains are soaked in
       water for 2-3 days so as to allow fermentation to occur by natural microflora. After 2-3
       days the grains are ground, steeping is done to allow the starch grains and some proteins
       to settle down and then bran is separated. Starch and proteins are removed and sundried.
    Method of cooking: The dried material is made into slurry by soaking in water, which is
       then poured into hot ghee, sugar is added and cooked.
     Reference(s): Thakur et al., 2004.

4. Chhuchipatra pitha
    Place of origin/usage: Orissa.
    Nature of food: Cereal and pulse based.
    Time of consumption: Festival times as snack.
    Usual composition/ingredients: Par-boiled rice, black gram, coconut, sugar and curd.
    Method of preparation of initial batter/raw materials: Batter is prepared similar to
       Chakuli [See chapter Cereal based (with/without pulses) fermented foods, Item No: 15].
    Whether native fermentation or inoculum is added: Curd is added as an inoculum.
    Method of cooking: The fermented batter is flattened thin over a hot greased pan using a
      spatula. The fillings of grated coconut, curd and sugar are taken in the centre of the
      pancake. It is then folded into a square shape for frying.
    Shelf life of food: Two days and is usually taken without any adjunct due to its sweet taste.
   Reference(s): Roy et al., 2007(b).

5. Podo pitha
   Place of origin/usage: Orissa.
   Nature of food: Cereal and pulse based.
   Time of consumption: Festivals Seasons (Bijoya dashami and Raja festivals).
   Usual composition/ingredients: Par-boiled rice (Oryza sativa L.) and black gram
    (Phaseolus mungo L.), minced coconut, raisins, cashew nuts and sugar.
   Method of preparation of initial batter/raw materials: Batter is prepared similar to
     chakuli. Fermented batter (as done for making chakuli) is mixed with minced coconut,
     raisins, cashew nuts and sugar. The mixture is packed using Shorea robusta C.F.Gaertn.
     (Sal) or banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) leaf.
   Method of cooking: The packets are then covered all round with hot charcoal in an earthen
     oven to bake in low but continuous heat for 5-10 hours. Completion of cooking is checked
     by inserting a sharp object through the centre of the batter mass and observing if the batter
     has stuck to the surface. No adherence of batter to the object indicates completion of
     cooking even at the centre.
   Shelf life of food: It has a shelf life of three days and is usually taken without a side dish.
   Reference(s): Roy et al., 2007(b).

6. Bhaturu
   Other names, if any: Indigenous bread.
   Place of origin/usage: Himachal Pradesh.
   Nature of food: Cereal based.
   Time of consumption: Flat deep-fried, leavened bread product and consumed as a snack.
   Usual composition/ingredients: Wheat and starter material (Khameer/ Malera – see the
     chapter ‘Prepared Starter for fermented food production’).
   Method of preparation of initial batter/raw materials: Wheat flour and water is mixed
     along with starter (Khameer/ Malera) and is made into dough. Then, the dough is
     fermented at 25-30°C for 7-8 hours or overnight.
   Microorganism(s) involved: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Debaromyces hansenii and
     Saccharomyces     fermentati.   Lactobacillus    plantarum,     Lactobacillus   acidophilus,
     Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactococcus lactis.
   Whether native fermentation or inoculum is added: Inoculum in the form of starter
      ‘Khameer/ Malera’ is added.
   Method of cooking: The fermented dough is spread into a small chapatti (about 1cm thick)
      and kept for 15-20 min. afterwards; the chapatti is deep fried in the vegetable oil
    Reference(s): Tamang, 1998, Thakur et al., 2004; Kanwar et al., 2007.

7. Kulcha
    Place of origin/usage: Northern India.
    Nature of food: Cereal based.
    Time of consumption: Snack.
    Usual composition/ingredients: Wheat and the starter (Khameer/Malera – see the chapter
      ‘Prepared Starter for fermented food production’).
    Method of preparation of initial batter/raw materials: It is prepared similar to Bhaturu.
      Wheat flour and water is mixed along with starter (Khameer/ Malera) and is made into
      dough. Then, the dough is fermented at 25-30°C for 7-8 hours or overnight.
    Microorganism(s) involved:         Saccharomyces     sp.,   Candida sp., Hansenula       sp.,
       Saccharomycopsis sp., Kluveromyles sp., Rhodotorula sp., Pichia sp., Torulopsis sp.,
       Trichosporon sp. and Debaromyces sp.
    Whether native fermentation or inoculum is added: Inoculum in the form of starter
       Khameer/Malera is added.
    Method of cooking: They are fried on a griddle.
    Reference(s): Parveen and Hafiz, 2003 and Thakur et al., 2004.

8. Chitou
   Place of origin/usage: Orissa.
   Nature of food: Cereals and pulse based.
   Time of consumption: Festival seasons.
   Usual composition/ingredients: Par-boiled rice (Oryza sativa L.) and black gram
     (Phaseolus mungo L.).
   Method of preparation of initial batter/raw materials: It is prepared from varying
       proportions of par-boiled rice (Oryza sativa L.) and black gram (Phaseolus mungo L.).A
       little amount of boiled rice may be added, and black gram may be substituted with juice
       of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) or palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer L.)
       fruit during summer. Rice is washed, soaked, dewatered and briefly sun-dried. Dried rice
       grains are pounded in an iron or wooden mortar and sieved to obtain a fine powder. Black
       gram is soaked until the seed coat is easily removable by applying a gentle pressure. The
       grains are rubbed with hands to loosen seed coats, which are allowed to float away. The
       black gram is then made to a smooth paste using a stone grinder. The paste is beaten
       repeatedly by hands with a little amount of water and mixed with rice powder,
       appropriate amount of lukewarm water and salt. The batter is left to ferment under cover
       for 4-5 hours during summer (12-15 hours during winter).
   Method of cooking: Fermented batter is mixed with sugar and grated coconut. It is then
      taken in a special earthen mold or in deep bowl and covered with a lid. The junction is
      closed with a wet cloth and water is sprinkled intermittently. It is fried on a low heat.
   Method of consumption: Taken with curry, sugar, curd or tea.
   Reference(s): Roy et al., 2007(b).

9. Selroti
   Place of origin/usage: Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim.
   Nature of food: Cereal based.
   Time of consumption: Confectionary.
   Usual composition/ingredients: Rice, banana, honey, ghee and spices.
   Method of preparation of initial batter/raw materials: Local variety of rice (Oryza sativa
      L.) ‘Attey’ is sorted, washed, and soaked in cold water for overnight or 4 to 8 hours at
      ambient temperature. Sometimes, milled rice is also used for Selroti preparation. Water is
      then decanted from the rice by using bamboo made sieve called chalni and spread over a
      woven tray made up of bamboo, locally called ‘naanglo’ and dried for 1 hour. Soaked rice
      is pounded into coarse powder in a wooden mortar and pestle known as ‘okhali’ and
      ‘mushli’, respectively. Larger particles of pounded rice flour are separated from the rest by
      winnowing in a bamboo tray. Then the rice flour is mixed with nearly 25% refined wheat
  (Triticum aestivum L.) flour, 25% sugar, 10% butter or fresh cream and 2.5%
  spices/condiments containing large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.), cloves
  (Syzygium aromaticum Merr.), coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare
  Mill.), nutmeg (Myristica Houtt.),       cinnamon (Cinnamomumfragrans zeylanicum Bl.)
  and small cardamom (Elletaria cardamomum Maton.), are added to the rice flour and
  mixed thoroughly. Some people add tablespoon full of honey or unripe banana or baking
  powder (sodium bicarbonate) to the mixture, depending on quantity of the mixture. Milk
  (boiled/unboiled) or water is added, kneaded into a soft dough and finally into batter with
  easy flow. Batter is left to ferment naturally at ambient temperature (20-28°C) for 2 to 4
  hours during summer and at 10-18°C for 6-8 hours during winter.
Method of cooking: The oil is heated in a cast iron frying pan locally called ‘tawa’. The
  fermented batter is squeezed by hand or daaru (metallic serving spoon), deposited as
  continuous ring onto hot edible oil and fried until golden brown and is drained out from
  hot oil by poker locally called jheer or suiro or also by a spatula locally called jharna.
Method of consumption: It is served as confectionary bread with boiled potato curry, pickle
  prepared from string beans and meat. It can be served hot or cold.
Shelf life of food: It can be stored for two weeks at room temperature.
Reference(s): Tamang and Sarkar, 1988, Yonzan and Tamang, 2009.
                The following fermented cereal based foods are also consumed traditionally by
         the people of Orissa, Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim (Blandino et al., 2003; Thakur et al.,
         2004, Savitri and Bhalla, 2007).
   Other fermented cereal based foods consumed traditionally by the people of Orissa,
                                 Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim

Product                Raw material           Usage of food         State
Manna                  Wheat                  Thin rotties          Himachal Pradesh
Kurdi                  Wheat                  Salty noodles         North India
Thuktal                Barley                 Steamed cake          Himachal Pradesh
Aska                   Rice                   -                     Himachal Pradesh
Anarshe                Rice                   -                     North India
Torani                 Rice                   -                     Orissa
Aenkadu / askalu       Rice flour             Slurry                Himachal Pradesh
Aet                    Wheat flour            Thin rotties          Himachal Pradesh
Aktori                 Wheat                  Thick rotties         Himachal Pradesh
Baari                  Wheat flour            Slurry                Himachal Pradesh
Babroo                 Wheat flour            Fried disk            Himachal Pradesh
Bhatooru               Wheat flour            Rotties               Himachal Pradesh
Chhangpa               Roasted barley flour   Solid dough           Himachal Pradesh
Chhura                 Wheat flour            Rotties               Himachal Pradesh
Doo                    Roasted barley flour   Solid dough           Himachal Pradesh
                       Gram, walnut
Khatta                                        Curry                 Himachal Pradesh
                       powder
Khawalag               Roasted barley flour   Slurry                Himachal Pradesh
Mande/Manna            Wheat flour            Thin rotties          Himachal Pradesh
Malpude                Wheat flour            Fried disk            Himachal Pradesh
Mangjangkori           Buck wheat bran        Thick rotties         Himachal Pradesh
Marpinni/Marjag        Roasted barley flour   Sweet dish            Himachal Pradesh
Patande                Rice flour             Thin rotties          Himachal Pradesh
Tchhoso roti           Kodra flour            Thick rotties         Himachal Pradesh
Tchog                  Roasted barley flour   Hard balls            Himachal Pradesh
Tcung                  Wheat flour            Steamed cake          Himachal Pradesh
Thuktal                Roasted barley flour   Steamed cake          Himachal Pradesh
Tiskori                Wheat bran             Rotties               Himachal Pradesh
Sang                   Wheat grains           Thick soup            Himachal Pradesh
Shunali                Wheat flour            Soft balls            Himachal Pradesh

				
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