Implementing Curriculum Restructure by tfa16267


									Implementing Curriculum

   Centre for Academic and
  Professional Development

Scene Setting                                30 minutes

Restructuring the Curriculum                 90 minutes

Break                                        15 minutes

Teaching and Learning Strategies             75 minutes

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                  Professional Development
   Staff Development Timelines

March 2007       Generic Staff Development Events (all campuses)

April 2007       School Specific CAPD Events (Paisley and Ayr Campus)

April/May 2007   CAPD Events for Programme Teams as Required

May 2007         New Programme Proposal Templates

    Section 1

   Section 1
Setting the Scene

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    Internal Drivers


Bell Merger                     PDP


           Internal Drivers

• Student Diversity
  the University has a diverse student
   ―profile‖ with a majority of students in the
   part-time category and the growth in this
   after merger – therefore the need for
   flexibility in design and delivery;
  increasingly, the University is being
   required to provide an ―equivalent‖
   learning experience for students on
   several, geographically diverse campuses;

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        Key External Drivers

                           Subject Centres
                SCQF                         Best Practice


 Code of

                Subject                          ELIR
              Benchmarks       QAA

    National Enhancement Themes

• Student Needs
• Assessment
• Employability
• Flexible Delivery
• Integrative
• R-T Links

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                 Professional Development
 National Enhancement Themes

• Current Themes already producing
  good stuff!
  FYSE – enquiry-based learning
  Int Ass – formative/summative balance and
  R-T Links – graduate attributes

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               Professional Development
 Higher Education Academy

• Subject Centres
  Main Aspect of HEA in Promoting Good
   Curriculum Design
  Most university subject areas have an
   appropriate SC in HEA
  Contact Cathy Gerrard in CAPD

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  Key Drivers in Curriculum Design

• constructive alignment of the curriculum
• inclusive curriculum (Teachability)
• encourage a deeper approach (Entwhistle) to
  student learning
• engage students with the learning process
• assessment which aids learning (Boud)
• learner-centred activities and learning
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     What We Need To DO!

• Programme Delivery
  Introduction of Trimesters
• Structure of Modules and Programmes
  Conversion of Curricula from 15 to 20
   Credit Points
    • Adoption of SCQF Level Aims and Descriptors
    • Development of Concept of Notional Student
    • Skills Development and Employability Agenda
    • Embedding PDP

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     What We Need To DO!

• Learning and Teaching Strategy Issues
  Enhanced Assessment Practice
  Engaging Students in Learning
  Development of Work Based Learning

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              Professional Development
  New Learning Environment – Basic Tenets

• We are NOT starting from scratch – we are
  building on lots of existing internal and
  external good practice
• There is no direct correlation between
  amount of staff input (e.g. ―lecturing‖) and
  student success… BUT there is correlation
  between student effort and achievement
   hence…emphasises the need for excellent
    curriculum design

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  New Learning Environment – Basic Tenets

• We need to get back to the paramount
  importance of the PROGRAMME and its
• This also leads us into the potential of
  each LEVEL as an EXIT POINT for
• Therefore……the Power and Benefit of
  the SCQF!
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  New Learning Environment - Cornerstones

• constructively aligned curriculum
• flexible and engaging delivery of
• learning–enhancing assessment
• effective support for students,
  particularly in their first year of study
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   Fitting it All Together?

DESIGN                                        DELIVERY
                    PDP         eL


                LEARNING ENVIRONMENT              15-20



SUPPORT                                       ASSESSMEN
                                                  T   17

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       Section 2

Curriculum Restructuring
Constructive Alignment (John Biggs, 2003)


                        Curriculum   Teaching
                          Design     Methods


   New Programme Proposal Template
              Section 27

• External & Internal Reference Points Used to Inform
  Programme Outcomes
    A single paragraph … indicates the external
     sources against which the programme
     specification is benchmarked such as QAA
     subject benchmark statements and professional
     and statutory body requirements.
    Comment should be included on how closely the
     programme maps onto these external sources.

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     Subject Benchmarks (QAA)

• Typically will contain
  nature and definition of subject
  academic standards (threshold, modal,
  core content
  skills and knowledge required
  teaching methods

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 Scottish Credit and Qualifications
• Introduced in 2001
• Links School, FE, HE and Industry
  Standards into one qualifications
• ―Benchmarks‖
   the concept of LEVEL of outcomes of learning
    from pre-Higher to PhD
   the VOLUME of outcomes, described in terms of
    the number of credits
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            Level 12   PhD
            Level 11   Masters
            Level 10   Honours
Typical 4
Degree      Level 7    Year 1 HE/FE/Higher Still

            Level 5    Credit Standard Grade

            Level 1    Access 1                    24
         Section 2

(a) Moving from 15-20 credit
     Using Level Descriptors

• Each level has a descriptor which sets out its
  characteristic general outcomes under five
  broad headings:
   knowledge and understanding – mainly subject-based
   practice (applied knowledge and understanding)
   generic cognitive skills, e.g. evaluation, critical
   transferable skills, e.g.communication, numeracy and
    IT skills
   autonomy, accountability and working with others
• Use in Programme and Level Outcomes
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        Level Outcomes

• By the end of this Level students will
  be able to ……
• By the end of this Level, typical
  attributes of our students will be…..
• All Module Learning Outcomes should
  relate in some way to at least one Level
• If not, why are you teaching such a
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         Level Outcomes

• Crucial to good practice in curriculum design
  to start at the PROGRAMME level and work
  back through LEVELS to MODULES
• Write Programme and Level Outcomes first,
  then Learning Outcomes at Module level
• Level Outcomes should demonstrate
  PROGRESSION through the programme

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                 Professional Development
         SCQF – K&U Progression

• a broad            • a broad             • a broad and        • knowledge that     • knowledge that
knowledge of the     knowledge of the      integrated           covers and           covers and
subject/discipline   scope, defining       knowledge and        integrates most of   integrates
in general           features, and         understanding of     the principal        most, if not all, of
                     main areas of a       the scope, main      areas, features,     the main areas of
                     subject/discipline    areas and            boundaries,          a subject/
                                           boundaries of a      terminology and      discipline
                                           subject/discipline   conventions of a     — including their
                                                                subject/discipline   features,
                                                                                     terminology and

 Level 7             Level 8               Level 9              Level 10             Level 11

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                                          Professional Development
        Level Outcomes

• BUT…Reality is that most programmes will
  not be starting from scratch!
• SO…make the process iterative between
  current modules/module LO‘s and new
  modules and levels
• Process is NOT a rigid or even absolute one
  – have to take on board the notion of a
  ―Spiral Curriculum‖ (reinforcing and
  developing K&S at each stage - Bruner)

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       Level Outcomes

• SCQF is a ―threshold or competency-
  based‖ framework BUT is NOT
• Has to be used wisely and accept that
  performance above the threshold
  needs to be recognised in assessment
• Can also use SCQF to aid formative
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            SCQF in Practice

     Level 10 Outcomes

M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6        Level 9 Outcomes

     Level 8 Outcomes
                         M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6

 M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6       Level 7 Outcomes

M1        M2        M3   M4       M5         M6
                    Mapping Tool

Code     Knowledge and understanding                 Current Module          Subject Benchmark
                                                         Learning Outcomes       Statement

         Demonstrate and/or work with:
7.KU.1   o  a broad knowledge of the
            subject/discipline in general
7.KU.2   o  knowledge that is embedded in the
            main theories, concepts and principles
7.KU.3   o  an awareness of the evolving/changing
            nature of knowledge and understanding
7.KU.4   o  an understanding of the difference
            between explanations based in
            evidence and/or research and other
            forms of explanation and of the
            importance of this difference

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                                 Professional Development
            NPP 31 Level Outcomes
Knowledge and Understanding                       Practice – Applied
                                                  Knowledge and
•A1                                               Understanding
•                                                 •B1

                                                                 Generic Cognitive Skills - Problem
                                                                 Solving, Analysis, Evaluation
                              LEVEL OUTCOMES
Communication, ICT and                                           •
Numeracy Skills

•C1                            Autonomy, Accountability
•                              and Working With Others
                               •                                                           34
              NPP 31 Continued

SCQF level 7
Module code    Module name (Core modules)         credit   semester

SCQF level 7                   Optional modules

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Learning Outcomes - Some Basics

• Module LO‘s should relate to
  Programme/Level Outcomes
• Assessment should be clearly and
  fundamentally linked to LO‘s
• Content added after… BUT…
  reality factors kick in !

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 What is a Learning Outcome?

• detailed statement which
  specifies the various things that
   students will be able to do after
   successful completion of the learning
  specifies new skills and/or changes in
   behaviour which can be assessed

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                 In Addition

• state the conditions or constraints under which
  this behaviour is to be exhibited
• give a clear indication of the minimum standard of
  performance that is considered acceptable

• Use the module descriptor and assessment criteria
  to do this

                                              Mager, R., (1962)

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Link of LO Action Verbs to Assessment

• Do students UNDERSTAND these


• Use a Glossary of verbs and what they
  mean, use model answers and make
  clear in assessment criteria
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        Section 2

(b) Notional Student Effort
Curriculum Design – Other Key Factors


     Currency                         &


     Flexibility                 Student


 Curriculum Design - Other Factors

• Progression
  the way in which the curriculum promotes an
   organised progression so that the demands
   on the learner in intellectual challenge, skills,
   knowledge, conceptualisation and learning
   autonomy increase
  important that students SEE and understand
   how K&U (etc.) at one level underpins what
   happens at the next level (see Coherence)

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 Curriculum Design - Other Factors

• Coherence and Integrity
   i.e. the overall coherence and intellectual integrity of
    the programme (“Wholeness”)
   the programme should be designed in a way that will
    ensure the student's experience has a logic and
    integrity that are clearly linked to the purpose of the
    programme, stage and programme outcomes
   the expectations given to student and others about
    the intended programme and stage outcomes of the
    programme should be honest and deliverable
   consideration should be given to the feasibility of
    attainment of the outcomes

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     Notional Student Effort

• Based on the premise that 1 Credit
  point equates notionally to 10 hours of
  student effort
• Hence
  15 credit = 150 hours
  20 credit = 200 hours

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                Professional Development
    Notional Student Effort

• This is an important concept and could
  be the answer to a number of issues we
  currently have in restructuring i.e.
  how to shift learning towards a student-
   centred, engaging, interactive model
  resolution of contact hours issues
  block timetabling

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                Professional Development
     Notional Student Effort
• The concept of NSE is simple – a student‘s
  efforts in a module will be spread over a
  number of different activities e.g.
   Teaching Contact between staff and students
    (lectures, seminars, tutorials, group work,
    practical classes etc.)
   Assessment (preparation time, exam revision,
    exam sitting, essay writing, lab book updates etc.)
   Directed study (under the indirect supervision of
    staff – e.g. library study, reading, on- line)
   Other Learning (e.g. group-study, WBL, reflection
    through PDP, teaching from support staff,
    individual study)

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     Notional Student Effort

• Current Restructure
   examine current NSE model in modules
   match the ―learning activity‖ to the Learning
    Outcome and the desired assessment method
   consider different ways to
     • directly deliver content (e.g. lecture replace by seminar
       or on-line activity)
     • indirectly deliver content (e.g directed study, student
       reading, mini-project work, case study, etc.)
   I.E. – rebalance the NSE ―Workload‖

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             NSE – Exemplar 1
•   Lectures                             20
•   Tutorials                            10
•   Laboratories                         20
•   Assessment (1)                       30
•   Directed Study (2)                   10
•   Other Learning (3)                   110
1. for example – 5 lab reports at 2 hours each, 10 hours to prepare
    and write a short essay and 10 hours to prepare for and sit a 2
    hour exam
2. for example – specific library reading time for a group, assigned
    by the tutor
3. For example – individual study in the student‘s own time

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            NSE – Exemplar 2

•    Lectures                         20
•    Tutorials                         5
•    Seminars (1)                     10
•    Assessment (2)                   30
•    Other Learning (3)               135

1.   e.g. to develop case-studies in groups
2.   e.g. 2x10 hour essays, 1x10 hours for exam
3.   e.g. mix of individual study and on-line learning
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       Section 2

(c) Employability and Key
   Skills – Mapping and

• A set of achievements, (knowledge-
  based) understandings and personal
  attributes that make individuals more
  likely to gain employment and be
  successful in their chosen careers (Yorke M
 (2004) Employability in higher education: what it is - what it is not, Higher
 Education Academy)

• Employability is DIFFERENT to

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What are “Employability Skills”?

Top 12 skills identified by the Employer Satisfaction survey      Research carried out by the Association of       Additional Skills identified at
conducted by the University of Central England                     Graduate Recruiters a complete graduate              Validations at UoP
                                                                                 requires ...

Willingness to learn                                           Self-awareness.                                 Ethics

Commitment                                                     Political awareness                             Value Judgements

Dependability/reliability                                      Coping with uncertainty                         Confidentiality

Self-motivation                                                Matching and decision making                    Integrity
Team work                                                      Negotiation

Communication skills (oral)                                    Self-promotion

Co-operation                                                   Transfer skills

Communication skills (written)                                 Networking

Drive/energy                                                   Action planning

Self-management                                                Development focus

Desire to achieve/ motivation                                  Self-confidence

Problem-solving ability                                        Exploring opportunities                                                          54
        Key Issues in Developing
          Employability Skills
• Making explicit links between classroom
  assignments and tasks that might be encountered in
  the workplace.
• Using simulations, role-play, competitions and
  game-playing to contextualise skills training and
  motivate students.
• Using classroom simulations to compensate for lack
  of work placements and prepare students for life in
  the workplace.
• The importance of addressing skills development in
  a progressive manner at programme level.
• The role of self-assessment and effective feedback
  in developing employability skills.

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                   Professional Development
        Key Issues in Developing
          Employability Skills
• Tuning an existing curriculum to enhance students'
  employability skills and how these integrate with
  other areas of the curriculum (across and through
• Developing indicators to provide evidence of skills
• The need to create space in the academic curriculum
  if students are to engage with employability,
  particularly in the early stages of their programmes.
• Exploiting the employability potential of what
  students do alongside the academic curriculum,
  thus converting a potential obstacle into a
  significant opportunity for learning.
• Real examples! (bring employers here!!!)
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Employability Mapping Tool
 PEOPLE SKILLS                              W ST SE EXAMPLES
 Team working


 Interpersonal skills

 Customer orientation

 Oral / written communication

 Cultural Awareness


 Self-awareness / confidence

 Self-promotion skills

 Initiative, proactivity, self motivation

 Networking skills

 Willing to learn

 Action planning and self regulatory                           57
Employability Mapping Tool
 Generalist Skills           W ST   SE   EXAMPLES
 Problem solving/

 Flexibility/ adaptability


 Business acumen


 Specialist Skills



    Employability-PDP Links
• Research shows strong linkage between PDP and
  employability. PDP can help students to:
   plan, record and reflect upon their experiences in a way that
    develops their employability related skills and self-
   understand how their transferable skills might be applied in
    new settings;
   make realistic and suitable career plans based upon their
    heightened self-knowledge;
   demonstrate both their employment potential and their
    ability to manage their future professional development to
   learn how to articulate skills in writing and verbally
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                      Professional Development
    Section 2

(d) Embedding PDP
             DELIVERY                       ASSESSMENT



EMBEDDING                                                FLEXIBILITY

            PROGRESSION                    CORE ACTIVITIES

                          LINK TO LO’s
•   Delivery                           • Pedagogy
       delivery, recording and              based on an ―effective
        ―archiving‖ of student‘s              learning framework‖
        personal development                  approach as developed in
        plans based on an e-                  both the ELF and ISLE
        Portfolio approach, using             projects
        the ISLE approach                    in effect this means that the
        developed through                     reflective analysis and
        Blackboard                            planning parts of the PDP
                                              process are based around a
                                              set of key ―focussed learner
                                              questions‖ (FLQ‘s)
                                             allows students to develop
                                              their thoughts and evidence
                                              base through on-line
                                              prompts and in discussion
                                              with support tutors
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•   Embedding and                    •    Link to Learning
    Progression                           Outcomes
       an introduction to                 PDP activity linked to
        principles of PDP and e-            key module learning
        Portfolios in Semester 1            outcomes at every
        of Level 7 either                   opportunity
        through a module                   PDP activity to be linked
        related to ―Learning to             to a ―level outcomes‖
        Learn‖ or ―Becoming a               approach using the
        Professional Engineer‖              SCQF
        (etc.) or in a core
        module elsewhere.
       followed by PDP
        embedded in the
        curriculum at all levels
        from the start of the

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•   Core Activities
       in a programme of study,                  • the identification
        the PDP process should                      /development of learning
        give the opportunity for
        engagement with a                         • opportunities to reflect on
                                                    this material and to gain
        minimum set of core                         feedback;
        activities as appropriate to              • opportunities (and
        the discipline and level of                 guidance) on presentation
        study.                                      of evidence for different
       these should include                        audiences and planning of
        •   reflection on prior                     future learning and career
            experience,                             development (such as
        •   personal attributes and
            goals;                                • maintaining an effective
                                                    PDP record
        •   audits of skills and
            feedback on their
        •   opportunities and
            guidance on the recording
            of achievements;
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                           Professional Development
•   Flexibility                          •    Critical Incidences
       develop a flexible format to             CAPD will work with Schools
        allow for optimal                         to identify, for each
        incorporation into                        programme, key points or
        programmes and to allow for               ―critical incidences‖ where the
        variations in level, subject              proposed self-reflective PDP
        context, etc.,                            process can be incorporated
       the implementation model will             and help students – such as
        require to be flexible and                 •   the Honours year dissertation,
        adaptable to particular School             •   laboratory work,
        needs                                      •   Work Based Learning,
•   Diagnostic Tools                               •   Work placement
       Incorporation of PDP at Level              •   skills modules,
        7 should pay due cognisance                •   projects in general
        to available ―diagnostic                   •   groupwork situations
        tools‖, especially those based             •   interactive learning
        on-line                                        experiences such as Problem
                                                       Based Learning
                                                   •   research methods modules

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                            Professional Development
•   Formative Assessment               •    Summative Assessment
       the main function of                 opportunities for
        assessment of PDP will be             summative assessment of
        based on a formative                  PDP may present
        feedback model                        themselves through
       Level Outcomes (e.g.                  specific module learning
        skills) at more advanced              outcomes linked to key
        levels                                skills development
       student e-portfolios will             (employability, higher
        form the basis of one-to-             cognitive skills, reflection,
        one support sessions (in-             etc.)
        module and end of                    and ―critical incidences‖
        semesters) with                      it is important that the
        appropriate support tutors            CONTENT of the PDP is not
                                              assessed in a summative

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                          Professional Development
    Section 3
TLA Strategy Issues
          TLA Strategy

• Every programme needs its own TLA
  Strategy to indicate the programme
  team‘s philosophy with respect to
  delivery, assessment and other
  learning issues
• NPP Section 26

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   NPP 26.Teaching, Learning &
      Assessment Strategy
• A description of the teaching, learning and
  assessment methods used and the thinking behind
• An indication of the balance between teaching and
  learning should be included along with key activities
  and methods as to how these will develop as the
  student progresses.
• It should also include specific reference to e-
  learning, flexible learning and problem based
  learning and other approaches to learning, teaching
  and assessment.

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                    Professional Development
     Section 3
TLA Strategy Issues
  (a) e-Learning
         Before Starting

• Think about your current programme
  TLA Strategy
  Overall approach to teaching and learning
   activities, engaging students in class,
   assessment, using technology
  Would an on-line approach help?

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           Application of Bb
• Make course materials available
• Offer students a rich source of online resources,
• Increased contact with students through
  announcements, email, discussion boards,
• Provide opportunities for collaborative learning
• Build learning communities
• Provide peer support
• Virtual meeting place for group work
• Aid feedback
• Spot potential dropouts

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       Blended Learning

Supports what you do in your f2f
teaching activities
 not about repeating, more about re-
 achieving the learning outcome
 pedagogical shift: process of learning
 trial and error

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The blended learning concept

Content of E-tivities: checklist
• Does it meet the needs of different learning
• Build/reinforce f2f content
• Is relevant, appropriate and clear
• Conform to ‗usability‘ (e-accessibility)
• Is interactive
• Easy to understand, use and navigate
• Does not breach copyright
• Can be easily maintained/updated
• Realistic and provides feedback
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E-accessibility and Copyright

 • Teachability project
 • Special Needs Website

 • Copyright : What can you do?

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 Benefits and Risks:(perceived)

Student benefits:

Student risks:

Staff benefits:

Staff risks :

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      Section 3
(b) Engaging Students
       Facilitating Learning

• Learning is a constructive activity that
  students have to carry out. Students are
  active learners.
• The teacher must provide meaningful,
  authentic activities to help students
  construct understanding relevant to
  solving problems

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   How can you help your students
     develop Critical Thinking?
• Reflections of real-life situations and contexts
• Encouragement of curiosity, exploration, and
• Responsibility for learning vested in the learner
• Failure viewed as a learning opportunity
• Acknowledgement of effort, not just performance
• Ask them to evaluate and comment on the
  curriculum and assessment!!!

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    Problem Based Learning

• PBL is a method of learning whereby
  students are presented with a problem, then
  have to systematically develop a solution by
  enquiry, discussion and testing
• It is one of a set of engaging/interactive
  learning activities known as ―Inquiry-based

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   Problem Based Learning

• Problem-based learning is a powerful
  classroom process, which uses real
  world problems to motivate students to
  identify and apply research concepts
  and information, work collaboratively
  and communicate effectively. It is a
  strategy that promotes life-long habits
  of learning.

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          Learning Styles

• Surface - intention is to reproduce facts
  without thinking
• Deep - intention is to understand and
  seek meaning
• Strategic - intention is to organise
  learning to achieve a pass (or higher)
                                          Marton and Saljo, (1976)

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Surface Learning - some causes?

•   heavy workload
•   minimalist approach
•   little interaction in class
•   excessive amount of material to handle
•   little opportunity to pursue subjects in depth
•   little choice over topics or methods of study
•   assessment system concentrates on
    rewarding recall of facts

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Deep Learning - some enabling
• a motivational context
• an active learning environment
• interaction with others
• a well-structured knowledge base
• effective feedback
• change delivery and teaching to
  engage students more
• the Spiral Curriculum
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    Types of Group Activities
• Seminars                     •   Role Playing
• Tutorials                    •   Case-studies
• Problem Solving Tasks        •   Games/Simulations
• Buzz Groups                  •   Group Projects
• Brainstorming (or            •   Controlled Discussion
  ―Thought-Showering‖)         •   Debate
• Open Discussion              •   Presentations
                               •   Problem Based

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• What do we mean by ―engaging
  students in the learning experience‖?

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        Section 3
(c) Enhanced Assessment

                    “Students can
                       escape bad
                     teaching - they
                     cannot escape
                   bad assessment”

                 D Boud, Enhancing Student
                  Learning Conference, (1995)

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Why do we Assess Students?
• Reasons related to the student experience
  and student achievement
• Reasons related to staff activities
• Reasons related to systems for quality
  assurance, quality enhancement and the
  maintenance of academic standards
• Reasons related to the interests of other
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                    Professional Development
     Purposes of Assessment
• to MOTIVATE students and FOCUS their SENSE OF
• to CONSOLIDATE/REINFORCE student learning
• to provide FEEDBACK
    students
    staff
• to foster the concept of SELF-ASSESSMENT for life in students

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    Purposes of Assessment
• to provide a RECORD OF PROGRESS

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                 Professional Development
        Good Assessment
• Integral part of course design - not a
  separate activity and LINKED to ILO‘s
• Gives good feedback - vital to the
  learning process
• Varied - increases motivation
• Appropriate amount - not too little and
  not too much
• Free from bias - marked on merit of
  performance only
• Transparent - no hidden purposes, no
  ―tricks‖ etc
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                Professional Development

• Good feedback is an integral and
  essential part of effective assessment
• Students will learn to be more effective
  in the next assignment if they are given
  good feedback

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Principles of Effective Feedback

• Facilitates the development of self-assessment
  (reflection) in learning
• Promotes peer and tutor dialogue around learning
• Helps clarify what good performance is (goals, criteria,
  expected standards)
• Provides opportunities to close the gap between current
  and desired performance
• Delivers high quality information to students about their
• Encourages positive motivational beliefs and self-esteem
• Provides information to teachers that can be used to
  help shape the teaching
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                                                SENLEF Project 2004

• timely
• helpful
• developmental

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Assessment Issues in Restructuring

• further emphasis on diverse assessment diet
• exams permitted where necessary (eg PSB
• increased formative assessment with feedback in-
• assessment resits still available
• pass/fail may be used in Year 1 UG
• students given clear information, criteria and model
  answers as well as effective feedback

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