1st International PhD Symposium on Offshore Renewable Energy by tfa16267

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									 symposium 2007
             INORE 2007
rnational PhD Symposium
hore Renewable Energy

 im, Norway   1st International PhD Symposium
03.06, 2007
              on Offshore Renewable Energy




               Trondheim, Norway
                                     Arranged by
              The International PhD Network on Offshore Renewable Energy
               31.05 - 03.06, 2007
                                    in cooperation with
                   The Centre for Renewable Energy, NTNU-SINTEF-IFE


                                                                      



                                    Main sponsors
Arranged by
The International PhD Network on Offshore Renewable Energy
in cooperation with
The Centre for Renewable Energy, NTNU-SINTEF-IFE




Sponsors:




                                                             

Contents

Welcome to INORE’s st Symposium .................................................... 6

Program ................................................................................................ 8
Key note speakers ............................................................................... 0

Participants .......................................................................................... 

Sponsors and partners ........................................................................ 0

Abstracts .............................................................................................. 

About INORE and its establishment .................................................... 6

Logo competition ................................................................................. 69




                                                                                                              
              Welcome to INORE’s 1st Symposium

              We are young and naive – and we create value!

              We are all researchers who try to contribute to the realisation of offshore
              renewable energy. Most of us must be considered young – and perhaps some
              even will consider us to be naive. However, our level of competence is high,
              we are working on the edge of new knowledge and we are pushing the limits.
              We are trying to understand things we did not understand before and we
              bring new knowledge to the table – We are creating values!




                  INORE – keeping your ‘R’ high? (source: www.phdcomics.com)
              INORE – keeping your ‘R’ high? (source: www.phdcomics.com)

            INORE be a tool a tool for young researchers within offshore renewable
ORE will hopefullywill hopefully befor young researcherswithin offshore
              renewable energy to enhance the development of this field. We create
              the opportunity to meet other young researchers in this area with the
              same overall objectives, despite different background and nationality. It is
              supposed to be an informal arena, where we can better see the possibilities
              and challenges that lie ahead of us. In this way we could make our
              contribution stronger than the mere sum of our individual projects.

              Meeting people is essential, interacting with them is crucial. We hope
              that INORE can be the seed to future joint ventures – make it research or
              commercial. Joint papers should be a good option to start with.




          6
INORE’s main arena will be the annual symposium. This symposium will
be held in different countries every year and the steering committee shall
contain representatives from at least  different countries. We want this to be
a truly international network. Also we encourage each one of you to take an
active role to get the most out of this symposium, and to form our new-born
network; it is yours!

Finally, we hope that you will enjoy the beautiful surroundings of Agdenes!

From the steering committee;

Cristina Huertas-Olivares                         Jørgen Hals,
Helen Bailey                                      Marta Molinas
Miguel Lopes                                      Nicolai S. Løvdal




Note to the reader
This report presents the status of INORE in May 00. The network is
still under development, therefore some of the text might be perceived
as immature. However, according to INORE’s philosophy about being
transparent we want to share the real status and hope you will contribute to
enforce the network and its objectives. Please send comments to this reports
or other feedback to feedback@inore.org.




                                                                                  
8
    Program
                  THURSDAY 31 MAY                                            FRIDAY 1 JUNE                                      SATURDAY 2 JUNE                               SUNDAY 3 JUNE
    08:00
                                                                                  BREAKFAST                                             BREAKFAST                                  BREAKFAST


    09:00
                                                                              INVITED SPEAKER -                                     INVITED SPEAKER -
                                                                              PETTER HERSLETH                                        FREDE BLÅBJERG
                                                                                 (STATKRAFT)                                         (Aalborg University)
                                                                     Offshore renewable - A utility company's            Challenges and possibilities to harness wind           CLOSING SESSION
                                                                                     view                                 and photovoltaic power from the oceans


                                                                   Chair: Marta Molinas/Adam Thompson                    Chair: Per Ivar Karstad/Hongfei Ma
                 BOAT TRIP
                                     Workshop
    10:00      (Trondheim to                                       Julien Vuillemin                                      Nicolai Løvdal
                                         part I
    10:12    Agdenes with the                                      Lena Max                                              Charlotte Beels
                                 (The first part of the
    10:25     research wessel                                      Jose Lopez                                            Simon Tyrberg
                                workshop will be held




                                                          PART 1
                                                                                                                PART 5
    10:37        Gunnerus,                                         Luke Reade                                            Kester Gunn
                                    onboard R/V
            www.ntnu.no/ntnumar                                                 BREAK (with snacks)                                 BREAK (with snacks)                        BUS TO TRONDHEIM
    10:50                            Gunnerus)
                in/gunnerus)
                                                                   Chair: Karin Nilsson/Jean Viterbo                     Chair: Jon Are Suul/Miguel Lopes

    11:10                                                          Helen Bailey                                          Hongfei Ma
    11:22                                                          Jens Engstrom                                         Magnus Stålberg
    11:35                                                          Sean Barrett                                          John Chapman




                                                          PART 2
    11:47                                                          Miguel Goden de Souza                        PART 6   Rafael Waters
    12:00                                                          Thomas Fuglseth                                       Adam Thompson
                                                                                                                                                                        BUS TO TRONDHEIM AIRPORT VÆRNES
    12:12                                                                        summing up                                            summing up
    12:25
                             LUNCH
                                                                                            FISHING TRIP                                          FISHING TRIP
                                                                          LUNCH                                                 LUNCH
                                                                                              (incl. lunch)                                         (incl. lunch)
    13:30                                                             1/2 of the group                                      1/2 of the group                                   Color codes, program:
                                                                                            1/2 of the group                                      1/2 of the group
                                                                                                                                                                                   WORKSHOP
                                                                                                                                                                              PRESENTATIONS / ADM
                                                                                                                                                                                 INV SPEAKERS
    14:30                                                                                                                                                                      LEISURE ACTIVITIES
                                                                            INVITED SPEAKER -
                                                                                                                                                                                   TRANSPORT
                                                                              ALLA WEINSTEIN                                        INVITED SPEAKER -
                                                                                  (EU-OEA)                                                  TBA                                 MEALS / BREAKS
                                                                   The ocean energy industry - what's on and                             (STATOIL)
                                                                              what's important?
                                     Workshop part II
                                       "The future of              Chair: Thomas Fuglseth/Cristina Olivares              Chair: Lucia Margheritini/Jørgen Hals
                                  offshore renewables",
    15:30                                                          Miguel Lopes                                          Per Ivar Karstad
                                      Interdisciplinary
                                                          3
                                                                                                                7




    15:42                                                          Karin Nilsson, Katarina Yuen and Mårten               Ravindra Ummaneni
                                                                                                                                                           PRESENTATIONS / ADM
                                                                                                                                                              INV SPEAKERS
    14:30                                                                                                                                                   LEISURE ACTIVITIES
                                                                       INVITED SPEAKER -
                                                                                                                                                                TRANSPORT
                                                                         ALLA WEINSTEIN                                       INVITED SPEAKER -
                                                                             (EU-OEA)                                                 TBA                    MEALS / BREAKS
                                                              The ocean energy industry - what's on and                            (STATOIL)
                                                                         what's important?
                                Workshop part II
                                  "The future of              Chair: Thomas Fuglseth/Cristina Olivares             Chair: Lucia Margheritini/Jørgen Hals
                             offshore renewables",
    15:30                                                     Miguel Lopes                                         Per Ivar Karstad
                                 Interdisciplinary
    15:42                                                     Karin Nilsson, Katarina Yuen and Mårten              Ravindra Ummaneni
                                   discussions
    15:55                                                     Grabbe                                               Marta Molinas




                                                     PART 3
                                                                                                          PART 7
    16:07                                                     Rebecca Sykes                                        Florent Guinot
    16:20                                                     Lucia Margheritini                                   Griet De Backer
    16:35                                                                 BREAK (with snacks)                                  BREAK (with snacks)

                                                              Chair: Lena Max/Nicolai Løvdal                       Chair: Florent Guinot/Helen Bailey
             BUS FROM
    16:55                                                     Hayan Long                                           David Elwood
            TRONDHEIM
    17:07                                                     Cristina Huertas                                     Brian Polagye
    17:19                                                     Sylvain Antheaume                                    Jørgen Hals




                                                     PART 4
                                                                                                          PART 8
    17:31                                                     Pirpaolo Ricci                                       Jean Carlo Viterbo
    17:43                                                     Jon Are Suul                                         Hakim Mouslim
                                    BREAK
    17:55                                                                      summing up                                          summing up
    18:05      INFORMATION OUTSIDE
                                                                                                                       ELECTION OF THE COMMITTEE +
    18:15
               BEDROOM INSTALATION                                                                                              FEEDBACK
    18:30                                                              OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES
    18:45     WELCOME - TAPE CUTTING                                        / BREAK
    19:00                                                                                                                            BREAK
                 INVITED SPEAKER -
    19:15
                  FREDERIC HAUGE
    19:30
                     (BELLONA)
    19:45
    20:00


                       DINNER
                                                                         OUTSIDE DINNER                                         GALA DINNER
              (Main dish: Beef, local style)
                                                                    (Main dish: Whole grilled lamb)                        (Main dish: Baked salmon)



    22:00
                   SPEED DATING




9
P

G
A
O
R
R



M
     Key note speakers
     Key note speakers

                         Frederic Hauge, Bellona
                         Frederic Hauge, Bellona
     Key note speakers
                          Frederic Hauge is CEO of Bellona. He is
                         Frederic Hauge is the the CEO of Bellona. He is invited to g
                          perspectives on the need for new on the
                         invited to give us the big perspectivestechnology for a sustainab
                         Frederic Hauge, Bellona
                         need for new technology for a sustainable
                         future.
                         The Bellona Foundation is a multi-disciplinary international
                         Frederic Hauge is the CEO of Bellona. He is invited to g
                          NGO based in Oslo, Norway. Founded
                         The Bellona Foundation is a multi-disciplinary in 1986 it has since b
                          perspectives world’sneed forbased technology for a and solu
                          one of the on the most new in Oslo,
                         international environmental NGOrecognized technology sustainab
                          environmental in 1986 it has since blossomed
                         Norway. Founded champions with offices on two continents. Al
                         into one of the world’s most recognized technology economists, law
                          40 Bellona Foundation is a multi-disciplinary international
                          Theecologists, nuclear physicists, engineers,
                         and solution oriented, environmental champions
                          and journalists Oslo, Norway. Founded in 1986 it has since b
                          NGO based in work at Bellona.
                         with offices on two continents. Altogether, some
                          www.bellona.org
                          one of the world’s most engineers,
                         40 ecologists, nuclear physicists,recognized technology and solu
                          environmental champions with offices work
                         economists, lawyers, advisors and journalistson two continents. Al
                          40 ecologists, nuclear physicists, engineers, economists, law
                         at Bellona.
                         and journalists work at Bellona.
                         www.bellona.org               www.bellona.org
                         Alla Weinstein – European Ocean Energy Association


                         Alla Weinstein
                         Alla Weinstein is the President of EU-OEA. She is invited
                         – European the emerging Association
                         overview of Ocean Energy wave and tidal industry.
                         Alla Weinstein – European Ocean Energy Association

                          The EU-OEA the non-profit EU-OEA. She
                         Alla Weinstein isis a President of association with a member-ele
                         Alla Weinstein is the President of EU-OEA. She is invited
                         is invited to give us an overview of the emerging all actors in the
                          directors established for the representation of
                         overviewa European
                          sector at of the emerging EU-OEA aims to generate more
                         wave and tidal industry.level.wave and tidal industry.
                         collective approach to successful utilization of ocean energy a
                         The EU-OEA is a non-profit association with a
                          competitive source of directors association
                         The EU-OEA is a of renewable power.
                         member-elected boardnon-profit established with a member-ele
                          www.eu-oea.com
                         directors established all the representation
                         for the representation of for actors in the ocean of all actors in the
                         sector at a at a European level. EU-OEA aims
                         energy sectorEuropean level. EU-OEA aims toto generate more
                         collective approach for a collective approach to
                         generate more visibilityto successful utilization of ocean energy as
                         competitive source of renewable as a reliable
                         successful utilization of ocean energy power.
                         and competitive source of renewable power.
                         www.eu-oea.com
                         Frede Blaabjerg – Ålborg University

                                                    www.eu-oea.com
                         Frede Blaabjerg is the Dean of The Faculty of Engineering
                         Medicine on Aalborg University. He is invited to share his
                         development of – Ålborg University
                         Frede Blaabjergoffshore wind and the use of floating wind

                         Frede Blaabjerg is the Dean of The active researcher. He is
                         Frede is an exceptional productive andFaculty of Engineering
0
                         co-author on Aalborg 500 publications invited to share his
                         Medicine of more than University. He isin his research fields.
                         in many research projects wind and the use of several wind
                         development of offshore with the industry and floatingpositio
                         scientific boards. Among other thing he is the chairman of the
                         committee exceptional productive and the Danish Research is
                         Frede is an Energy and Environment of active researcher. He C
                         www.iet.auc.dk/%7Efbl/personal.htm
sector at a European level. EU-OEA aims to generate more vis
collective approach to successful utilization of ocean energy as a
competitive source of renewable power.
www.eu-oea.com




Frede Blaabjerg – Ålborg University
Frede Blåbjerg – Ålborg University

Frede Blaabjerg is Dean of The The Faculty of Engineering, S
Frede Blaabjerg is thethe Dean ofFaculty of
Medicine on Aalborg University. Aalborg
Engineering, Science and Medicine on He is invited to share his in
development of offshore wind and the in
University. He is invited to share his insightuse of floating wind tur
the development of offshore wind and the use of
floating wind turbines.
Frede is an exceptional productive and
Frede is an exceptional productive and activeactive researcher. He is th
co-author He is the author or publications in
researcher. of more than 500 co-author of morehis research fields. He
in many research projects with the industry
than 500 publications in his research fields. He is and several positions
scientific boards. Among other thing he is the
involved in many research projects with the industry chairman of the pro
committee Energy in different scientific boards.
and several positions and Environment of the Danish Research Cou
Among other thing he is the chairman of the
www.iet.auc.dk/%7Efbl/personal.htm
programme committee Energy and Environment of
the Danish Research Councils.


            www.iet.auc.dk/%Efbl/personal.htm




                                                          
     Participants




      Adam            a.w.thompson@lancaster.ac.uk
      Thompson        +44 (0)1524 593785

                      Lancaster University
                      Great Britain


                      Abstract number 29


      Brian Polagye   bpolagye@u.washington.edu
                      +1 206 685 2171

                      University of Washington USA



                      Abstract number 36


      Charlotte       charlotte.beels@ugent.be
      Beels           +32 9 264 54 86

                      Ghent University
                      Belgium


                      Abstract number 22


      Cristina        cristina@wave-energy-centre.org
      Huertas-        +351 918784010
      Olivares
                      Wave Energy Centre
                      Portugal


                      Abstract number 17




David Elwood     elwoodd@engr.orst.edu

                 Oregon State University
                 USA



                 Abstract number 35


Florent Guinot   florent.guinot@ifremer.fr
                 +33 (0)2 98 22 41 82

                 Ifremer
                 France


                 Abstract number 33


Griet De         griet.debacker@ugent.be
Backer           +32 9 264 54 93

                 Ghent University
                 Belgium


                 Abstract number 34


Haiyan Long      haiyan@ntnu.no
                 +47 73594971

                 Norwegian University of Science
                 and Technology (NTNU)
                 Norway

                 Abstract number 16


Hakim            hakim.mouslim@ec-nantes.fr
Mouslim          +33 240 37 68 59

                 Ecole Centrale Nantes
                 France

                 Abstract number 39



                                                   
     Helen Bailey    helen.bailey@ed.ac.uk
                     +44 (0)131 6508689

                     University of Edinburgh
                     Great Britain


                     Abstract numberr 5


     Hongfei Ma      hma@iet.aau.dk
                     +45 96359278

                     Institute of Energy Technology
                     Denmark


                     Abstract number 25


     Jean Carlo      jviterbo@usp.br
     Viterbo         +55 11 3091 5350

                     Escola Politécnica,
                     Universidade de São Paulo
                     Brasil

                     Abstract number 38


     Jens Engström   jens.engstrom@angstrom.uu.se
                     +46 (0)18 471 58 18

                     Uppsala University
                     Engineering Science
                     Sweden

                     Abstract number 6


     John Chapman    195827@swan.ac.uk
                     +44 (0)1792295217

                     Swansea University
                     Great Britain


                     Abstract number 27




Jon Are Suul    jon.a.suul@sintef.no
                +47 7359 7262

                Sintef Energy Research / NTNU
                Department of Electric Power
                Engineering, Norway

                Abstract number 20


José López      jlopezgo@ii.unam.mx
González        +(52) 55 56 23 36 00

                Universidad Nacional
                Autonoma de Mexico
                Mexico

                Abstract number 3


Julien          j.vuillemin@ed.ac.uk
Vuillemin       +44 0131 650 8689

                University of Edinburgh
                - Institute for Energy Systems
                Great Britain

                Abstract number 1


Jørgen Hals     jorgen.hals@ntnu.no
                +47 37550572

                Norwegian University of Science
                and Technology (NTNU)
                Norway

                Abstract number 37


Karin Nilsson   karin.nilsson@angstrom.uu.se
                +46 18 471 32 27

                Uppsala University,
                Department of electricity Sweden


                Abstract number 11



                                                   
     Katarina Yuen   katarina.yuen@angstrom.uu.se
                     +46 18 471 3368

                     Uppsala University,
                     Division of Electricity
                     Sweden

                     Abstract number 12


     Kester Gunn     k.gunn@lancaster.ac.uk
                     +44 (0)1524593785

                     Lancaster University
                     Great Britain


                     Abstract number 24


     Lena Max        lena.max@chalmers.se
                     +46 31 7721630

                     Department of Energy and
                     Environment, Chalmers University
                     of Technology, Sweden

                     Abstract number 2


     Lucia           lm@civil.aau.dk
     Margheritini    +459635 8578

                     Aalborg University
                     Denmark


                     Abstract number 15


     Luke Reade      luke.reade@ed.ac.uk
                     +44 131 650 7211

                     University of Edinburgh
                     Great Britain


                     Abstract number 4



6
Magnus          magnus.stalberg@angstrom.uu.se
Stålberg        +46 18 471 58 39

                Uppsala University,
                Division for Electricity
                Sweden

                Abstract number 26


Marta Molinas   marta.molinas@elkraft.ntnu.no
                +47 73594237

                Norwegian University of Science
                and Technology (NTNU)
                Norway

                Abstract number 32


Miguel Goden    miguel.prado@teamwork.nl
de Sousa        +31226423411
Prado
                Teamwork Technology
                Netherlands

                Abstract number 10


Miguel Lopes    mlopes@hidro1.ist.utl.pt
                +351 21 8419783

                Instituto Superior Técnico
                Portugal


                Abstract number 8


Mårten Grabbe   marten.grabbe@angstrom.uu.se
                +46 18 471 58 43

                Uppsala University,
                Division of Electricity,
                Sweden

                Abstract number 13



                                                  
     Nicolai Løvdal    nicolai.lovdal@iot.ntnu.no
                       +47 73593711

                       Norwegian University of Science &
                       Technology
                       Norway

                       Abstract number 21


     Per Ivar          peika@statoil.com
     Karstad           +47 41512653

                       Norwegian University of Science
                       and Technology (NTNU)
                       Norway

                       Abstract number 30


     Pierpaolo Ricci   pricci@hidro1.ist.utl.pt
                       +351 218417776

                       Instituto Superior Técnico Lisboa
                       Portugal

                       Abstract number 19


     Rafael Waters     rafael.waters@angstrom.uu.se
                       +46 (0)184715839

                       Engineering Sciences, division for
                       electricity
                       Sweden

                       Abstract number 28


     Ravindra Babu     ravindra.b.ummaneni@elkraft.ntnu.no
     Ummaneni          +47 73594271

                       Norwegian University of Science
                       and Technology (NTNU)
                       Norway

                       Abstract number 31



8
Rebecca Sykes   r_k_sykes@yahoo.co.uk
                +353 (0)21 4250013

                Hydraulics and Maritime
                Research Centre
                Ireland

                Abstract number 14


Sean Barrett    snb.hmrc.ucc@gmail.com
                +353 21 4250031

                Hydraulics & Maritime Research
                Centre, UCC
                Ireland
                Abstract number 7


Simon Tyrberg   sity7423@student.uu.se
                +46 (0) 18 471 58 39

                Engineering Sciences
                Sweden

                Abstract number 23


Sylvain         sylvain.antheaume@hmg.inpg.fr
Antheaume       +33476825116

                EDF
                France

                Abstract number 18


Thomas          thomas.fuglseth@elkraft.ntnu.no
Fuglseth        +47 73 59 42 29

                Dept. of Electrical Power
                Engineering, NTNU
                Norway
                Abstract number 9



                                                  9
      Sponsors and partners
    Sponsors and partners
Sponsors and partners
      Statkraft (www.statkraft.com)
      Statkraft (www.statkraft.com)
      Sponsors and partners
 Sponsors and partners
Statkraft (www.statkraft.com)
       The Statkraft Group is the third largest producer of electricity in the Nordic
      The (www.statkraft.com)
       region, and Group is the third largest producer of electricity in the Nordic region,
 StatkraftStatkraft the second largest producer electricity in based on renewable and the
      Statkraft (www.statkraft.com)
The Statkraft Group is the third largestproducer of of electricitythe Nordic region, and the
      second largest producer of electricity based on renewable energy sources in Europe. The
       energy producer of electricity based on renewable energy sources and engages
second largestsources in Europe. The group produces TWh per yearin Europe. The
                                  per
      group produces 42TWhthe yearlargest                                     offices in the
                                          and engages in power trading fromNordic region, Nordic
 The The Statkraft Group year largest producer power tradingin on Nordic region, Nordic
       in power 42TWh per offices in the Nordic of electricity inoffices in the and and
                                                 in of electricity from the
groupStatkraft Group is theisthird third engagesproducerregion and the the Continent. In the the
        produces trading from and
                         the Continent. In Norway, on group runs its power grid Europe. The
      region and on producer of electricity based the renewable energy sources in and end-user
 second and largest Continent. In Norway, the group runs energy sources via regional
regionsecondon the group runs its power grid and end-user operations in Europe. The
          largest the
       Norway, producer of electricity based on renewable its power grid and end-user
      group produces companies year owns shares. power shares. offices in the the Nordic
      operations via regional companies in which Statkraft owns trading
         produces 42TWh per per and and engages in
operations via regional42TWhyearin which Statkraftpower shares. from from offices inNordic
 groupcompanies in which Statkraft engages in owns trading
      region and on the Continent. In Norway, the group its its power and and end-user
 region and on the Continent. In Norway, the group runs runspower grid grid end-user
      operations directly involved in two which Statkraft within offshore
      Statkraft is via regional companies intechnology companies within offshore renewable energy;
Statkraft is directly involved in twoin two technology ownsowns shares. offshore renewable
       Statkraft is directly involved technology companies shares.
 operations via regional companies in which Statkraft companies within renewable energy;
      SWAY (floating wind turbines) and Hydra Tidal Energy Technology AS.
SWAY (floating wind turbines) and Hydra Tidal Energy Technology AS.
       energy; SWAY (floating wind turbines) and companies within offshore renewable
      Statkraft is directly involved in two technology Hydra Tidal Energy Technology AS.energy;
 Statkraft is directly involved in two technology companies within offshore renewable energy;
      SWAY (floating turbines) and and Hydra Energy Technology AS.
 SWAY (floating wind wind turbines)Hydra TidalTidal Energy Technology AS.




     Statoil (www.statoil.com)
     Statoil (www.statoil.com)
Statoil (www.statoil.com)

       Statoil is an integrated and gas company with substantial international activities.
       Statoil (www.statoil.com)
      Statoil integrated oil and oil and gas company with substantial international
 Statoil an is an integrated
Statoil is(www.statoil.com)oilgas company with substantial international activities. StatoilStatoil
       activities. Statoil includes focus on the             of greenhouse gases, on
      includes focus onreduction of greenhouse reduction increased use ofuse of cleaner energy
includes focus on the the reduction of greenhouse gases, on increased cleaner energy
                                                   gases, on
       increased the of cleanerand gas companysolutions developmentenergy activities. Statoil
                and integrated of new newcarriers and the on hydrogen, of new energy
                                    energy energy with substantial international efficiency,
      carriers is anuse development ofenergy solutions based based on hydrogen, energy efficiency,
carriers is anthe development oil gas company with substantial international activities. Statoil
 Statoil and integrated oil and
       Statoil
      renewable based on hydrogen, energymanagementrenewable energy strategy. Statoil
       includes on on and reduction management gases,increasedbusiness and cleaner
       solutions energy the carbon dioxide efficiency,           their
renewablefocusfocusthe reduction of greenhouse gases, on inon increased of cleaner energy is
                                                                                      carbon
 includes energy and carbon dioxide of greenhouse in their business strategy. Statoil isenergy
                                                                        use use of
       dioxide management in their energy solutions basedbased tidal turbine. shareholder has
                 shareholder in Hammerfest Stromstrategy. a tidal is principal The prototype
      principaland the in Hammerfest Stromenergy who develops aturbine. The prototypeefficiency,
                                        business develops Statoil on hydrogen, energy has
principal and the development of new new who solutions on hydrogen, energy efficiency,
 carriers shareholder development of
       carriers
       renewable energy carbon dioxide since 2003 and they has just an agreement Statoil is
       in Hammerfest and grid grid 2003 tidal in their their business an been is
been been delivering power to the since managementturbine.just made made hasagreement with
       delivering power to the who develops management
 renewable energy andStromcarbon dioxide a and they hasin The prototype strategy. with
                                                                  business strategy. Statoil
       delivering further Hammerfest Strom who whoin UK.
                                 develop the 00 UK.
      Scottish Power to further Hammerfest technology they has just made an agreement
Scottish Power to power develop the technology indevelops a tidal tidal turbine. prototype has has
       principal shareholder the
 principal shareholder in to in grid since Stromand develops a turbine. The The prototype
       with delivering powerto grid since since and they they just just an agreement with
        delivering power to to the grid 2003 the and has has UK.
 been been Scottish Powerthe further develop2003 technology inmademade an agreement with
       Scottish Power to further develop the technology in
 Scottish Power to further develop the technology in UK. UK.




0
    Norwegian Centre for Renewable Energy (http://sffe.no)
Norwegian Centre for Renewable Energy (http://sffe.no)

     The Centre for RenewableRenewable Energy (http://sffe.no)
     Norwegian Centre for Energy (SFFE) (http://sffe.no)
The Centre for Renewable Renewable Energy combines the competence of NTNU, SINTEF and
 Norwegian Centre for Energy (SFFE) combines the competence of NTNU, SINTEF and
     IFE withinfield field of renewable energy, as as initiating innovative and pertinent
IFE within the the of renewable energy, as well well as initiating innovative and pertinent
     The Centre for Renewable Energy (SFFE) combines the competence of NTNU, SINTEF
 The Centre for Renewable Energy (SFFE) combines the competence of NTNU, SINTEF and and
Norwegian Centre for Renewable Energy (http://sffe.no)

The Centre for Renewable Energy (SFFE) combines the competence of NTNU,
SINTEF and IFE within the field of renewable energy, as well as initiating
innovative and pertinent research tasks. Research fields include small
scale hydropower, wind, solar, wave, and bio-energy as well as the social
dimensions of energy use.
 research tasks. Research fields include small scale hydropower, wind, solar, wave, and bio-
 energy as well as the social dimensions of energy use.
In association with Norwegian industry, SFFE aims to contribute to strategies
and knowledge for the innovation and development of new renewable
In association with Norwegian industry, SFFE aims to contribute to strategies and knowledge
for the technologies. The principal aim of this cooperation is to improve the
energyinnovation and development of new renewable energy technologies. The principal aim
of this cooperation is to as creating values.
environment as wellimprove the environment as well as creating values.

 The pictures below shows offshore renewable energy technology projects
The pictures below shows offshore renewable energy technology projects where staff related
 to the Centre related to the Centre for Renewable is involved.
where staff for Renewable Energy, NTNU-SINTEF-IFE,Energy, NTNU-SINTEF-IFE,
is involved.




Pelagic Power                   SEEWEC (Fred Olsen) WaveEnergy




                Hydra Tidal Energy              Hammerfest Strom




                OWEC Tower                      HyWind




                                                                                               
     Abstracts

     - in order of appearance



         ON WAVE CLIMATE PREDICTABILITY: A MESOSCALE
        MODEL TO ASSESS FUTURE WAVE ENERGY POTENTIAL
                   Julien Vuillemin, PhD student, and Dr Gareth P. Harrison
          University of Edinburgh – Institute for Energy Systems, Edinburgh, Scotland
                                 Telephone: +44 0131 650 8689
                                  E-Mail: j.vuillemin@ed.ac.uk
       Office address: School of Engineering and Electronics – University of Edinburgh –
                    King's Buildings – Edinburgh EH9 3JL – Scotland (UK)


     The growing interest in wave energy together with coordinated actions between ocean
     energy companies and research organisations should lead in the near future to large
     scale wave power deployment. However, in developing sustainable wave power
     facilities, one should carefully consider the availability of wave resources over space
     and time. Whatever the wave energy conversion (WEC) technology considered and its
     performance, the location of sites that offer high wave intensity together with
     reasonable development and operations and maintenance costs is a key asset in assuring
     appropriate financial return. Importantly, the resource availability over the scheme
     lifecycle is critical in guaranteeing the technological and economic viability of any
     WEC project. This is particularly true in the context of climate change which could
     impact plant operation by changing power generation capability or placing a limit on
     their structure. In developing sustainable wave power facilities, there is clearly a need
     for studying climatic variables and anticipating their influence on wave energy
     resources over the long-term.

     The variability of atmospheric circulation is the most important factor determining
     changes in spatial and seasonal distribution of climatic elements like wind speed which
     influence wave climate. Various studies report relationships between atmospheric
     pressure gradients in the North Atlantic (NA) basin and wave heights, frequency or even
     extreme waves. This fact suggests that if we manage to predict the likely changes in
     prominent modes of low-frequency variability like the North Atlantic Oscillation
     (NAO) and the East Atlantic Pattern (EAP), we may provide the ocean energy sector
     and related industries with capital indications. In this respect a mesoscale wave climate
     model off the British Isles is being developed. Combining ship, buoy, and satellite data
     with reconstructed weather information (re-analysis products) and numerical
     simulations of the climate system (GCMs), this model should improve our knowledge
     of wave climate over the Atlantic Ocean and contribute to a relevant assessment of
     potential wave energy farm sites in the context of climate change.


                                                                         Abstract number 1


       ENERGY EFFICIENCY FOR DC/DC CONVERTERS IN
                 DC-BASED WIND FARMS
                              Lena Max, PhD student
               Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden
                                  +46 31 7721630
                              lena.max@chalmers.se
             Department of Energy and Enviromnent, SE-412 96 Göteborg


In the enlargement of wind energy, an attractive option is to build offshore wind farms
with high power ratings. If the transmission distance is long or if the grid to which the
wind farm is connected is weak, a high voltage direct current (HVDC) cable
transmission could be attractive. In earlier investigations of wind farms with HVDC
transmission, it has been shown that an internal DC-grid is an interesting option for
future wind farms, from an energy cost point of view, provided that the losses and cost
of the DC/DC converters will not be too high.

The purpose of this work is to investigate the suitability of three topologies for DC/DC
converters in a DC wind farm grid. The main criteria are energy efficiency and energy
production cost. The three selected topologies are the fullbridge converter, the single
active bridge converter and the series parallel resonant converter. It is found that the
resonant converter has the lowest losses of the three types for the DC wind farm
application with power losses of about 2.0 - 2.5 % of the input power. The fullbridge
converter has slightly higher losses, 2.3 - 3.5 %, while the single active bridge converter
has the highest losses, 3.5 - 5.0 %. Comparing the contribution to the energy production
cost for the converters, the topology with the lowest contribution is the fullbridge
converter or the resonant converter, depending on the position in the wind turbine grid.
Considering other factors as need for components, simple control and design, the
fullbridge converter is here found to be the most suitable choice for the wind farm
application. From an experimental verification for the fullbridge converter, it is found
that the simulated waveforms and the calculated losses agree with the measured values.




                                                                     Abstract number 2

                                                                                              
     USE OF THE ENERGY OF TIDES USING DOUBLE BASIN IN THE
                  UPPER GULF OF CALIFORNIA
                              José López González, PhD student
                               UNAM, Distrito Federal, Mexico
                                  +(52) 55 56.23.36.00 x 1662
                                     Jlopezgo@ii.unam.mx
                 UNAM, Instituto de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan
                                      Mexico D.F., 04510


     The work consists in a numerical model to simulate the operation of a tidal power plant
     in the upper Gulf of California and know the amount of energy that can be harness.

     The simulation was made with a single basin in ebb and flood flow mode operation,
     changing the installed power and getting annual generation. Also, a graphic result from
     simulation of installed power versus generation, both of them per square kilometer, was
     obtained. So with this graphic it is possible to know the amount of energy that can be
     harness depending on the installed power and size of the basin.

     Later on a simulation was made in ebb flow mode operation to compare between one
     and two ways flow direction. As the previous one, a graphic of installed power versus
     generation per square kilometer was obtained. We could observed that for the same
     basin’s size, there is a range where is better the generation with two flow direction and a
     range where is better with one way direction. Also there is a point of installed power
     where the generation is the same in both mode of operation.

     The double basin scheme is another system of tidal power plant. With this scheme a
     simulation was made to know the generation and a graphic result as the previous
     mentioned. A comparison was made between single basin and double basin generation,
     again there is a range where is better the generation with a single basin and another
     range where is better with a double basin scheme. The distinctions between single or
     double basin schemes are mainly the disposition of energy. With a single basin scheme
     it is possible to harness more energy, but in some cases there are periods of time without
     power. Meanwhile, with a double basin, scheme there is always power.

     With the graphic results we can do any combination that we want and know the amount
     of energy that can be harness in any mode of operation with single or double basin and
     make a comparison between combinations.




                                                                           Abstract number 3


      RESEARCH ROUTE MAP FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL
      SUSTAINABILITY OF MARINE RENEWABLE ENERGY

                             Luke Reade, Early Researcher
                        University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
                                   +44 131 650 7211
                                  luke.reade@ed.ac.uk
       Centre for the study of Environmental Change and Sustainability (CECS)
                          Crew Building, The Kings Buildings
                                University of Edinburgh
                        West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JN
                                      Scotland, UK


This work involved as the first step researching the industry 'landscape' to characterise
research, development and demonstration activity. This incleded which academic units
(as well as relevant government agencies and developers) are doing what research and
where, what funding sources are available and through which agencies, what networks
are available (including description, membership and activities), who are the research
providers (including developers) and what research facilities and assets are available.
This landscape was then analysed for research gaps, inconsistencies, parallels,
opportunities, challenges, capabilities. A register and database of this information was
then formulated. The register is to be used to inform potential collaboration, funding
sources, gaps and synergies.

A discussion paper is being completed that is informed by both the technology and
environmental landscapes and integrated into the technology route map (completed by
other UKERC researchers). This will be undertaken with consultation with all
stakeholders.




                                                                    Abstract number 4

                                                                                            
     NONLINEAR MODELLING AND OPTIMISING OF POWER TAKE
         OFF SYSTEMS FOR WAVE ENERGY CONVERTERS

                                 Helen Bailey, PhD student
                                University of Edinburgh, UK
                                    +44 (0)131 6508689
                                   Helen.Bailey@ed.ac.uk
     School of Engineering and Electronics, Alrick Rm1.24, The King's Buildings, Mayfield
                                Rd, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL, UK



     One of the significant challenges for Marine Renewables, particularly for Wave Energy
     is extracting the maximum amount of energy possible from the movement of the ocean.
     Power Take Off (PTO) systems convert the relative motion that occurs in the device
     into electricity. These are commonly modelled as a linear system, with adjustments
     made for the model’s limitations since the ocean environment and any object floating on
     it, is inherently non linear. Using nonlinear techniques, will allow a more realistic
     model to be built that will enable the properties of the PTO to be more fully understood.

     The PTO system considered here is based around a slacked moored offshore device, of
     arbitrary shape, which could have any PTO system, such as hydraulic, pneumatic or
     direct drive. The nonlinear properties of a PTO system are modelled as a mass, spring,
     damper system with an internal inertial mass reacting against the main body of the
     device. The main body of the model is presently restricted to move along a sinusoidal
     path, mimicking the action of the wave.

     The displacement, velocity and acceleration of the internal mass relative to the main
     body of the device will be discussed. An analysis of this will be conducted showing
     how the internal mass moves in response to the sinusoidal input with reference to the
     energy that could potentially be extracted from the relative motion.

     The model will be optimised based on having the maximum amount of power from the
     system whilst having a limited maximum motion of the internal mass within the
     external structure.




                                                                         Abstract number 5

6
 HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING ON A DIRECT-DRIVEN LINEAR
                  GENERATOR

                              Jens Engström, Ph.D. student
               Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion
 Division for Electricity and Lightning Research, Department of Engineering Sciences,
                               The Ångström Laboratory,
                          Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
                                   +46 (0)18 471 58 18
                             jens.engstrom@angstrom.uu.se
                        Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1
                               Box 534, 751 21 UPPSALA


I am participating in a research group that develops a wave power plant for offshore
operation, with the main goal to convert the heaving motion in the ocean waves to
electric energy.

Our Wave Energy Converter (WEC) is based on a direct-driven linear generator, driven
by a point absorber. The buoy extracts energy from the waves which makes the translator
to move upwards. Springs attached to the translator pulls it downwards in wave crests.
At this moment there is one wave power plant in operation 2 km outside the Swedish
west coast near Lysekil, and in the years to come a total of ten power plants will have
been installed at the site.

My research area within the project will be the hydrodynamical modeling of the WEC,
with the main focus on optimizing the energy absorption of the system, but also includes
the structural survivability. At this stage the hydrodynamic modeling is based on linear
wave theory on plane parallel waves, and the buoy is modeled as a point absorber with
vertical (heave) motion only. First one needs to find an optimal geometry of the buoy,
which extracts as much energy as possible from the waves. The sea state characteristic of
the test area needs to be investigated. Then the wave power plant needs to be adapted to
the dominating wave climate, both in terms of the active length of the stator/translator,
the inertia of the moving parts as well as the buoy geometry. With the complexity of the
ocean waves in mind, one needs to search for an appropriate approximation in order to
extract as much energy as possible. Further on I will also look at the hydrodynamic
interactions between several wave power plants, since a future commercialization needs
to be based on a wave power park.




                                                                    Abstract number 6

                                                                                            
                 ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES FOR OCEAN WAVES
                                 Sean BARRETT, PhD Student
                     Hydraulics & Maritime Research Centre, Cork, Ireland
                                       +353 21 4250031
                                   snb.hmrc.ucc@gmail.com
                      University College Cork, Western Rd., Cork, Ireland

     At present I am investigating the spectral composition of seaways that occur at a
     number of locations off the western seaboard of Ireland. Three sites are offshore and
     one is at the benign quarter scale test site for floating wave energy devices in a semi-
     enclosed coastal bay on the west coast. The measured data is compared with numerical
     forecasting models such as SWAN and WAM, for data validation, and to determine
     directional and shape properties of the spectra. This level of detail is important to wave
     energy development since most devices proposed to date have resonant responses, so
     the exact excitation frequencies forcing the machines must be known to accurately
     predict the performance. Also, during both the physical and mathematical modelling
     phase it is the generally accepted practice to base the programmes on classical
     properties such as Bretschneider and JONSWAP. The validity for this assumption
     relative to the sea areas where wave energy converters will be deployed requires
     validation.

     Analysis of data from the quarter scale test site shows that there are high occurrences of
     twin peaked spectra, comprising a local fetch limited wind sea and a long period swell
     which approaches the site from offshore. The method that identifies and separates these
     multi-modal wave generation systems into their constituent processes will be presented
     and compared to any similar occurrences offshore. Through the application of this
     method the wind and swell sea components will be presented in various forms to
     engender a thorough knowledge of the conditions at the test site.

     As most floating wave energy converters have a narrow response bandwidth, a high
     occurrence of twin peaked spectra may not produce the expected power production from
     the device, especially if resonance falls within the valley between the wind and swell
     spectral components. What effect will a long period swell occurring at the test site have
     on the motions of the device, and will a twin peaked sea cause the device to produce
     less power than expected for the same summary statistics?




                                                                         Abstract number 7

8
                       AWS DESIGN OPTIMIZATION
                     Miguel Goden de Sousa Prado, PhD student
                          EPP-TUDelft, Delft, Netherlands
                                   +31226423411
                             miguel.prado@teamwork.nl
                     De Weel 20, 1736 KB Zijdewind, Netherlands


AWS (Archimedes Wave Swing) is a wave energy technology that started to be
developed in 1993 by the dutch company Teamwork Technology B.V. This technology
has passed through different phases of development, like small scale model tests to
prove the concept, building and deploying a full scale prototype in Portugal and at the
moment the development of a pre-commercial device by the Scottish company AWS
Ocean Energy Ltd.

AWS is basically a submerged axisymmetric heaving device (one degree of freedom of
motion) that extracts energy from the ocean surface waves with periods in the range of
6s to 16s. Since sea states vary quite in amplitude and period along a year, the device
can be tuned in order to the maximize power absorption. Depending on the size of the
machine and the location where it’s deployed, average output power at the maximum
operating sea state may reach levels above 1MW and annual energy production may
reach levels of 4GWh.

In order to make the technology economically viable is important to optimize the design
of the device. Although increasing the size of device promotes an increase of the energy
production it also promotes at the same time an increase of its cost. Theoretically it is
expected that with increasing dimensions of the device, the rate of increase of energy
production (income) should become smaller and the rate of increase of the cost should
become higher. This means that there will be an optimum size at which both rates
cancel each other. To determine this optimum is necessary to develop a technical and an
economical model that can provide sound data about the device’s performance (energy
production) and costs (construction, installation, maintenance and decommissioning).
This work will address this issue and highlight the design constraints from fundamental
physical principles that arise typically in the design of a wave energy converters based
on energy extraction from one or more degrees of freedom of motion.




                                                                    Abstract number 8

                                                                                            9
     MODELLING OF AND CONTROLLER DESIGN FOR FLOATING
                      WIND TURBINES

                              Thomas Pagaard Fuglseth, PhD student
           Dept of Electrical Power Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and
                                 Technology, Trondheim Norway
                                         +47 73 59 42 29
                                Thomas.Fuglseth@elkraft.ntnu.no
                         O. S. Bragstads pl. 2E, 7491 Trondheim, Norway


     The purpose of this research is to create tools for modeling floating wind turbines, and
     apply these tools to design a controller structure that will optimize the power production
     of the turbine while minimizing wear on mechanical and electrical components.

     Matlab and Simulink are used as a framework and for modeling generators and control
     systems. But the aerodynamics and equations of motion are evaluated using FAST, a
     freeware program developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Colorado,
     USA. FAST is open-source, and can be modified to model the dynamics of a floating
     platform. It is also written to be interfaced with Simulink.

     The primary issue so far has been to find a suitable modeling approach for
     hydrodynamic forces, and implementing this. Radiation forces (hydrodynamic added
     mass and potential damping), are modeled by creating linear state space systems for
     each component of the radiation forces, based on tables of frequency-dependent data.

     Frequency-dependent added mass and potential damping are found with Wamit v6, and
     the output from Wamit is then processed in Matlab to create time-domain state-space
     systems. During simulations, the state-space systems are evaluated in a subroutine in
     FAST, and the hydrodynamic forces are added to the total forces when evaluating the
     equations of motion.

     As wave excitation forces are non-causal, they can not easily be modeled as a linear
     system. There are methods for calculating wave excitation forces in a similar fashion to
     radiation forces. However, it is often simpler to pre- generate a time-sequence of wave
     excitation forces using numerical convolution between the wave amplitude time
     sequence and the inverse fourier transform of the wave excitation transfer function in
     Matlab.

     The modeling tools are intended to be used as a basis for controller designs as well as a
     simulation tool for testing controller strategies. Ideally, a good controller for a floating
     wind turbine should be able to both minimize the movement of the platform itself as
     well as reduce wear on blades, bearings and shaft/gearbox, while allowing the turbine to
     produce as much power as possible.

                                                                           Abstract number 9

0
   DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL TEHCHNIQUES FOR
             OFFSHORE WAVE ENERGY
                              Miguel Lopes, PhD student
                     Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal
                                   +351 21 8419783
                                mlopes@hidro1.ist.utl.pt
        IST, Pav. De Mecânica IV, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisboa, Portugal


The theoretical and numerical modeling is the first stage in the development process of
wave energy converters. The research group in IST has been developing during the last
20 years work regarding numerical modeling of both onshore and offshore devices.

The necessity of a more complete description of the phenomena related with the wave-
structure interactions has led to the necessity of using experimental modeling in IST,
particularly to the description of non-linear and viscous effects, hard to predict by other
means.

IST created a program for the development of the necessary experimental techniques
used for the modeling of offshore wave energy converters.

The first part was the re-equipment of the IST and the FEUP (Engineering Faculty of
Porto) wave flumes and tanks with the necessary hardware and working conditions.
This includes the wave generation and data acquisition systems and also a number of
systems that include transducers, infrared motion measurement cameras and particle
image velocimetry (PIV).

The second part of the ongoing project is essentially the validation of the measurement
processes, using cases with simple geometry that can be compared with analytical,
numerical or previous experimental results.

The third part includes the study of a more complex and applicable geometry, including
the moorings and the phase control.

In this presentation, the objectives of the project will be clarified, presenting some
initial results from these newly available tools.




                                                                     Abstract number 10

                                                                                              
     A LOW SPEED PERMANENT MAGNETIZED GENERATOR FOR
            MARINE CURRENT ENERGY CONVERSION

                                   Karin Nilsson, PhD Student
                              Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
                                        +46 18 471 32 27
                                  karin.nilsson@angstrom.uu.se
                    Division of Electricity, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala, Sweden

     At Uppsala University a concept for marine current energy conversion consisting of a
     vertical axis turbine coupled directly to a permanent magnet generator is being
     investigated. Since the vertical axis turbine has no yawing system and can be designed
     for various cross-sections this concept stands effective and simpler. A direct coupling
     eliminates the need for a gearbox, a component often associated with maintenance and
     power transmission losses. On the other hand the absence of a gearbox results in low
     rotational speeds of the generator. Additionally this concept allows the freedom to
     electrically handle varying speeds in an efficient manner.

     The work so far consists of modeling generators for low rotational speeds using a finite
     element method that solves Maxwell’s equations. In March 2007 the first experimental
     generator was constructed and tested. This generator is a 5 kVA, 120 pole synchronous
     machine with a nominal speed of 10 rpm. In order to study the electrical and mechanical
     performance characteristics of the generator, the input of the generator (representing the
     marine current flow) was fed using a 22 kW motor-gearbox unit capable of supplying
     11 kNm torque and speed control between 0 and 15 rpm.

     I have been a PhD student in this project since June 2003 and I am planning to defend
     my thesis at the end of this year. In September 2005 I presented my licentiate thesis
     with the title: “Low speed generators for marine current power conversion”. My work is
     mostly focused on the FEM based electromagnetic simulations of permanent
     magnetized generators for the development of the experimental setup. Currently
     measurements are being carried out on the generator to verify calculations and also
     gather information and data for planning the next phase of the project wherein a first
     prototype marine current power plant (coupled turbine-generator system) for tests in a
     marine environment.




                                                                         Abstract number 11


A LOW SPEED PERMANENT MAGNETIZED GENERATOR FOR
       MARINE CURRENT ENERGY CONVERSION
                             Katarina Yuen, PhD student
                        Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
                                  +46 18 471 3368
                           katarina.yuen@angstrom.uu.se
                   Division of Electricity, Box 534, 75121 Uppsala

At Uppsala University, a research group is studying a concept for marine current energy
conversion consisting of a vertical axis turbine connected directly to a permanent
magnet generator. This concept has been chosen for its overall simplicity. The vertical
axis turbine has no need for a yawing system and can be designed for various cross-
sections. A direct connection means that there is no gearbox, a component often
associated with maintenance needs and losses. On the other hand the absence of a
gearbox gives a low rotational speed of the generator. One of the fundamental ideas for
this choice of concept is that handling a low and varying speed can be managed
efficiently electrically.

The work so far consists of modeling and simulating generators for low rotational
speeds using a finite element method tool to solve Maxwell’s equations. In March 2007
the first prototype generator was finalized at the Ångström Laboratory in Uppsala. The
prototype is a 5 kVA, 120 pole synchronous generator with a nominal speed of 10 rpm.
It is driven artificially with a 22 kW motor and gearbox unit able to supply up to
11 kNm torque and operate the generator between 0 and 15 rpm.

I have been a PhD student since April 2006. My contribution to the experimental setup
has been structural design, mainly of the stator and support structure, as well as
assembly of the setup. Work now focuses on characterizing the prototype, and for some
measurements I am using LabView. The next phase in the project is to build a turbine
and a generator to place in an outdoor setting. Here, my focus will be on the power
electronics involved after the generator in the power train.




                                                                     Abstract number 12

                                                                                          
     A LOW SPEED PERMANENT MAGNETIZED GENERATOR FOR
            MARINE CURRENT ENERGY CONVERSION
                              Mårten Grabbe, Research assistant
                             Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
                                       +46 18 471 58 43
                                marten.grabbe@angstrom.uu.se
                        Division of Electricity, Box 534, 75121 Uppsala

     At Uppsala University, a research group is studying a concept for marine current energy
     conversion consisting of a vertical axis turbine connected directly to a permanent
     magnet generator. This concept has been chosen for its overall simplicity. The vertical
     axis turbine has no need for a yawing system and can be designed for various cross-
     sections. A direct connection means that there is no gearbox, a component often
     associated with maintenance needs and losses. On the other hand the absence of a
     gearbox gives a low rotational speed of the generator. One of the fundamental ideas for
     this choice of concept is that handling a low and varying speed can be managed
     efficiently electrically.

     The work so far consists of modeling and simulating generators for low rotational
     speeds using a finite element method tool to solve Maxwell’s equations. In March 2007
     the first prototype generator was finalized at the Ångström Laboratory in Uppsala. The
     prototype is a 5 kVA, 120 pole synchronous generator with a nominal speed of 10 rpm.
     It is driven artificially with a 22 kW motor and gearbox unit able to supply up to
     11 kNm torque and operate the generator between 0 and 15 rpm.

     I finished my MSc in Engineering Physics in November 2006. My Master thesis subject
     was marine current energy conversion. Since then I have worked as a research assistant
     within the marine current energy group at Uppsala University. My contribution so far
     has mainly been structural design and assembly of the first prototype generator.
     Currently I am doing measurements and also planning the next phase in the project, i.e.
     a first prototype to test in a marine environment. I see this PhD symposium as a great
     opportunity for me to meet other young researchers in the area and learn more about
     important efforts in the marine renewable sector.




                                                                       Abstract number 13


  A METHODOLOGY FOR VALIDATING A NUMERICAL OWC
         MODEL USING EXPERIMENTAL DATA
                   Rebecca Sykes, PhD student, Wavetrain Fellow.
      Hydraulics and Maritime Research Centre, University College Cork, Ireland
                                 +353 (0)21 4250013
                               r_k_sykes@yahoo.co.uk
              Youngline Industrial Estate, Pouladuff Road, Cork, Ireland

A numerical model of an unrestrained oscillating water column can be considered in
linear water wave theory to be comprised of a diffracted part, a radiated part due to the
motion of the body and a radiated part due to the pressure variation imposed by a power
take-off mechanism.

In the frequency domain numerical models such as WAMIT, a boundary element
method solver, can be used to obtain the hydrodynamic characteristics. These consist of
the force on the body as the solution to the diffracted problem, and the added mass and
damping as the solution to the radiation problem.

These characteristics have been determined using WAMIT for a vertical, cylindrical,
thick-walled OWC with as yet, no external damping. Experimental data was obtained to
validate the results. This was necessary due to assumptions made within linear water
wave theory. Due to the complicated nature of the motions of the body the experimental
results were difficult to analyse. Therefore to initially validate the diffraction part alone
experimental data was obtained for a fixed body and compared with a corresponding
numerical model.

The means by which the validation can be made may be based on a number of
parameters. The justification for the present use of hydrodynamic pressures will be
outlined here in addition to the method used to determine them. The method for
validation of the unrestrained model will be also be speculated.




                                                                         Abstract number 14

                                                                                                
       HYDRAULIC PERFORMANCES OF THE SSG WAVE ENERGY
                        CONVERTER
                                 Lucia Margheritini, PhD student
                              Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark
                                         +459635 8578
                                        lm@civil.aau.dk
                            Sohngårdsholmsvej 57, 9000, Aalborg, DK


     The Sea Slot-cone Generator (SSG) is a wave energy converter (WEC) of the
     overtopping kind; it is a patented and certificated device developed by WAVEEnergy,
     Stavanger, Norway. In 2008 will be the first full scale wave energy converter producing
     electricity. The pilot project has been partially financed by EU in 2004 under the FP6
     Energy; within this scheme Aalborg University (AAU) has been involved in the WP1
     with the objective of planning and developing a data control and acquisition system for
     the full scale module. The pilot project regards a 150 kW onshore installation with
     approximately dimensions of 17 m (length) x 10 m (width) x 6 m (height) and three
     reservoirs one on the top of each others to optimize the storage of power in the
     overtopping waves. The works for the construction of the structure will start in summer
     2007 at the selected location in the island of Kvitsøy, Norway.
     Since one year I am the main responsible of the project at AAU and I have been running
     tests is the 3D wave tank to estimate the influence of directionality on the overtopping
     rates. I attend meetings with the other project partners and I presented the results. Some
     work has also been done with the Power Simulation program to evaluate the response of
     the device with different characteristics that can be changed within the program. My
     future tasks are the instrumentation of the device and the comparison between the
     obtained laboratory data and the measured full scale data.




                                                                         Abstract number 15

6
      AN OPTION FOR TOWERS IN LAGER WIND TURBINES

                             Haiyan Long, PhD student
                  Department of Civil and Transport Engineering,
      Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
                                 Tel: 0047-73594971
                               Email: haiyan@ntnu.no
         Office adress: Hoegskoleringen 7A, Gloeshaugen, 7491 Trondheim


A selective and incomplete review of the types of tower and foundation used in offshore
wind turbines was firstly presented. The main focus was to compare with a designed
truss tower and an existing tubular tower in order to find an attractive option for larger
wind turbines.

A truss tower with fixed bottom has been roughly designed as an alternative to an
existing tubular tower for offshore turbines. The design was based on the principle that
the first frequencies of the two towers should be quite close to each other. The weight of
the truss tower was found to be only half of that of the tubular one. Then the static and
buckling analysis have been processed for the fictitious truss tower. It was seen that the
truss tower satisfied the static demands and the safe factor for buckling was high. This
dynamic study for the truss tower concentrated on a downwind configuration because it
is of practical interest for offshore floating wind turbines, being stable under yaw
motions. The results from these tests were also interesting because the fluctuating forces
set up by the blades when passing through the tower shadow made it possible to assess
dynamic effects. The dynamic loads were found to be considerably smaller than the
static forces. So truss towers appear to be an economical option for lager wind turbines
compared to the type of tubular.




                                                                     Abstract number 16

                                                                                             
              ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF WAVE ENERGY
                            Cristina Huertas-Olivares, PhD student
                            Wave Energy Centre, Losboa, Portugal
                                       +351 21 848 2655
                               cristina@wave-energy-centre.org
                 Av. Manuel da Maia, nº 36, r/c Dto., 1000-201 Lisboa, Portugal


     The deployment of wave energy schemes produces no emissions in normal operation.
     Nevertheless, like all the other renewable energies, wave energy does not have a “0”
     impact on the environment. Thus for this very reason, efforts should be made at a very
     early stage to carefully avoid letting the idea run that to produce energy from waves is
     to move the problem of producing electricity from land to sea. Therefore, studies have
     to be made not only because it is a legislative requirement but also to demonstrate
     sustainability and, if proven, expand the idea. So, consequently, apart from avoiding
     environmental damage, it will benefit this industry by being more attractive for
     investors and governments, who could then see (if before unclear) the environmental
     variable as a barrier. It will increase social acceptance, a key issue in these types of
     development, where lack of knowledge plays a negative role.

     The work I am undertaken is the design of a methodology to identify and evaluate those
     impacts (positive and negatives) for large scale wave energy schemes. It is based on
     small existing pilot plants and other offshore experiences, such as offshore wind energy
     farms. The first Monitoring Guideline for Environmental Impact Assessment of wave
     energy projects is expected to be also an output. It will also draw Environmental
     Management recommendations for the fist big scale demonstration zone that will be
     installed in northern Portugal.




                                                                       Abstract number 17

8
HYDRAULIC DARRIEUS TURBINE EFFICIENCY FOR
FREE STREAM CONDITIONS VERSUS POWER FARM
               CONDITIONS

                 Sylvain ANTHEAUME, PhD student
   EDF(Electricité de France)/LEGI (Laboratoire des Ecoulements
          Géophysiques et Industriels) Grenoble, France
                           33 4 7682511
                  sylvain.antheaume@hmg.inpg.fr
                   BP 53 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9


The present study deals with the efficiency of cross flow water
current turbine for free stream conditions versus power farm
conditions.

First, we look at a single turbine for free fluid flow conditions. The
simulations are carried out with a new in house code which couples a
2D Navier-Stokes computation of the flow with a macroscopic
description of the turbine. The method is validated with experimental
results of a Darrieus wind turbine and is then applied for the
description of a hydraulic turbine.

An interesting feature of cross flow turbines is their ability to be
piled up on the same axis of rotation to make a tower. Not only is it
profitable because only one alternator is needed but the simulations
demonstrate the advantage of the tower configuration for the
efficiency. Indeed, the flow that goes through the turbines is bigger
because of the blockage effect and is responsible for an increase of
power coefficient.

The tower is then inserted into a cluster of several lined up towers
which makes a barge. The results show that the closer the towers,
the better the average barge efficiency.

Thereby, we show that the efficiency of a single isolated turbine is
greatly increased when set both into a tower and into a cluster of
several towers corresponding to possible power farm arrangements.

Eventually, we simulate severals farm configurations to study the
influence of the spacing between barges over the global efficiency.
This final point is of much importance to design the best farm in
terms of power and environment self preservation for a given site.


                                                     Abstract number 18

                                                                          9
     NUMERICAL MODELLING OF WAVE ENERGY CONVERTERS.
                                    Pierpaolo Ricci, PhD student
                           Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal
                                        Tel. +351 218417776
                                       pricci@hidro1.ist.utl.pt

      Address: Mechanical Engineering Department (Pavilhão de Turbomaquinas), Instituto
            Superior Técnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001, Lisbon, Portugal.


     To date, wave energy technology has not yet reached the commercial stage and still in
     the last years different devices have been proposed to exploit the wave energy potential,
     many of them being even far from a demonstration pilot plant. Possible investors and
     financers, including public or no profit organizations have many difficulties in
     comprehending which devices are going to be the “winners” or which ones are the most
     promising.

     The modeling phase is one of the key issue and the first mean to prove the efficiency
     and the reliability of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC). It also represents, in many
     cases, the first source of realistic data about the performance of such systems and an
     initial platform of communication with financers. Moreover, even in more advanced
     projects, where the basic lines are already known, it gives important guidelines in terms
     of optimization and costs reduction.

     My work as PhD student is mainly based on the numerical modeling of Wave Energy
     Converters. An important part of it is devoted to the definition and the optimization of
     the geometry of the WECs, including the study of arrays and farm configurations. This
     kind of results is usually obtained via a frequency domain approach with advanced
     computer codes and based on linear water wave theory. The successive implementation
     of Power Take-Off (PTO) mechanism and eventually of a control system requires a
     deeper analysis that cannot avoid a time domain simulation.

     Although there are several techniques capable of a good accuracy, there is still a large
     need of research in this field and, very often, the recursion to the physical modeling and
     to tank testing is fundamental and primarily desirable. Yet the modeling approach is
     nowadays still mainly academic and a further knowledge of the production technologies
     and the economic requirements posed by industry is becoming necessary to produce a
     good appeal and a good result.




                                                                          Abstract number 19

0
CONTROL OF POWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS FOR WIND
 AND WAVE ENERGY IN CHALLENGING GRID CONDITIONS
                         Jon Are Suul, MSc./PhD applicant
                 SINTEF Energy Research / NTNU, Trondheim, Norway
                                  0047 7359 7262
                               Jon.A.Suul@sintef.no
                                Sem Sælands vei 11

This abstract is a brief description of a topic that will be treated in a PhD study, planned
to be started in September 2007. The purpose of the study will be to investigate
challenges and limitations to stable operation and synchronization to the grid voltage for
power electronic converters in power systems with limited transmission capacity and a
dominating share of equipment interfaced to the grid with power electronics. This is a
situation that is likely to be encountered with large scale integration of renewable
energy sources into the electric power system. For offshore renewable energy, this can
be the situation with large amount of distributed generation along the coast fed directly
into the local power grid, or when feeding the production of a large scale wind or wave
farm into the power system at one specific location.

There are many possible control structures for power electronic converters utilized for
grid interface of power generation. If the converter is supposed to operate in a large
power system, information of the instantaneous phase angle of the grid voltage is
necessary for the control system to be able to regulate active and reactive current or
power independently. Usually when designing or analyzing converter control systems,
the converter rating is assumed to be small compared to the transmission capacity of the
local grid, and the position of the reference voltage used for synchronization is assumed
to be stable with negligible influence from the converter operation. Then the control
loops governing active and reactive power flow can be treated assuming the detected
grid voltage position from the synchronization algorithm to be correct. If the impedance
of the grid is large, and the system is approaching the stability limit for power transfer,
this assumption will not always be valid, and the control actions of the converter can
influence the position of its reference voltage. In that case, it will be necessary to study
the stability of the control system and the grid voltage synchronization method together.

One of the results when the voltage position used by the control system is transiently
deviating from the real position of the grid voltage is that control of active and reactive
current or power can not be totally decoupled. Changing the active power flow will then
influence the reactive power flow and vice versa. When the premises for decoupled
control of active and reactive current is no longer present, additional nonlinearities will
be introduced to the system, and will affect the performance and the stability limits of
the control loops. The aim of the study will therefore be to identify limitations to stable
operation and investigate interactions between control systems and grid synchronization
algorithms of power electronic converters for grid interface of renewable energy.

                                                                      Abstract number 20

                                                                                               
           INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT WITHIN
                  OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY
                                Nicolai S. Løvdal, PhD student
             Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
                                        +47 73593711
                                  nicolai.lovdal@iot.ntnu.no
              Alfred Getz veg 3, Sentralbygg I,12. etg., 7491 Trondheim, Norge


     The society needs solutions to reduce pollution and rising energy need. Offshore
     Renewable Energy (ORE) represents a vast energy source. Technical breakthroughs in
     ORE could also enable further exploiting of other marine businesses (e.g. offshore fish
     farming, hydrogen and bio fuel production). In order to realize ORE we need new
     technological innovations and a market for these.

     The development of offshore renewable energy industry is highly dependent on public
     support and political decisions. This is especially true due to the fact that development
     of technology for offshore use includes a high capital need and has to compete with
     other more mature energy technologies. Hence, ORE is an industry with high risk and
     high potential, but still relying on decisions taken by others than the industry it self -
     political affairs.

     My research is regarded to how technology based firms could exploit foreign assets
     (e.g. private capital, public funding, knowledge and natural resources) in order to
     achieve a more rapid development and at the same time raise the probability to survive
     in a highly competitive industry. In particular, I utilize international entrepreneurship
     theories and focus on how different national policies could affect the development of
     each firm and the industry as a whole. Traditionally, international business
     entrepreneurship theories are concerned about how to sell off the rack products in
     foreign markets. In the ORE industry there is still nobody who has such a thing as a off
     the rack product.

     There is a wide specter of new firms who all base their business idea on harnessing
     wave or tidal energy. To collect data a web survey was sent to 90 companies in the
     world that hold a technical concept which can harness large scale wave or tidal energy,
     which they aim to commercialize through a dedicated organization. The survey aims to
     measure the degree of internationalization in the industry, the current status and
     expected development.

     In the presentation I will give some insight from the survey which reveals that the
     emerging wave and tidal industry contains substantial international activities despite its
     immaturity.



                                                                          Abstract number 21


       A FARM OF INTERACTING WAVE POWER DEVICES
                             Charlotte Beels, PhD student
          Ghent University, Department of Civil Engineering, Ghent, Belgium
                                   +32 9 264 54 86
                             Charlotte.Beels@UGent.be
                     Technologiepark 904, B-9052 Zwijnaarde


The need for renewable energy is rising at light-speed. The increasing energy demand,
the greenhouse effect and the approaching exhaustion of conventional energy resources,
forces humanity to use energy more economically and to develop alternative energy
supplies, a.o. wave energy. A single Wave Energy Converter (WEC), with a capacity
comparable to a classic power plant (e.g. 400 MW), is technologically impossible.
Therefore arrays of smaller devices, placed in a geometric configuration or ‘farm’, are
needed.
WECs in a farm interact and the overall power absorption is affected. Furthermore the
cost of a farm is modified by its layout. An optimal pattern of WECs in order to
maximize the power absorption at a reasonable cost is of major importance in the design
of a wave farm. A farm of interacting wave power devices is studied numerically and
experimentally.
At Ghent University, a mild-slope wave propagation model MILDwave has been
developed (Troch, 1998), e.g. to study diffraction patterns in a harbour. The phase-
resolving model is able to generate linear water waves over a mildly varying bathymetry
and to calculate instantaneous surface elevations (and velocity potential) throughout the
domain. Wave transformation processes such as refraction, shoaling, reflection,
transmission and diffraction are simulated intrinsically. The existing model is adapted
by simulating the energy extraction and radiation of a WEC through sponge layers
(Beels et al., 2006). The adapted model is validated with physical tests on a WEC in the
wave flume of Ghent University and Flanders Hydraulics Research.
Through simulations in MILDwave and physical testing an optimal pattern of
interacting wave power devices will be derived. Several restrictions to minimize the
cost of a farm will be taken into account.

Acknowledgement
Research funded by Ph.D. grant of the Institute for the Promotion of Innovation through
Science and Technology in Flanders (IWT-Vlaanderen), Belgium.

References
Beels C., Troch P., De Backer G., De Rouck J., Moan T. and Falcão A. 2006. A model
to investigate interacting wave power devices. Proceedings International Conference
Ocean Energy, Bremerhaven:94-101.
Troch P. 1998. MILDwave – A numerical model for propagation and transformation of
linear water waves. Internal report, Department of Civil Engineering, Ghent University.

                                                                   Abstract number 22

                                                                                            
              BUOY SURVEILLANCE AND MOTION TRACKING
                                   Simon Tyrberg, PhD student
               Division for Electricity and Lightning Research, Uppsala, Sweden
                                      +46 (0) 18 471 58 39
                                simon.tyrberg.7423@student.uu.se
             Avd. för ellära och åskforskning, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden


     During the past couple of years, the Division for Electricity and Lightning Research has
     been working on a project to extract electrical energy from ocean waves: Islandsberg.
     The thought behind the project is a system with sensitive and expensive parts at the
     seabed rather than at the surface, protected from storms. The system consists of a buoy
     at the surface, connected with a rope to a linear generator at the bottom of the ocean.
     The movement of the buoy in the waves is transferred to the translator in the generator
     and its up-and-down motion creates an alternating voltage. The produced current is
     rectified and transferred to land, where it will again be inverted to enable grid
     connection.

     Many questions remain to be answered concerning the design of the wave power plants.
     Among other things, there is a wish to further understand the interaction of waves, buoy
     and generator. In order to study the motion of the wave buoys, a measuring station is
     being set up on an islet close to the wave farm. My PhD work will consist of completing
     this measuring station on the one hand and studying the motions of wave buoys on the
     other hand. This may generate insights on how to improve the electrical output by
     varying parameters, such as buoy size versus generator size for example.

     Presently, it is possible to make assumptions on how the buoy moves through
     observations of voltages in the generator. Since the generator and the buoy are only
     connected through a rope however, there is a possibility for the buoy to have a different
     motion than the generator. Examples of questions to be answered are: How much does
     the buoy move laterally? Is it washed over with water? If so, how much and at what
     electrical loads?




                                                                         Abstract number 23


 
       
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        
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        
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



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          

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            

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
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            
          
         
           
            

             


              
 
             
             
          
            







                                                                            Abstract number 24

                                                                                                        
             TRENDS OF HVDC LIGHT TRANSMISSION USED IN
                 OFFSHORE WIND PARK APPLICATIONS
                                     Hongfei Ma, Post Doc
             Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark
                                     Phone: +45 96359278
                                    E-Mail: hma@iet.aau.dk
                                Pontoppidanstraede 101, Room 61


     Offshore wind farms are being developed at an increasing speed. HVDC (High Voltage
     Direct Current) light transmission is the ideal means to bring the power to the shore for
     offshore wind farms.

     HVDC light is HVDC technology based on voltage source converters, which is different
     from HVDC classic. With extruded DC cables, power ratings from a few tens of
     megawatts up to several gigawatts are available. So, HVDC Light is a flexible, modular
     system that can be staged and installed to meet capacity demand and easily be built or
     expanded to multi-terminal system.

     HVDC light has the capability to rapidly control both active and reactive power
     independently of each other, to keep the voltage and frequency stable. This gives total
     flexibility regarding the location of the converters in the AC system since the
     requirements of short-circuit capacity of connected AC network is low.

     HVDC light has important advantages, such as underground cables instead of overhead
     lines, short delivery times, compact stations, controllability of power and voltages,
     possibility for multi-terminal operation, etc. HVDC light technology itself is
     environmentally friendly. Since power is transmitted via a pair of submarine cables,
     there is no visual impact along the transmission. The balanced voltage to the ground
     eliminates the need of an electrode. There are no ground current and no electromagnetic
     field from the cable pair.

     Its concept and trends will be discussed. The topology and control strategies of the
     voltage source converter, DC cables and stations will be presented. Some examples of
     wind farm transmission will be introduced.




                                                                         Abstract number 25

6
   INTERCONNECTION OF OFFSHORE POINT ABSORBER
LINEAR GENERATOR WEC:S BY UNDERWATER SUBSTATION
                           Magnus Stålberg, PhD student
  Swedish Center for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Division for Electricity,
                                   Uppsala, Sweden
                                  +46 18 471 58 39
                         magnus.stalberg@angstrom.uu.se
         Avdelningen för elektricitetslära, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala, Sweden


The point absorber linear generator concept being developed at the Swedish Center for
Renewable Electric Energy Conversion has now been underway for about five years.
This year, 2007, we aim at being able to show the full operating principle of a small
research wave farm consisting of three wave energy converters (WEC:s) and one
underwater substation including power transmission to shore. In the coming years,
additionally up to seven WEC:s will be installed at the test site, which is situated
southwest of Lysekil, just outside of island Islandsberg, on the Swedish west coast.

In the spring of 2006, a 1kV sea cable and the first 10kW prototype of the WEC was put
to sea. This first step resulted in full offshore operation of the prototype for about 2½
months. After repairs and smaller improvements, the plant is now operational again
since the beginning of March 2007. Step 2 in the expansion of the research wave farm
has been the installation of 20 smaller dummy buoys (without generators) for
environmental impact studies. Step 3 is the installation of additionally two WEC:s and
an underwater substation containing switchgear, a transformer and some additional
electrical equipment. The aim is to demonstrate the full operation of a small wave farm.

Interconnecting WEC:s on the seafloor has some more or less obvious pro’s and con’s.
It is protected from storms, the cooling environment for electrical components is
extremely favorable and there is no visual impact. However, on the downside, if
components need any kind of maintenance, this has to be done by lifting the substation
to the surface.

I specialize in the electrical system interconnecting a number of WEC:s. The
interconnection has to be made electrically by rectifying the voltage from each WEC,
adding the power from each WEC to a common DC-bus with filtering and capacitive
storage, inverting the DC to 50 Hz AC and finally transforming the voltage to a suitable
transmission voltage level. During year one, I focused on the sea cable transmission and
the prototype WEC. Since then I have been focusing on the structural mechanics of the
substation and its electrical system. This will be the main subject of my thesis.




                                                                    Abstract number 26

                                                                                            
       A BLADE ELEMENT THEORY MODEL FOR TIDAL STREAM
            TURBINES WITH THREE DIMENSIONAL FLOW
                                  John Chapman, PhD student
                               Swansea University, Swansea, Wales
                                      +44 (0)1792295217
                                      195827@swan.ac.uk
                                         Office address


     Modelling of the performance and loadings of a tidal stream turbine is vital in the
     design process if efficient, reliable and cost effective tidal stream turbines are to be
     produced. The high cost of marine installation and maintenance add to the need for
     modeling procedures.

     The model presented is based on Blade Element Momentum Theory [BEMT], this is a
     computationally efficient stream function based flow solver which has been popular in
     the wind turbine industry. Traditionally, BEMT uses a uniform flow normal to the rotor
     plane. In the marine environment, with waves and tidal flow, this is not a valid
     approximation. The BEMT model has been adapted to cope with these non-uniform
     flow conditions. The full model incorporates a three dimensional tracking system that
     allows the turbine to rotate in three dimensional space and hence interact with a three
     dimensional incoming flow. This enables a time dependent model that captures a
     realistic flow and allows the turbine to respond to this flow.

     Test cases for this model have been run including the variation of performance with yaw
     of the turbine device, a time based model tracking the performance of a turbine in a
     large wave regime and a study of the sensitivity of a turbine to the variation in flow with
     depth of a tidal flow profile. All results so far are promising and show the importance
     of capturing three-dimensional variations in flow, particularly for calculating loadings
     on the turbine system.




                                                                           Abstract number 27

8
  CONSTRUCTION AND EXPERIMENTS ON A WAVE ENERGY
                    CONVERTER
                               Rafael Waters, PhD student
           Division for Electricity at Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
                                    +46 (0)184715839
                             rafael.waters@angstrom.uu.se
         Division for Electricity, Uppsala University, Box 534, 75121 Uppsala


During 2002 a wave power project was initiated at Uppsala University, at the division
for Electricity. The aim of the project was to design and test wave power plants based
on a linear permanent magnet generator placed on the ocean floor, connected via a line
to a point absorber on the surface. From that time the concept has been researched
analytically, through finite element computer analysis, and through experiments.

In the winter of 2004 work was started on designing and constructing the first full-scale
wave energy converter intended for ocean testing. Previously, a slightly smaller
generator had been constructed for laboratory testing. Among the many design
alternatives the choice finally fell on a buoy of 3 meters diameter and a generator with a
nominal power of 10 kW at a speed of 0.67 m/s. This size is considered full scale for
Swedish wave energy conditions. In the spring of 2006 the construction was finished
and the wave energy converter was installed 2 km off the Swedish west coast, in the
proximity of Lysekil.

My work with the wave energy converter has been to help in its design and
construction. After its installation, over two months of measurements were carried out,
and it has been my challenge to study and interpret the results. My future work will be
to focus on the behavior of the linear generator.




                                                                     Abstract number 28

                                                                                             9
     PUSHMI – RESEARCH ON THE NEXT GENERATION OF WAVE
                 ENERGY CONVERTER SYSTEMS
                                 Adam Thompson, PhD student
            Lancaster University Renewable Energy Group (LUREG), Lancaster, UK
                                     +44 (0)1524 593785
                                a.w.thompson@lancaster.ac.uk
            Engineering Deptartment, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK, LA1 4YR


     There is a worldwide opportunity for local and distributed clean renewable electrical
     power from marine energy. The results from the Carbon Trust’s Marine Energy
     Challenge (CTC601, 2006) showed that marine energy has the potential to become
     competitive with other forms of energy. By 2020, 3% of the UK's energy could be
     derived from wave or tidal energy, providing up to 1/6 of the UK government aspiration
     of 20% renewable energy by this time.

     Countries like the UK have an opportunity to exploit their vast wave energy resource,
     both helping to reduce carbon emissions and ease the reliance on expensive and
     insecure imported fossil fuels. Once developed successfully devices could be deployed
     globally, creating a multi billion pound industry, and potentially reducing carbon
     emissions by millions of tons per year.

     The objectives of this research are to contribute towards the development of the next
     generation of wave energy converters, to research on generic aspects of marine energy
     specifically device engineering and development, device behavior, modeling, and
     control, and to contribute in the reduction of the cost of electricity produced by wave
     power, to the level of traditional power generation.

     This research focuses on the fundamental characteristics of an economical surging point
     absorber wave energy converter, leading to the design and development of a free
     floating point absorber wave energy converter which operates in surge and has the
     potential to deliver economic power capture in realistic seas. In particular it investigates
     the fundamental concepts of a wave energy conversion device based on scale model
     experimental tank tests and numerical modeling techniques. This includes research on
     the effect of form on power capture in regular and mixed seas, develops control
     algorithms and numerical models, power flows in resonant tuning in irregular sea states,
     motion constraints for approximating constrained surge in a free floating device, free
     floating tests, and full scale design and costing.

     The author’s work is currently at its initial stages due to recent commencement of study
     and thus will present the latest scale model experimental results obtained by this
     research, carried out at the Lancaster University Wave Tank.



                                                                           Abstract number 29

0
      PATH’S TOWARD A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SYSTEM
                          Per Ivar Karstad, PhD student
Department of Geology and Mineral Resources Engineering, Department of Petroleum
    Engineering and Applied Geophysics, Norwegian University of Science and
                        Technology, Trondheim, Norway
                                  +47 41512653
                                peika@statoil.com
                             F 280, 7491 Trondheim

The current energy system is environmentally unsustainable with respect to climate
change. Fossil energy reserves are limited, and our society will eventually experience a
situation where the oil and gas supplies can not meet demand (Peak Oil). The
Norwegian oil production passed the peak production a few years ago, and Norway will
experience a declining oil and gas production in the next decades.

This research project investigates how Norway can maximize value creation by utilizing
the opportunity created by these factors. This opens an opportunity to create new
industry based on a transition to more sustainable energy supplies. A renewable energy
business can increase national value creation in at least two ways; securing national
energy supplies and by exporting technology, knowledge and energy to other nations.

The main driver for development of a nation is economic growth. The economic growth
is created by the economic activities within the nation and is measured by the Gross
Domestic Product (GDP). Companies within a nation will always work to realise the
best commercial opportunities available, and the public administration create the
business environment and incentives for realising these opportunities. The GDP as
measurement of economic success and national value creation does not capture the
economic impact of future environmental costs caused by our behaviour today or by
reduced energy security in the future. A transition toward a sustainable energy system
requires that the public administration see that a policy based on a sustainable energy
system will create more value to the nation in the long term than the traditional energy
policy.

To achieve a sustainable energy system, our society has to think differently with respect
to value creation and economic growth. Today, there are at least three major obstacles
that work against a sustainable energy system; the current way of using discounting on
future environmental costs, the fact that environmental cost creates growth in GDP, and
the decoupling between energy policy and business policy. A sustainable energy system
can only be developed if it provides positive values to the society, but society has to
develop incentives to realise the value.

The purpose of this work is to investigate how Norway can become an attractive nation
for commercial businesses to develop a competitive industry within renewable energy.

                                                                    Abstract number 30

                                                                                            
     CONCEPT OF CONVERTING LOW FREQUENCY OCEAN WAVE
      ENERGY INTO HIGH FREQUENCY ELECTRICAL ENERGY
              Ravindra.B.Ummaneni(PhD)*, J.E.Brennvall** and Robert Nilssen*
                       *Norwegian University of science and technology
                             **Resonator AS, Trondheim, Norway
                                 Office phone:0047-73594271
                            Ravindra.B.Ummaneni@elkraft.ntnu.no
                  Electrical powerengineering dept.,O.S.Bragstads plass 2E,
                                  7491,Trondheim, Norway


     The paper describes the concept of how the movement of a float in a wave power plant,
     characterize by large force and small speed, can be converted to a high speed and
     smaller force in secondary piston.A simple analogy to the method used is a small ball
     bouncing between two plates where the collisions between the ball and the plates are
     eastic, and the distance between the plates are slowly decreased.

     In a wave power plant the float is moving slowly. The buoyancy force on the float from
     the raising wave and the gravitational force on the float when the wave is sinking are
     enormous. This enormous force combined with the movement presents much
     concentrated energy. This Ocean wave energy is more concentrated when compared to
     sun and wind power but less than water power and fussil fuel. The force of the linear
     electrical machine is always proportional to its size. A linear electric generator which
     converts this slow moment high force ocean wave energy into electrical energy by
     direct conversion (piston in the generator is moving in the same way as the float) will
     never be cost effective due to its large size and expensive. The slow movement (low
     frequency) of the ocean energy wave must be converted into a faster movement (high
     frequency) to reduce the size of the generator. The conversion of low frequency ocean
     wave energy to high frequency is not possible with normal gear due to high force or
     compressing and decompressing fluid due to introduction of high energy loss. This
     conversion is possible by introducing the double gas spring on both sides of the linear
     machine as shown in fig.1.The slow moving piston connected to the float compresses
     and decompress the volume where the secondary piston (linear electric machine piston)
     containing magnets oscillate with high frequency




                                                                        Abstract number 31


    GRID INTERCONNECTION OF OFFSHORE RENEWABLES
            ENABLED BY POWER ELECTRONICS
                             Marta Molinas, Post Doc
        Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
                                   +47 73594237
                         marta.molinas@elkraft.ntnu.no
                 O.S. Bragstad plass 2E 7491 Trondheim, Norway


The potential for power generation from renewable energy sources is high and
environmental concerns are pushing for higher penetration of these into the power
network. Countries worldwide have set rather high targets for renewable energy
increase in gross domestic energy consumption to be reached within the next decade. If
these targets are going to be reached huge research efforts should be directed in power
quality related problems when high penetration of fluctuating renewable energy sources
are going to be reached.

Power system operators are in general very reluctant to accept this kind of highly
variable power which cannot be scheduled as conventional generation can be. New grid
codes for renewables are emerging in almost every country with high potential for use
of renewable energy sources. The demands contained in these grid codes are rather
tough and technically very challenging.

Since the grid interconnection is the last stage in the development of offshore
renewables there is little knowledge and experience on the impacts on the network and
possible problems to be encountered. Lessons learned in wind energy on land are very
valuable but not enough to cover the particularities of offshore power generation from
renewables. Since it is the less explored field in the development chain, it will need a
thorough investigation on the available possibilities, on the new and potential research
areas that will be opened by the new demands and on the impact it will have on the
power network as well as on the technologies and methods that can mitigate these
impacts.

Power electronics is proposed in this work as the enabling grid interconnection
technology and several possible solutions using power electronics will be discussed in
the presentation. Offshore wind and wave farms will be taken as examples in which the
power electronics interfaces will be implemented and discussed. Three cases of grid
interface will be described and the possibilities and challenges for their implementation
will be discussed.




                                                                    Abstract number 32

                                                                                            
     WAVE-CURRENT INTERACTION IN A CONTEXT OF CURRENT
                        TURBINES
                                    Florent Guinot, PhD student
                                     Ifremer, Plouzané , France
                                        +33 (0)2 98 22 41 82
                                     Florent.Guinot@ifremer.fr
                               Centre de Brest, BP 70, 29280 Plouzané


     New renewable energy converters, which use the kinematical energy of the current, have
     been developed recently. These systems, planned to operate in incident current ideally
     uniform and stationary, will be subject to complex and fluctuating stream due to
     interactions with waves and varying bathymetry. Thus it is necessary to well describe these
     phenomena to apprehend the real production of a current turbine and to optimise its shape
     and size. A numerical tool is developed for this.

     A numerical model based on a high-order Boussinesq approach is under development in
     order to describe the propagation of waves and current on any type of bathymetry and to
     study the kinematics on the whole fluid. The principle of the Boussinesq approach is to
     eliminate the vertical coordinate via an interpolation of the velocity parameters along this
     direction. The developed model is based on the formulation of Madsen et al. [1], which
     represent a major step forward in the advancement of Boussinesq theory. Their procedure is
     based on an exact formulation of the boundary conditions at the free surface and the sea
     bottom, combined with an approximate solution to the Laplace equation in the interior
     domain (separation of the linear and the non linear part, oppositely to “classical”
     formulation with coupled equations). Moreover the expansion on the water column is
     optimised in order to get a high accuracy on the internal kinematics of the waves. The
     method of resolution is made to avoid the “mild-slope” approximation and let to simulate
     complex configuration. Finally a reformulation of the boundary conditions allows the
     insertion of a current.

     The model, implemented in 2D for the moment, is able to describe the propagation of fully
     non-linear waves on a rapidly varying bathymetry and also the interaction with a uniform
     current on a mildly slope. Some test cases have been carried out to check the validity of the
     model like wave reflection from a plane shelf or propagation on typical bathymetry
     (trenches, submerged bar…see for example figure 1) and wave-current interaction on a flat
     bottom (see figure 2). The model is still under development but the final presentation will
     show the necessity of this kind of study, the last results and the perspectives for the future in
     order to create a complete modelization tool able to estimate the real production of a current
     turbine and to optimize its shape and size.

     [1] Boussinesq-type formulations for fully nonlinear and extremely dispersive water
     waves : derivation and analysis
     Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (2003) 459, 1075-1104
     P.A. Madsen, H.B. Bingham and H.A. Schäffer



                                                                               Abstract number 33


WAVE ENERGY EXTRACTION IN THE SOUTHERN NORTH SEA
          BY A HEAVING POINT ABSORBER
                           Griet De Backer, PhD student
           Ugent – Coastal Engineering Department, Zwijnaarde, Belgium
                     +32 9 264 54 93 (including country code)
                             griet.debacker@ugent.be
     Department of Coastal Engineering- Technologiepark 904 – 9052 Zwijnaarde


Abstract
Point absorbers are wave energy converters which consist of small bodies, oscillating
with respect to a fixed or floating reference. The latter principle has been adopted in a
novel way in the wave energy converter that is studied in the SEEWEC project, where
multiple point absorbers are combined in a floating, moored platform.

The performance of such a heaving point absorber in a floating platform is analyzed in a
linear way [1]. The hydrodynamic behaviour of both the floaters and the platform is
calculated numerically with a boundary element method (BEM) package. A frequency
domain model is written in Matlab to describe the motion of one point absorber in a
floating platform, with restrictions on the buoy motion and the generator force. The
motion restrictions are imposed firstly by the limited stroke of the mechanical system
connecting the point absorber to the platform and secondly to decrease the possibility of
slamming. Slamming is a phenomenon that occurs when the buoy re-enters in the water,
after having lost contact with the water. Slamming may cause very high hydrodynamic
pressures, which might cause plastic deformation of the material [2]. The influence of
the 3-dimensional axi-symmetric shapes on slamming impact is also studied analytically
and experimentally.
Experimental tests on one point absorber are carried out in a wave tank in Flanders
Hydraulic Research to evaluate the numerical model.
Future work comprises the study of the interaction between the floaters in order to find
an optimal number and configuration of the point absorbers in the platform.

Acknowledgements
Research funded by Ph.D. grant of the Promotion of Innovation through Science and
Technolgy in Flanders (IWT-Vlaanderen), Belgium.

References
 [1] De Backer G., Vantorre M., Banasiak, R., Beels, C., De Rouck J. “Numerical
modelling of wave energy absorption by a floating point absorber system”, proceedings
of 17th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Portugal (2007).
[2] Peseux B., Gornet L., Donguy B. “Hydrodynamic impact : Numerical and
experimental investigations”, Journal of Fluids and Structures 21, Elsevier (2005),
p.277-303.


                                                                    Abstract number 34

                                                                                            
      Numerical and Experimental Modeling of Direct-Drive Wave Energy Extraction Devices

           David Elwood*, Ken Rhinefrank, Joe Prudell, Ganesh Gore, Emmanuel B. Agamloh,
                          Al Schacher, Peter Hogan, Aaron Vander Meulen,
                                Annette von Jouanne, Ted Brekken,
                                  Alex Yokochi**, Solomon Yim*

                              Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
                                         Chemical Engineering**
                           Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering*
                                  Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR

     Abstract:

     The solutions to today’s energy challenges need to be explored through alternative, renewable
     and clean energy sources to enable a diverse national energy resource plan. An extremely
     abundant and promising source of energy exists in the world’s oceans. Ocean energy exists in the
     forms of wave, tidal, marine current, thermal (temperature gradient) and salinity. Among these
     forms, significant opportunities and benefits have been identified in the area of wave energy
     extraction. Waves have several advantages over other forms of renewable energy such as wind
     and solar, in that the waves are more available (seasonal, but more constant) and more
     predictable, thus enabling more straightforward and reliable integration into the electric utility
     grid. Wave energy also offers higher energy densities, enabling devices to extract more power
     from a smaller volume at consequent lower costs. However, many engineering challenges need to
     be overcome to ensure wave energy device survivability, reliability and maintainability, in
     addition to efficient and high quality power take-off systems. Optimizing wave energy
     technologies requires a multi-disciplinary team from areas such as Electrical, Chemical, Ocean,
     Civil and Mechanical Engineering, to enable innovative systems-level research and development.

     This paper presents some recent research developments on experimental and numerical modeling
     on direct-drive approaches and the associated devices designed to convert the motion of the ocean
     waves into electrical energy using point absorber wave energy converters. This research is
     focused on a simplification of processes, i.e., replacing systems using intermediate hydraulics or
     pneumatics with direct-drive approaches to allow generators to respond directly to the movement
     of the ocean by employing magnetic fields for contact-less mechanical energy transmission, and
     power electronics for efficient electrical energy extraction. The term “direct” drive describes the
     direct coupling of the buoy’s velocity and force to the generator without the use of hydraulic fluid
     or air.

     The wave energy buoy and spar are designed to efficiently capture ocean wave energy and
     transfer it to the generator. These buoys have been tested at OSU’s O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research
     Laboratory, with planned testing off the coast of Oregon.

     The paper will examine several direct-drive approaches, including electrical and mechanical
     design characteristics, describe the numerical modeling of the associated conceptual devices,
     prototype testing, and some ongoing research on the dynamics of buoy generator systems for
     design optimization.




                                                                                 Abstract number 35

6
 IMPACTS OF LARGE-SCALE KINETIC POWER EXTRACTION
       FROM TIME-UNSTEADY TIDAL ESTUARIES
                              Brian Polagye, PhD student
                    University of Washington, Seattle, United States
                                   +1 206 685 2171
                             bpolagye@u.washington.edu
                        Box 352600, Seattle, WA 98185-2600


Tidal in-stream energy conversion (TISEC) has been proposed as a more
environmentally acceptable option for harnessing the power of the tides than a
conventional barrage. The fraction of kinetic power that may be extracted from an
estuary without causing significant environmental degradation remains an open and
important question.

The impacts of large-scale kinetic power extraction from estuaries have been quantified
using a one-dimensional time-unsteady numerical model. The model estuary consists of
a long, wide inlet and basin connected by a constricted channel. Kinetic power densities
within this constriction are suitable for TISEC. The numerical scheme is explicit and
uses a technique comparable to shock fitting to model kinetic power extraction by in-
stream turbines. Modeling shows that extraction of kinetic power (1) reduces the
volume of water exchanged over the tidal cycle, (2) results in lower high and higher low
tides, thereby reducing the tidal range, (3) reduces the energy advected into an estuary,
and (4) changes the timing of tidal events (e.g. time of low tide). These impacts are
strongly dependent on the period and amplitude of the tidal cycle, estuary geometry, and
magnitude of kinetic power extraction. Results highlight the importance of time-
unsteady modeling and the incorporation of non-linear turbine dynamics (e.g. rated
speed).

An environmentally acceptable extractable fraction will have to be decided on a case-
by-case basis. The modeled macro-scale fluidic effects have important ecological
implications; for example reduced tidal range on mud-flat ecosystems. Analysis shows
that it may be possible to extract more than 100% of the free-stream kinetic energy from
a flow with minimal environmental impact, though feasible extraction limits appear to
be lower for sites with high power densities. In light of this, the extraction limits of 10-
20% used for first-generation feasibility studies appear to be conservative.




                                                                      Abstract number 36

                                                                                               
                MODELLING OF WAVE ENERGY CONVERTERS
                         USING BOND GRAPHS
                                   Jørgen Hals, PhD student
                             CeSOS – NTNU, Trondheim, Norway
                                       (+47) 73550572
                                     jorgen.hals@ntnu.no
                         Marine Technology Centre, Otto Nielsens vei 10
                                 NO-7491, Trondheim, Norway


     My PhD project concerns the control of wave energy devices for increased power
     output. In order to tackle the challenges met within this field it is important to establish
     mathematical models of the systems under consideration, which are both sufficiently
     accurate and applicable in terms of comprehensibility and calculation time for computer
     simulation.

     Bond graphs are well-established as a method for modelling dynamic systems involving
     power flow between different energy domains, and are thus a suitable tool for working
     with ocean energy conversion systems. They are based on mapping the power flows in
     the dynamic system, and all physical effects are represented by a small number of basic
     elements. A lumped system model can be displayed as a graph containing all its
     inherent properties, and made complete by supplying the constitutive relations for each
     element. This makes writing up the mathematical equations for the system merely an
     exercise of accounting, and the task of studying alternative designs and finding their
     representations can easily be done by manipulating the graph.

     As an example, a wave energy converter consisting of a heaving buoy and a hydraulic
     power take-off has been studied. It is shown how a bond graph can represent the
     floating body, the hydraulic cylinder, valves and accumulators. The model state
     equations, which may perfectly well be non-linear, are derived directly from the bond
     graph, and the system response and performance found by numerical simulation in the
     time domain.




                                                                           Abstract number 37

8
DOWNTIME EVALUATION OF OFFSHORE WINDPOWER GENERATION
   UNITS FOR OIL & GAS FLOATING PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

      Jean Viterbo*, MSc. Student; Marco Brinati*, PhD;         Euclydes Trovato , Eng.

        * Dept. of Naval and Ocean Eng., University of São Paulo. +55 11 3091 5350
   Av. Professor Mello Moraes 2231 - Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, Brasil / 05508-970

  Oriciclon Infrastructure. 11 3262 3734. Av. Paulista 2001, cj. 1912, São Paulo / 01311-300

              jviterbo@usp.br; mabrinat@usp.br;          oriciclon@oriciclon.com


This paper considers the reliability and operational aspects related with the installation of wind
power generation units as a complement to supply the oil & gas floating production systems.
The floating production system operation characteristics relies on the array of its sub systems
operational conditions, such that the overall efficiency of the oil & gas production system is
derived from the combined efficiency of each sub-system. In the present research study, a
procedure framework is set to assess the interaction of wind generated electricity power sub-
systems units within offshore oil & gas production systems. The application of the simple and
yet robust downtime system efficiency parameter is described in order to evaluate the
performance and risks related with the installation of wind power generation units in an
offshore oil & gas production system.




                                                                           Abstract number 38

                                                                                                     9
         MARKET DRIVERS & OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY
                         DEPLOYMENT
           HAKIM MOUSLIM, Research Engineer / Centrale Nantes , Nantes, France
                                +33 240 37 68 59
                           hakim.mouslim@ec-nantes.fr
                   LMF - CNRS UMR6598, Centrale Nantes, France


     Offshore Renewable Energy technologies have to face various hurdles in order to get to
     their considerable deployment. The technological barriers are an important part of the
     challenge. However, without appealing market signals, technology advancements can
     not lead to commercial deployment.
     Offshore wind power is the leading technology with several commercial-scale power
     stations delivering energy to the grid. With sufficient learning background, this
     technology is the fastest growing. The extent of technology breakthroughs in other
     offshore renewable technologies is promising more development and investments in
     harnessing this untapped energy.
     An analysis of offshore renewable energy potential markets provides facts that could
     trigger deployment of offshore renewable energy technologies. The energy demand
     growth in these markets and the outlook of cumulative investments in electricity
     infrastructure are strong market drivers. The effect of volatility in commodities prices
     on conventional sources of energy reinforces the renewable energy sector. The major
     determinant of the growth in the offshore renewable energy sector remains public
     policy.




                                                                        Abstract number 39

60
About INORE and its establishment
To enhance the development of the technical innovations within offshore
renewable energy the International Network of Offshore Renewable Energy
(INORE) was established in 00. INORE will give young researchers in wave,
tidal current and offshore wind energy the opportunity to share ideas and
experience. It will enable young researchers to meet other researchers at an
early stage in their careers providing potential joint work ventures to increase
the pace of research in offshore renewable energy. We believe mixing
different expertise will enhance the understanding of fundamental challenges
and facilitate creation of new knowledge. The optimal objective is to enable
the use of renewable energy from wave, tidal and deep sea wind and at the
same time provide the future leaders within research and industry with a
substantial international network.
Vision, targets and strategies
The network still has left to settle on a common vision. The vision should be
used as a “guiding star” in all our work. Below are some suggestions:

•   Realize the potential of young researchers and offshore renewable energy
•   Empower young researchers to realize the potential of offshore
    renewable energy
•   Realize the potential of young researchers to enable use of offshore
    renewable energy
•   A young concept to create the clean offshore route for energy
•   Providing the tools to enable young researchers to communicate and
    collaborate together to unleash their potential and increase the pace of
    research in offshore renewable energy.

Definitions
Offshore Renewable Energy
Harnessing energy from ocean waves, tides or wind offshore.

Early stage researcher
Researcher who is working on, or is about to start, a PhD, or just has finished
the PhD. In any case the researcher must have a connection to a research
institution and not work only on commercial terms (cases of doubt will be
decided by the steering committee).

Network member
In order to become a member of the network, researchers have to participate
at one of the yearly Symposia or one of the other activities arranged by the
network. Termination of membership is possible by own wish or by exclusion
decision from the steering committee.



                                                                                   6
     Main target
      Create and sustain a truly international, interdisciplinary and active
      network of young researcher who works on issues related to offshore
      renewable energy

      •   Target audience is PhD students, “early stage researchers”
          are accepted case by case.
      •   The steering committee shall seek to have active members
          from all continents
      •   Quality of the network is more important than the number of members



     Other targets
      Enable efficient communication between members and build active
      relations
      • Create arenas for interaction
      • Run yearly symposium series with a fair price policy where
          discussions are facilitated
      • Arrange independent workshops in connection to relevant
          established conferences and with the symposiums
      • Eliminate barriers between disciplines by respecting the importance
          of each other’s fields, being open minded and willing to learn
      • Encourage use of “easy-to-understand-language”

      Be worldwide known and respected in relevant communities
      • Present the network at conferences
      • Publish a paper presenting the network and its perspectives which
         also could be used as an information source
      • Create a website which gives the necessary information
      • Create a logo and title which could be recognized and represent
         the network

      Promote the development and use of offshore renewable energy
      •   Disseminate information about our research and the possibilities it gives
          – both academic and non-academic


      Provide an atmosphere to empower and motivate the network members
      through a supporting attitude and supportive activities
      •   Keeping the “arenas” informal and professional
      •   Create a culture where feedback is appreciated



6
Raise enough money to be able to fulfill the networks purposes
•   Raise money from both commercial companies and from public research
    sources
•   To avoid need for heavy administration the network will prioritize private
    funding through sponsoring in the early stage of the network
•   When the network is more settled we will seek a higher share of public
    funding
•   Aim for long term contracts


Make and maintain a website with the following content

•   Foundation document
•   An introduction to INORE and Offshore Renewable Energy
•   List of all the members with contact info (photo, name, position, subject,
    phone number, e-mail address, affiliation, postal address, homepage)
•   Announcement of our activities
•   List of relevant conferences
•   Job offers and other opportunities
•   List of publications by the members
•   Link to developers and other relevant companies



Website specification
•   Need to have
•   Easy to maintain even for non-experts
•   Function for distributed responsibilities and access (e.g. web master could
    give other access to update parts of the website)
•   Registration function (e.g. to symposium, workshops etc)
•   Upload function (e.g. to upload an abstract)
•   User friendly picture gallery
•   A design that represent INOREs vision
•   Nice to have
•   Payment function (e.g. PayPal)
•   Log on function (different access levels for users)
•   Function for updating own profile
•   Blogg / forum functions




                                                                                  6
     Success measure
      Measures to evaluate the degree of success
      •   Arrange symposiums (target 1 per year)
      •   Arrange additional workshops/meetings (target 2 per year)
      •   Websites hits (target HOLD hits per year)
      •   Produced joint papers (target 5 per year)
      •   Number of members (target 50)
      •   Number of participants at the annual symposiums (target 30 participants)
      •   Number of participants at workshops (target 15 participants)
      •   Ability to raise sufficient public funding
      •   Ability to raise sufficient private funding
      •   Number of invitations to conferences, institutions and companies (target
          HOLD per year)



     Member benefits - INORE
      An active member in INORE shall obtain the following benefits
      •   Broadening the knowledge base – get the full picture
      •   Get updated on the research edge in the industry
      •   Get information about and access to all activities arranged by INORE
      •   Invitations to yearly fair priced symposiums
      •   Having fun – travel to other countries and meet colleagues
      •   Build new relevant relations
      •   Access to travel grants



     Investor benefits - INORE
      A sponsor of INORE shall obtain the following benefits
      •   Access to an interdisciplinary group of experts within offshore renewable
          energy
      •   A yearly update of the research done related to offshore renewable energy
      •   The opportunity to promote your firm in a highly relevant network
      •   Good PR through the media coverage of our symposiums
      •   Supporting the future generation of leading researchers and industry
          leaders




6
Future options
 In order to evolve INORE have noted some future options which could
 increase the value of the network
 •   The network could raise funding for offering grants to members (travel
     grants, project support, incentives for publications in academic and non-
     academic channels etc)
 •   Establish an advisory board of senior researchers to be able to apply and
     administrate large public research funding (e.g. EU funding)
 •   Include OTEC and salt gradient in the definition of offshore renewable
     energy
 •   Include (young) participants from the industry on the symposiums
 •   Negotiate discounts on behalf of all the members of INORE (conferences,
     magazines, etc)




Background – The establishment of INORE
Technical innovations in the renewable energy sector are a must to overcome
the environmental and energy challenges faced by the worlds’ population in
the coming decades. Nearly 90 % of the electricity worldwide is generated
based on either fossil fuels, which are one of the main reasons for global
warming, or nuclear energy, which involves security concerns and hazardous
waste issues.

Offshore wind, wave and tidal energy are vast untapped sources of clean
and renewable energy. The field of offshore renewable energy represents a
huge business opportunity for technology developers, energy companies and
other new entrepreneurial firms. Today’s industry is blooming with many new
concepts and demonstration projects. We see a trend where more and more
new ventures are backed by private capital and professionalism is becoming
the standard. Today, there are many research and commercial initiatives
within the sector, and there are more than 90 different firms world wide
who intend to commercialize a wave or tidal energy concept. Offshore wind
turbines represent a bold step in the wind energy industry and a realization of
floating wind turbines would represent an enormous energy source.




                                                                                  6
sector, and there are more than 90 different firms world wide who intend to commercialize
wave or tidal energy concept. Offshore wind turbines represent a bold step in the wind energ
industry and a realization of floating wind turbines would represent an enormous energ
source.




                                   Concepts for
                Concepts for floating wind turbines floating wind turbines
(source:        (source: Energy from Wind, Offshore Technology Conference, Houston,
           Energy from Offshore Offshore Wind, Offshore Technology Conference, Houston,             May 2006
                May 2006)

              The idea network for young young researchers working offshore
The idea of creating aof creating a network forresearchers working onon offshore renewable energ
              renewable energy was born in Renewable Energy” Renewable of one
was born in the “PhD Pool on Offshorethe “PhD Pool on Offshore consistingEnergy” Post Doc an
              consisting of one Post with the Norwegian Centre For
three PhD students associatedDoc and three PhD students associated with the Renewable Energ
                The intention with the PhD Pool was to let The intention from
(www.sffe.no).Norwegian Centre For Renewable Energy (www.sffe.no).researchers with different field
                 the PhD Pool was to let researchers from different fields work together in
                 order to create solutions which are difficult to achieve without the touch
                 of interdisciplinary thinking. The PhD pool soon realized that a bigger
                 community was needed in order to enable the discussions leading to this
                 goal. Inspired by the blooming industry and lack of real cooperation across
                 country boarders the work to establish an interdisciplinary and international
                 network was started.

                 The reactions to the decision to establish the network have been mostly
                 positive. It seems like the community (R&D and industry) liked the idea of
                 joining young researchers with entrepreneurial spirit. However, there have
                 also been some established researchers who have been concerned about
                 the time consuming work it is to establish and run a new network, and some
                 have thought this initiative to be too ambitious. By listening to all voices and
                 applying a “naive filter” that only young persons could possess, the PhD Pool
                 refined the idea of establishing the network.

            66
In order to create a network from scratch, substantial funding was needed.
A draft of the idea and an investor invitation was made. To avoid time
consuming work only Norwegian energy companies which already were
involved in offshore renewable projects were approached.

One of the key ideas was to establish a truly international network. To ensure
the international spirit and commitment in several countries, an interim
committee meeting with participants from four different countries was held
near Trondheim -th of April 00. The meeting was attended by the three
initiators from the Norwegian “PhD Pool on Offshore Renewable Energy” and
three new committee members who were selected after applications. The
objectives of the meeting were to establish targets, strategies and visions for
the network.

The meeting was held in a cabin at Agdenes near Sletvik field station (the
site of the first symposium). An excursion to Sletvik field station was included
in the program to give all the committee members a feeling of how the first
symposium would be. The actual meeting was organized as a workshop
with break out sessions and common discussions. A SWOT – analysis (well
established way of developing business ideas) was used as the backbone
method. The idea of the SWOT-analysis is to establish knowledge about the
present situation (Strengths and Weaknesses) and foresee Opportunities and
Threats for the future. Summaries of these brainstorming and discussion
sessions are presented below. With basis in the SWOT-analysis we
established targets for the network. For each target a corresponding strategy
was put up. These targets and strategies have been presented earlier in this
report.

As said before, feedback is appreciated – use feedback@inore.org
 Strengths
 •   The current situation of the industry  Early stage
 •   Possible to influence
 •   Can contribute with new and needed knowledge
 •   The ability to build new relations
 •   International commitment
 •   Focus on the whole picture and not just isolated issues
 •   Young, vibrant and open minded
 •   We have access to existing knowledge through our supervisors and
     relations to established researchers
 •   We represent a fresh vector of knowledge




                                                                                   6
     Weaknesses
     •   Limited man-hours
     •   The network has no reputation – just established
     •   Lack high priority among potential members
     •   We could be naïve and we are inexperienced
     •   Short time span for each individual


     Opportunities
     •   Differentiate the network/symposium from other conferences
     •   Build an high quality arena for discussion
     •   Build a good reputation
     •   Influence the development of offshore renewable energy
     •   Influence policymakers and developers
     •   Give young researchers international relations at an early stage in order to
         facilitate joint papers and subsequently joint research projects as well
     •   Being attractive for future employers (companies and research
         institutions)
     •   Being attractive for other groups as investors, magazines, policy makers
         etc
     •   Build a resource data base with contact lists and research field
     •   Consulting sessions with industry (paid by the industry)
     •   Create job opportunities for our members (internships and other more
         permanent jobs)
     •   Launch “research talents”
     •   Give clear deliveries to the industry


     Threats
     •   Without commitment the network could die
     •   Fail to facilitate interaction and just being an information provider
     •   Negative experiences could give a bad reputation
     •   Difficult to transfer knowledge if the rotation speed is too high (PhD
         students)
     •   To repeat or copy already done work
     •   To overlap with existing activities
     •   Industry failures will affect us (finance etc)
     •   Fail to deliver as promised to our investors
     •   Not achieving true interdisciplinary understanding
     •   Becoming invisible and narcissistic




68
Logo competition
Design INORE’s logo! Below some logo proposals are shown. Make your
own proposal or modify/elaborate one of those given here, and send it to
feedback@inore.org. Comments are also welcome. The winner will be
awarded.




                                                                           69
    Arranged by
    The International PhD Network on Offshore Renewable Energy
    in cooperation with The Centre for Renewable Energy, NTNU-SINTEF-IFE




    Sponsors:






								
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