Marketing / Advertising / Mr / Pr Jobs - Resumes - DOC by oiy72159


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									     Career Profiles and Salaries
     Tips for Writing Cover Letters and Resumes
     Sample Letters and Resumes
     Interviewing Tips

  For information regarding the Marketing Major or Minor at the Daytona Beach campus,
                                     please contact:

Ron Borrieci, Instructor                                    Stefanie Mayfield Garcia, Instructor
Marketing Department                                                       Marketing Department
Daytona Beach Campus                                                     Daytona Beach Campus
(386) 254-4412 ext. 4008                                               (386) 254-4412 ext. 4071                                       
                            The A to Z’s of Careers in Marketing

Advertising Account Executive: "Maintains contact with clients while coordinating the creative work
among artists and copywriters. In full-service ad agencies, account executives are considered partners with
the client in promoting the product and aiding in marketing strategy."2

Administrative Analyst Planner: "Performs cost analyses of physical distribution systems."2

Administrative Manager: "Oversees the organization within a company that transports products to
consumers and handles customer service."2

Advertising: "Jobs include writing advertising copy, buying space and time in advertising media, and
scheduling and supervising the actual production of ads. The account executive is the key link between the
ad agency and the client firm. Students may prepare themselves for positions in the advertising or promotion
departments of manufacturers, retail stores, service firms, or specialized departments of advertising agencies.
Opportunities also may be available with newspapers, radio or television stations, and other advertising

Art Director: "Handles the visual component of advertisements."2

Brand and Product Management: "Managers in this area plan, direct, and control business and marketing
effort for their products. They are concerned with research and development, packaging, manufacturing,
sales and distribution, advertising, promotion, market research, and business analysis and forecasting. In
consumer goods companies, the newcomer joins a brand team and learns the ropes by doing numerical
analyses and watching the senior brand people. This person, if competent, eventually heads the team and is
later assigned a larger brand to manage. Several industrial-goods companies also have product managers.
Product management is considered one of the best training grounds for future corporate officers." 3

Brokers: "independent firms or individuals whose principal function is to bring buyers and sellers together
to make sales."1

Buyer: "Selects products a store sells; surveys consumer trends and evaluates the past performance of
products and suppliers."2

Copywriter: "Works with art director in Conceptualizing advertisements; writes the text of print or radio ads
or the story boards of television ads." 2

Customer Affairs: "Some large consumer-goods companies have established the position of customer
affairs representative to act as a liaison between the customer and the firm. The representatives handle
complaints, suggestions, and problems concerning the company's products, determine what action is
required, and coordinate the activities required to solve the problem. The position requires a person who is
empathetic, diplomatic, and capable of working with a wide range of people both inside and outside the
firm." 3

Direct Marketing: Selling products by having consumers interact with various advertising media without a
face-to-face meeting with a salesperson."1
Franchising: "A contractual agreement between a parent company (a franchisor) and an individual or firm (a
franchisee) that allows the franchise to operate a certain type of business under and established name and
according to specific rules."1

Industrial Marketing: "People interested in industrial marketing careers can go into sales, service, product
design, marketing research, and so on. They usually need a technical background. Most people start in sales
and spend time in training and making calls with senior salespeople. If they stay in sales, they may advance
to district, regional, and higher sales positions. Or they may go into product management and work closely
with customers, suppliers, manufacturing, and sales engineering." 3

International Marketing: "As U.S. firms increase their international business, they seek qualified persons
who have some foreign language fluency and are willing to travel to and/or relocate in foreign cities. For
such assignments, most companies select experienced personnel who have proven themselves in domestic
operations." 3

Inventory Control Manager: "Forecasts demand for stockpiled oods, coordinates production with plant
managrs: keeps track of current levels of shipments to keep customers supplied."2

Logistics/Physical Distribution Management: "Finding the best way to distribute your product to
customers is the job of the logistics person. Career paths lead to management of distribution systems for
manufacturers, distributors, and retailers, as well as the marketing and management of distribution services,
such as transportation companies and distribution centers." 3

Manufacturers Agents/Representatives: "Work for several producers and carry noncompetitive,
complementary merchandise in an exclusive territory. Manufacturer’s agents act as a producer’s sales arm in
a territory and are principally responsible for the transactional channel functions, primarily selling."1

Marketing Research: "Marketing researchers get involved with the managers in defining problems and
identifying the information needed to resolve the problem. They will design the research project, including
questionnaires and samples, and will handle data tabulation, analysis, report preparation, and presentation of
findings with recommendations to management. An understanding of statistics, psychology, and sociology is
desirable. Career opportunities exist with manufacturers, retailers, some 3 wholesalers, trade and industry
associations, marketing research firms, advertising agencies, and governmental and private nonprofit
agencies. You don't have to be a statistician, but you should be comfortable working with numbers and be
able to communicate complicated findings in simple, clear English." 3

Project Manager: "Coordinates and oversees the conducting of market studies for a client." 2

Account executive: "Serves as liaison between client and market research firm." 2

Marketing Science and Systems Analysis: "Individuals who have been trained in management science,
quantitative methods, and systems analysis will tend to act as consultants to managers facing difficult
marketing problems such as demand measurement and forecasting, market structure analysis, and new-
product evaluation. Career opportunities exist primarily within larger marketing-oriented firms, management
consulting firms, and public institutions concerned with health, education, or transportation. An M.B.A. or an
M.S. is usually required." 3

Media Buyer Analyst: "Deals with media sales representatives in selecting advertising media; analyzes the
value of media being purchased." 2
New Product Planning: "Persons interested in new product planning can find opportunities in a large
variety of organizations. They usually need a good background in marketing, marketing research, and sales
forecasting; they need organizational skills to motivate and coordinate others; and they may need a technical
background. Usually the person works first in some other marketing positions before joining the new product

Operations Manager: "Supervises warehousing and other physical distribution functions; often directly
involved in moving goods on the warehouse floor."2

Physical Distribution: "Physical distribution is a large dynamic field, with many career opportunities. Major
transportation carriers, manufacturers, wholesalers, and retailers all employ physical distribution specialists.
Coursework in quantitative methods, finance, accounting and marketing will provide students with the
necessary skills for entering the field." 3

Promotion Management: "Most organizations, both profit-seeking and not-for-profit, utilize promotion to
create market awareness of their offerings. Opportunities for promotion management are particularly
favorable in the expanding services sector and with nonprofit organizations." 3

Public Relations: "Most organizations have a public relations person or staff to anticipate public problems,
handle complaints, deal with media, build the corporate image, and so on. Persons interested in public
relations should be able to speak and write clearly and persuasively and should preferably have a background
in journalism, communications, or the liberal arts. The challenges of this job are highly varied and very
people-oriented." 3

Purchasing: "Purchasing agents are playing a growing role in firms' profitability during periods of rising
materials costs and shortages. In retail organizations, being a buyer has frequently been a route to the top.
Purchasing agents in industrial concerns play a key role in holding down the cost of manufacturing. A
technical background is useful in some purchasing positions, along with a knowledge of credit, finance and
physical distribution." 3

Retailing Management: "Retailing companies provide people with an early opportunity to take on
marketing responsibilities. The market growth of large-scale retailing has brought increased emphasis on
professional training as part of the preparation for a career in retailing. Most entry-level jobs are in sales, but
the capable individual can readily progress to managerial responsibility. The major routes to top management
in retailing are merchandise management and store management. Large-scale retailing offers the new recruit
an opportunity to move in a few years into the management of a branch or part of a store doing as much as $5
million in sales."3

Sales and Sales Management: "Sales and sales management opportunities exist in a wide range of profit
and nonprofit organizations and in product and service organizations, including financial, insurance,
consulting, and government. People have to carefully match their backgrounds, interests, technical skills, and
academic training with available sales opportunities. Training programs vary greatly in form and length,
ranging from a few weeks to two years. The typical entry-level job is sales representative. Career paths lead
from salesperson to district, regional, and higher levels of sales management, and in many cases, the top
management of the firm. An outgoing personality, competitive spirit, and ability to communicate clearly and
effectively are characteristics of the successful salesperson." 3

Direct Sales: "(door-to-door) calls on consumers in their homes to make sales."2

Trade Sales: "calls on retailers or wholesalers to sell products for manufacturers.".2
Industrial/semi-technical: "Sells supplies and services to businesses." 2

Complex/professional: "Sells complicated or custom-designed products to business. Requires understanding
of the technology of a product."2

Sales Promotion Manager: "Designs promotions for consumer products; works at an ad agency or a sales
promotion agency." 2

Store Manager: "oversees the staff and services at a store"1

Supply Chain Manager: "oversees the organization within a company that transports products to
consumers and handles customer service."1

Traffic and Transportation Manager: "Evaluates the costs and benefits of different types of

1. "Marketing", Eric N. Berkowitz, Roger A. Kerin, Steven W. Hartley and William
    Rudelius, 6th Edition, Boston, MA: Irwin/'McGraw Hill, 2000.
2. "Careers in Marketing", David Rosenthal and Michael Powell, Englewood Cliffs,
    NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993.
3. Clemson University’s Marketing Department,
                                    Careers in Advertising

Careers in advertising are not limited to writers and artists. Instead, advertising is an important business
enterprise that requires a combination of planning, fact-gathering, and creativity and involves all phases of

Although compensation for advertising is generally comparable to that of other business executives,
opportunities for rapid advancement in advertising usually are greater than in other fields because of less
emphasis on age or length of employment.

Agencies which are well-versed in nontraditional media outlets such as the Internet are also gaining new
business at a high rate. This trend is likely to continue as the Internet, online services and home interactive
TV grows in size. Now is a good time to combine your marketing savvy with some technical training.

Career Opportunities

Money Magazine listed the advertising/PR position as one of the 50 best jobs in America. This field has high
expected job growth and is part of the rapidly growing service sector. Advertising and public relations
activities can be performed in-house as a part of corporate advertising or the activities can be conducted by
outside agencies. In addition, there are a number of creative houses and support companies that help
produce advertising. Jobs in the advertising and public relations fields can be diverse and very challenging.

                        Advertising Agency: Media research and creative departments; account work
                        Large Corporation: Advertising department; brand/product management
                        Media: Magazine, newspaper, radio and television selling
                        Management Consulting
                        Marketing Research

Entry Level Positions

                        Advertising Agency
                        Account Coordinator (Traffic Department)
                        Assistant Account Executive
                        Assistant Media Buyer
                        Research Assistant
                        Large Corporation
                        Assistant or Associate Brand Manager

Requisite Personal Qualities:

                        People skills
                        Presentation skills
                        Self-motivator
                        Creative
                     Advertising & Public Relations: Salaries
Starting salaries in the advertising and public relations field are relatively low compared to
some other marketing jobs because of strong competition for entry level advertising jobs. You
may want to consider working for free to break in. Compensation will increase as the individual
moves into account executive or other management positions.

Advertising Salaries

                       Job                          Leo Burnett Co. Grey Advertising
                       Asst. Account Executive           $25-30KM               $25K
                       Account Executive                    $30-55K             $37K
                       Account Supervisor                   $48-65K          $50-80K
                       Executive VP                         $150K+        $210-500K
                       Junior Art Dir./Copywriter           18-25K              $25K
                       Art Director/Copywriter              30-50K            35-55K

Public Relations Salaries

                       Job                            Pay        Typical Experience
                       Corporate Director                  $62K         Over 6 years
                       Agency PR Manager                 38-51K          5 to 7 years
                       PR Account Executive              24-42K          2 to 6 years
                       Freelance PR Agents            17K and up          Entry level
                             Careers in Brand Management

Under this system of organization, each brand or product within a company is operated as a separate
business, with each standing on its own merits among its competition. This brand independence enables the
company to market vigorously a number of different products--some competitive with others in the same

Except for top corporate management, members of the brand group are the only ones in a company who
deal with all aspects of the company's business. Brand managers plan, develop, and direct the marketing
efforts for a particular brand or product. They are generalists who coordinate the activities of specialists in
production, sales, advertising, promotion, R&D, marketing research, purchasing, distribution, package
development, and finance.

In brand/product management, individuals can expect early responsibility which should enable them to learn
quickly and to demonstrate ability by contributing from the very outset to the operation of the brand(s) to
which they are assigned.

Career Opportunities

Virtually all consumer goods companies use this system of organization. A number of industrial goods
companies also have brand/product management. In consumer goods companies, in particular, brand
management is considered the best training ground for top corporate officers.

Entry Level Positions

A typical entry level position in a consumer products company is brand assistant. Ordinarily an individual is
hired in at this level and participates in a training program that entails sales training in the field from one to
four months and in-house classes and seminars. While these positions have historically gone to MBAs, there
are a few companies that do also recruit undergraduates.

Requisite Personal Qualities

Successful brand managers are results oriented and creative; possess strong interpersonal, communication,
and analytical skills; and have entrepreneurial leanings.

Academic Preparation

Brand management requires a broad background in marketing's functional core: advertising, research,
consumer behavior, and strategy. In addition, analytical skills are extremely important and students are
encouraged to prepare by taking accounting and finance courses.
                           Business-to-Business Marketing

Industrial marketing involves the planning, sale, and service of products used for commercial or business
purposes. These products may be simple, familiar products like office supplies or complex products such as
computer systems, machine tools and commercial aircraft. Industrial products for purposes of study are
usually categorized into supplies, capital equipment, installations, raw materials, and component parts.
Industrial marketing requires the ability to understand the customers requirements, and to propose the
purchase of the product that best fits the customer's needs. In this type of endeavor, the marketing person
often acts somewhat like a consultant to the buyers in order to assist them in determining the most suitable
products for their needs. The successful industrial marketing person is self-reliant and able to present the
product line to the customer in the most favorable light.

Career Opportunities

There are many industrial marketing positions with leading companies available. Only a few of the
companies actively looking for good employees recruit on campus. Therefore, students seeking to pursue a
career in industrial marketing should be prepared to search out job opportunities on their own, as well as
interview on campus. An excellent source of information on available opportunities is the "positions available"
section of the Times and Wall Street Journal.

Entry Level Positions

                        Sales representative
                        Market research administrator
                        Product manager
                        Pricing administrator
                        Product administrator
                        Assistant marketing manager
                        Sales administrator
                        Assistant sales manager
                        Sales service administrator

Requisite Personal Qualities

Most industrial marketing activities involve a continuing relationship between supplier and customer. In this
circumstance, the selling relationship is not really selling as it is commonly thought of, but one of maintaining
and enhancing an on-going business relationship. The requirements for a successful career in industrial
marketing are that a person be energetic, self-motivated, and interested in the products and customers who
buy the products. Thus, good basic work habits, the ability to acquire product and industry knowledge, and
human relations skills are important.

Academic Preparation

Many jobs in industrial and commercial marketing require broad knowledge rather than specific or narrow
technical knowledge. Therefore, a broad background of subjects is generally better than concentrating on
just one area. A technical degree may be important or even required in high technology areas; however,
most industrial marketing positions do not require it. As in the marketing of anything, a good foundation in
marketing fundamentals is essential. A course in Industrial Marketing and a course in Marketing Strategy are
also very helpful in that they provide the knowledge and background that will shorten the learning time
required to become proficient in an industrial marketing position. As in any business career, there is no
substitute for good skills in accounting, personal relations and written and oral communications.
                                Direct Response Marketing

Direct response marketing, from marketer directly to consumer is the fastest growing marketing channel in
the United States. Direct response vehicles include direct mail, print and broadcast media, telephone
marketing, catalogues, in-home presentations, and door-to-door marketing. Other vehicles include electronic
ordering and funds transfer, video text, as well as international opportunities.

Career Opportunities

Direct response marketing career opportunities are found in a broad range of marketing oriented firms,
including those offering consumer goods, industrial products, financial institutions, and other types of service
establishments. Entrepreneurs seeking to enter business for themselves often find that direct response
marketing is a viable entry mode.

Entry Level Positions

Direct response marketing is expanding rapidly. Because it is expected to double in sales volume over the
next four years, there are no clear cut entry paths or position titles. Those who aspire to enter the field should
make known their interest and background in placement interviewing, and seek counsel from officers and
directors of the Direct Marketing Association and the Direct Selling Association.

Requisite Personal Qualities

Personal qualities for success include creativity, drive, and perseverance in combination with quantitative

Academic Preparation

Academic preparation should stress a well-rounded background in business administration--including
marketing, management, accounting, finance, and computer competence. Supplemental work in
communications, psychology, and computer systems is recommended.
                                  Distribution Management

Distribution management is the analysis, planning, and control of activities concerned with the procurement
and distribution of goods. The activities include transportation, warehousing, forecasting, order processing,
inventory control, production planning, site selection, and customer service. Logistics management employs
the total cost approach to make analyses of the combined costs of various activities to obtain the most
satisfactory level of customer service at the lowest total cost. The distribution domain is an extensive and
diverse area concerned not only with the physical transportation of products, but also with various
purchasing, selling, and channel management functions.

Career Opportunities

Careers in distribution management provide an individual with the potential for rapid advancement within a
firm. Distribution managers must, by necessity, interact with managers in all other functions areas of the firm
and with outside firms. This broad exposure to business provides many opportunities for career

Entry Level Positions

Distribution firms are increasingly looking to hire individuals at both the undergraduate and MBA levels. Entry
level positions dealing primarily with distribution logistics include: Physical distribution manager, inventory
control manager, traffic manager, distribution center manager, distribution planning analyst, and customer
service manager. Distribution management positions are also available in the transportation industry in the
areas of transportation marketing and operations management.

Requisite Personal Qualities

Distribution management positions typically require the interpersonal leadership skills for effectively dealing
with individuals from diverse backgrounds. Also useful are strong analytical and communication skills, and
the ability to take a broad systems viewpoint of management.

Academic Preparation

Distribution management requires a broad background in the core functional areas of business, with
particular emphasis in distribution-related topics such as logistics, transportation, purchasing, and
                                   International Marketing

Special opportunities in international marketing arise because of the wide variety of social, economic, and
political conditions confronting international marketing personnel as well as the increased responsibility
which decentralized decision making and greater distances from head-quarters generally bring. Planning and
managerial positions abroad usually go to people who have had some international marketing experience at
headquarters. Starting jobs in international marketing at headquarters vary widely, but for a person with a
master's degree, it usually involves research, planning or coordinating activities.

Career Opportunities

While a few U.S. companies such as Colgate-Palmolive, CPC International, Eli Lilly, Gillette, and Nestle hire
for international marketing, most select for such assignments experienced personnel who have proven
themselves in domestic operations.

Entry Level Positions

Because much international placement is effected within the firm, a domestic sales position with an
international firm may be the best first step toward international opportunities.

Requisite Personal Qualities

Fluency in appropriate foreign languages and long-term residence in another trading partner country are

Academic Preparation

A broadly based background in marketing is recommended, with some emphasis on sales management and
market research.
                                      Marketing Research

Individuals employed in the field of marketing research are involved with providing management with
information needed for decision making. Information about consumers, the marketing environment, and the
competition are needed to operate effectively in the marketplace today. The marketing researcher may be
involved with the decision maker in formulating the problem and identifying the information required by the
decision maker for resolving the problem. He/she will generally be involved with designing the research
project, including the data collection method(s) to be used and the sample to be taken. Additionally, the
market researcher will be concerned with data tabulation, analysis, report preparation, and presentation of
findings to management.

Career Opportunities

Career opportunities exist within a variety of institutions, manufacturers, retailers, some wholesalers, trade
and industry associations, and governmental and other public agencies.

Entry Level Positions

Marketing research entry level positions are commonly found at the assistant market analyst or assistant
product analyst level. Because of their technical nature, many entry level positions are targeted for MBA
graduates, although prior experience and training may improve an undergraduate's chances.

Requisite Personal Qualities

Strong analytical, methodological, and communications skills are important.

The lessons from the P&G summit for those looking to careers in market research are self-evident. Talent
with and understanding of technology will be a primary driver of career success in the future. Today's
marketing graduate needs to have a comfort level with web-based marketing techniques, demographics and
potential. The use of data warehouses to better meet customer needs is exploding. Databases and
marketing messages easily meld on the web and create enormous opportunities for the web-savvy.

Believe it or not, there is increasing interest in marketers who understand anthropology! Heck, they're even
hiring anthropologists. And why not? These anthro people uncover myths in focus groups and bring an
understanding of civilization and culture to product management efforts.


In general, salaries for market researchers are relatively high in the US job market. Since this category of job
often calls for a masters degree or even a doctorate, starting pay can be quite good. However, some entry
level jobs particularly in market research can be low. The following chart lists representative salaries for
talented market research in large corporations at present.

           Job                                                 Typical Salary
           Market Analyst                                      $24,000 - $50,000
           Project Director                                    $45,000 - $70,000
           Market Research Director                            $75,000 - $200,000
                                    New Product Planning

One of the major problems facing modern managers is the question of how to plan and implement new
products and services. Millions of dollars are spent annually by large and small organizations to launch new
products and services. Many of these fail due to poor planning. Persons who specialize in new product
planning can find opportunities in the marketing of consumer products, consumer services, hospital and
medical services, and public service programs. Persons involved in new product planning develop skills in
understanding marketing research, sales forecasting, and promotional planning.

Career Opportunities

Career opportunities exist in the consumer industries, advertising agencies, consulting firms, public
agencies, medical agencies, retailing management, and many more. This broad set of industries offers a
very promising career potential for the marketing planner.

Entry Level Positions

Formal positions in product planning are becoming plentiful. Historically, such positions carry titles such as
"assistant manager/director" of product planning or new product development. Large firms have such
positions in staff departments. The MBA, though not a requirement everywhere, does appear to be the level
sought for these positions. Undergraduates are usually hired as "new product assistants."

Requisite Personal Qualities

New product work demands a unique combination of creative and analytical talents. A "product planner"
must be able to conceptualize new ideas, research the new ideas, and evaluate them objectively for a
market and financial standpoint.

Unlike managing an existing business, new product development is ever changing and requires a person
with a high degree of tolerance for uncertainty. Since products eventually succeed or fail, the planner has a
definite "report card" to let one assess one's own performance. The uncertainty and pressures of new
product work are compensated by the fun of giving birth to new entrants to the market.

Academic Preparation

Anyone desiring this career path should take course work in product planning, marketing research, consumer
behavior and advertising. Courses in capital budgeting, entrepreneurship, and sales forecasting would
likewise be valuable
                                   Non-Profit: Facts & Trends


Hard, frustrating and lonely. Three words that can describe non-profit marketing work. But, on the plus
side, you will have work that may have great potential to positively impact people's lives. And, on top of that,
you will often get far more responsibility early in a non-profit job than you could otherwise. A great way to
build your credentials. It's also worth keeping in mind that non-profit employment is a waystation for many.
We recently spoke with the former manager of a public TV station. He loved the job but couldn't handle the
stress forever and is now a happy manager of a for-profit service business. The point is that you don't have
to assume that you'll be doing this forever.

Career Opportunities

Jobs in non-profits can often have many more dimensions than jobs in the for-profit sector. You may find
yourself dealing with clients, engaging in lobbying, organizing office affairs etc. This can add to overall
breadth of knowledge and capabilities.

Because of the growth in the number of non-profits that are competing for a shrinking monetary support
base, marketing has taken on even more importance to the organization. As federal budget cuts increase
over time, this is likely to become even more true.

Some of the most significant non-profit opportunities are in hospitals and universities. Hospitals are
increasingly competing for patients are increasingly rely on marketing expertise to help attract them. And
many universities have experienced severe funding shortfalls and are increasingly relying on marketing
efforts to keep themselves afloat. Don't overlook opportunities in this area. You may be able to make a
tremendous difference for an institution of higher learning.


As you would expect, starting pay in the non-profit sector is typically lower than in other industries because
fund raising, government grants, and donations are the typical source of revenue. However, the larger the
non-profit organization the better the chance of income rapidly increasing as the individual moves into upper

                             Position                       Typical Salary Range
                             Marketing Director             $25K to $100K
                             Assistant Marketing Director   $15K to $35K
                             Director of Development        $25K to $80K
                             Event Coordinator              $15K to $40K
                             Publication Specialist         $15K to $30K
                             Intern-Volunteer               Minimal
                                     Retailing Management

Companies involved in retailing afford the master's candidate and early opportunity to use professional
knowledge to improve company profits through the maintenance of appropriate assortments of goods and
services in locations easily accessible to customers. The marked growth of general merchandisers, such as
department sores, discount houses, chain and "warehouse-showroom" stores, has brought about greater
emphasis on "professional training" as part of the preparation for a career in retailing.

Career Opportunities

According to the U.S. Department of Labor, more than 19 million Americans are employed in the retailing
industry in more than 2 million retail establishments. This is a big business with plentiful opportunities.

The larger chain and department stores have formal training programs, some of which are among the best in
the country. Historically, starting salaries and job assignment in retailing have been at lower levels in terms of
initial responsibility and salary. Among the wide variety of routes to top management in retailing are
merchandise management and store management. The progression in the former would be from assistant
buyer to merchandise division manager. For the latter, it would be assistant department (sales) manager to
department manager to store (branch) manager. The buyer is primarily concerned with assortment selection
and promotion. The department manager is concerned with sales force management and display.

Retailing, especially with the larger firms, offers an opportunity to move in a few years into the management
of a branch or part of a store doing as much as $5 million in sales. In effect, new recruits have the
opportunity to exercise their ideas with profit and loss responsibility for a significant business unit.

Entry Level Positions

Entry level positions in retailing management include Assistant Buyer positions, and Department Manager

Requisite Personal Qualities

Leadership, communication skills, ability to work in fast-paced environment, knowledge of and interest in
retailing, and results-oriented individual. Learn the lingo. The operative words in retail are things like sales
per square foot, shelf space, cross-promotions etc. There is a lingo and a set of skills you will have to pick up
mainly through experience. Don't be afraid to start off with an entry-level job that will let you really learn the
ropes. In retailing you have to be prepared to move. Candidates who are unwilling to relocate will have a
harder time moving up the organization because you will have to wait until the person above you moves on
so you can move up. Usually, a retail chain will defray your relocation expenses.

Academic Preparation

A diverse background often characterizes retailing management positions. Emphasis in retailing is a plus but
is not required.
                                           Retailing: Salaries
Salaries in the retail sales field are highly variable. Your starting pay in retail will usually not be as high as
other jobs in marketing. This is because you start off in more of a "commodity" type job. That will change as
you prove yourself. For example, we hear stories of managers at top chains like Target and Wal-Mart pulling
down salaries (after bonus) of over a quarter million dollars in a good store! The perks can be good too.
Cruises, trips to Singapore and the like are not out of the ordinary. No doubt about it, there is a significant
premium paid for people with skill and a desire to work hard in retail. The following salary levels are
representative of work in leading U.S. retailers as of 1999/2000:

           Job                                       Typical Salary
           Management Trainee                        $20,000 - $35,000
           Merchandise Buyer                         $25,000 - $80,000
           Assistant Manager                         $25,000 - $55,000
           Store Manager                             $35,000 - $170,000
           District Manager                          $40,000-$180,000+bonus
           Regional Manager                          $70,000-$200,000+bonus
           Divisional VP                             $100,000+
                              Sales and Sales Management

Sales personnel deal with the market directly and personally. Throughout them, marketing becomes concrete
and humanly meaningful. Other marketing people seldom see the customers that they influence. The people
dealt with cover a wide range in both the employing and the client organizations in the complex effort to
understand client needs, and to help shape the liaison activity to meet those needs.

Career Opportunities

Sales and sales management opportunities exist in a wide range of profit and nonprofit organizations, and in
product and service organizations, including financial, insurance, consulting, and government. Commercial
banking, for example, is a technical form of sales.

Industrial and commercial sales and sales management offer increasingly challenging and rewarding
opportunities commonly involving systems selling and requiring broad management and, in some cases,
technical training.

The wide range of product and market opportunities and variety of interpersonal situations faced by sales
personnel indicate the need for carefully matching one's background, interests, technical skills and academic
training with available career opportunities in sales and sales management. Training programs vary greatly
inform and length, ranging from a few weeks to two years. Career paths in sales are not the same in all
organizations, and need to be explored with each prospective employer.

Entry Level Positions

Trade Sales: These are positions with manufacturers or wholesalers representing those products to
wholesalers or retailers. The products range from packaged grocery products to office supplies to clothing.
Examples of companies employing this type of sales representative include Proctor & Gamble, Kimberly-
Clark, and Levi-Strauss. The sales representative has a specified number of accounts within a designated
geographic area. The sales task is to visit the wholesaler or retailer, provide information about new products,
close sales, expedite orders, and mediate complaints.

Missionary Sales: These are manufacturer's representatives who call upon retailers or decision makers to
attempt to influence them to use the manufacturer's products. Missionary salespeople "preach the gospel" of
their company's products, but do not close sales. The most common example is the drug pharmaceutical
representative who calls upon physicians to persuade them to prescribe the company's brand of drugs.
Producers of grocery products and other products found in retail sores often employ missionaries to visit the
retail stores and to discuss the product with the retailer, set up displays, stock shelves, etc. The missionary
has a specified number of accounts in a given geographic area. This is often an excellent introduction to
sales work, because it does not require that the representative actually close sales.

Technical Selling: This is much like the type of selling in that the representative has specified accounts
within a designated geographic area. These accounts are other businesses which use the product that the
salesperson represents. This is different from trade selling, however, in that the products are more technical
in nature. They require a certain knowledge and aptitude to be effectively represented. Examples include
electronic equipment, bulk chemicals, building materials, and capital equipment such as machine tools.
Companies which employ such representatives include IBM, Monsanto, and Warner-Swasey.

New Business Selling: Here, the salesperson does not have specified accounts nor a geographic territory.
He or she is responsible for developing new business wherever possible. Examples include real estate,
automobiles, life insurance, stocks and bonds, etc. Companies employing such salespeople include Caldwell
Banker, automobile dealers such as Chevrolet and Nissan, and Aetna and Bankers Life insurance

There are other types of sales jobs, such as retail sales, delivery routes (bread, beer, etc.) and handling
customer orders by telephone. Most of these jobs are not filled by college graduates.

Requisite Personal Qualities

Personal selling, by definition, involves persuasive two-way communication with potential buyers. Thus, it is
helpful to sales performance to enjoy people and to get on with them well. But, more is required.

The salesperson must know that products that he or she represents, as well as competing products. The
basic sales task, then, is to understand the buyer's wants and desires, and to match these with the
organization's products. Therefore, perhaps the most important single personal quality is the absolute
conviction that the product can, in fact, help the buyer. People who believe in their products can effectively
sell them.

It also helps to be highly motivated and well-organized because selling, more than most positions, requires
individual initiative, unsupervised by managers. Further, in contrast to stereotype, the salesperson should be
capable of full, careful, and accurate analysis in terms of both statistical performance measures and dollars
and cents financial criteria of the advantages and disadvantages of a particular purchase by a given

In short, it is often said that the salesperson needs empathy with others to understand their wants and
desires. Ego drives to match those wants and desires to the organization's products, and personal efficiency
is needed in order to complete these expeditiously. Of course, no human being scores highly on all of these
qualities. The more an individual possesses of each of them, however, the more like that he or she will be a
successful salesperson.

Academic Preparation

Every student must begin with the introductory marketing management course at the undergraduate or
graduate levels. The sales management course is a must; and, a marketing strategy course is useful for all
types of sales work. All interested students should take the marketing research course. Beyond that, the
aspiring salesperson might select additional marketing courses that reflect special interest. Those interested
in marketing to consumers, or marketing consumer goods to the trade, will want to take consumer behavior
and advertising.

Particularly useful are courses that provide insight into the human condition: psychology, sociology,
economics, anthropology, etc. Analytical courses, such as cost accounting, computer science, and statistical
analysis are increasingly helpful. Courses that aid in communications, e.g. speech, drama, and creative
writing are valuable. Finally, courses that are related to a student's special interest should be selected:
language courses, if one is interested in international marketing; engineering or physical science courses for
those interested in technical selling, etc.
                                       Services Marketing

The economy's service sector now exceeds the manufacturing sector in terms of relative contribution to the
GDP. In addition, the service sector is there much of the economy's most vigorous growth is occurring. As a
consequence, numerous marketing positions are available in banking and financial service institutions,
health care organizations, leisure oriented businesses, and in various other service settings.

Career Opportunities

Service sector career paths in many cases parallel those found in traditional packaged goods brand
management. For example, the individual who manages the marketing of a bank's "NOW" account services
is a generalist who coordinates the activities of specialists in sales management, advertising, promotion, and
market research. These are high visibility opportunities that offer the possibilities of advancement to top level
marketing positions.

Entry Level Positions

Entry level positions are increasingly available to those with undergraduate business degrees, as well as
those with MBAs. Positions are analogous to those of the traditional packaged goods assistant brand
manager. Other positions may be available in sales capacities, or in a large service firm's market research
department. The latter would typically be available only to those with advanced degrees.

Requisite Personal Qualities

Individuals seeking service management positions should be strongly motivated, tenacious, and posses a
healthy competitiveness. They should also have strong analytical and communications skills. Leadership
ability is important because of the need to coordinate the diverse activities of many marketing specialists.
Because of the intangible (relative to packaged goods) nature of most service sector products, individuals
should feel thoroughly comfortable dealing with product attributes and issues that are harder to observe and

Academic Preparation

Individuals should have a broad background in marketing's functional core: management policy, research,
advertising and promotion, quantitative analysis, and consumer behavior. Additional coursework in the
behavioral sciences should prove useful.
                       Advertising and Marketing Professionals
                                 Annual salary range

Advertising agency
    Vice president --media director/creative director/art director    $78,000 -- 139,000
    Account director/supervisor                                       55,000 -- 85,000
    Marketing manager                                                 48,000 -- 78,750
    Senior account executive (five or more years' experience)         50,500 -- 73,000
    Account executive (three or more years' experience)               36,750 -- 57,500
    Assistant marketing manager                                       35,000 -- 52,500

    Vice president of marketing                                       83,500 -- 173,000
    Marketing director                                                67,000 -- 113,500
    Marketing manager                                                 47,250 -- 78,750
    Assistant marketing manager                                       34,750 -- 50,750

Agency or corporate
    Media director (five or more years' experience)                   62,250 -- 91,250
    Brand/product manager                                             56,500 -- 89,750
    Senior copywriter (five or more years' experience)                57,500 -- 87,500
    Marketing-communications manager                                  47,250 -- 71,000
    Marketing researcher (three or more years' experience)            45,500 -- 66,250
    Media planner                                                     41,250 -- 60,500
    Copywriter (three or more years' experience)                      41,250 -- 60,000
    Event/trade show manager                                          35,250 -- 56,000
    Media buyer (three or more years' experience)                     40,500 -- 55,500
    Senior copy editor (three + years' experience)                    38,750 -- 54,750
    Marketing researcher (one to three years' experience)             29,250 -- 45,000
    Marketing comm. coordinator (one to three years' experience)      27,250 -- 39,750

Source: "2002 Salary Guide," The Creative Group, Robert Half International Inc., Menlo Park, Calif.
            Research on Compensation for Marketing Professionals
The compensation news for marketing professionals was a mixed bag in 2000. Some found themselves in the
right place, at the right time with the right set of skills, while others saw problems with pay in Y2K.

―In the industry in the past year, there has been huge volatility,‖ by industry and by position, says Anne
Williams Badanes, senior partner with Satterfield & Associates, a Cincinnati-based executive recruiter for
senior-level marketing positions.

Marketing communications specialists, who perform a variety of writing, advertising, sales promotion and
public relations activities, apparently had a great year. Median total compensation rose 14.9% to $42,500
from $37,000 in 1999. The median bonus doubled to $4,000, although that figure should be used for
reference purposes only, as there were too few respondents to that question for the data to be statistically

For top marketing and sales executives—who control all aspects of the marketing process, such as strategy,
budgeting, sales, promotions and public relations—it was a good news, bad news scenario. Median total
compensation rose 59.2% to $95,500 in 2000 from $60,000 the previous year. The median bonus, however,
fell 55.6% to $20,000 from $45,000.

Marketing specialists—responsible for marketing support, analysis and research for programs and services—
got a double whammy: The median total compensation dropped to $37,200 in 2000, down 16.5% from
$44,570 a year earlier, while the median bonus was chopped 59.4% to $1,600 from $3,940.

These were among the findings of the 2000 ―Compensation in the Marketing& Sales Field‖ survey,
conducted on behalf of the American Marketing Association by Abbott, Langer & Associates Inc., a Crete,
Ill.-based marketing research firm. This is the third survey conducted for the association, although this is the
19th year Abbott, Langer has done the survey.

The survey collects compensation data—base salaries as well as bonuses (defined as cash bonuses,
commissions and-or cash profit sharing)—for 41 benchmark marketing- and sales-related job titles. Results
are presented in the aggregate as well as broken down by variables such as total number of employees,
annual sales revenue, geographic location, type of employer and management responsibility. The 2000
survey data were based on responses from 169 organizations covering more than 4,000 employees

―If you’re not keeping up with the prevailing pay rates, you’re not going to be able to attract and retain good
people,‖ says Steven Langer, president of Abbott, Langer.

Langer notes that an individual’s compensation depends on more than just that person’s skills and talents.
The survey found, for example, that marketers in the northeastern and north central states received the
highest levels of compensation, while those in southwest and Pacific states fared the worst. Similarly,
executives working for manufacturing companies tended to be compensated better than their service industry

Among the survey’s other findings:

       Top marketing executives—responsible for all marketing activities, including advertising, public
        relations and market research, but not sales—themedian total compensation was $82,500 in 2000,
        down 2.9% from $85,000 the previous year. That dip, however, was offset by a 206.7% increase in
        the median bonus to $18,400 from $6,000 in 1999.
        Assistant marketing directors, who assist with such things as planning, organizing and meeting profit
         objectives, saw their median total compensation increase 8.7% to $73,500 from $67,625 the previous
         year. The median bonus fell 44.3% to $5,000 in 2000, from $8,983.
        Product and brand managers, who coordinate all promotional and marketing programs related to a
         specific brand or product group, saw their median total compensation remain flat at $65,000, but the
         median bonus was cut 20% to $4,000 from $5,000.
        Market research analysts, who conduct market analyses, consumer research studies, territorial
         analyses and other types of economic studies, saw their median total compensation climb to $58,000
         in 2000—a 45% increase from $40,000 a year earlier. The median bonus, however, fell 25% to
         $6,000 from $8,000 in 1999.

There are several reasons for the seesaw nature of compensation levels. Executive recruiting professionals
note factors that have driven large increases in compensation levels in recent years—including a red-hot
economy and the allure of some industries, particularly the dot-com sector—are no longer present. ―What
we had was an overheated situation where we had pent-up demand,‖ says Gerald Kanovsky, chairman of
Career Consulting Group, an executive recruiting firm in Stamford, Conn., that specializes in marketing
research and marketing information positions. With the economy racing ahead, many companies felt free to
loosen their purse strings and add positions, he says.

That situation might be coming to an end. Fears of a pending recession have some companies retrenching on
many programs, including salary structures. ―The overall climate for marketing people is still very good,‖
says Susan Abrahamson, president of SearchCom Inc., a Dallas-based firm that performs retained executive
searches for mid- and senior-level marketing and advertising positions. ―For strategic marketing people, there
will always be a place.‖

In addition, salaries escalated as many marketers opted to ply their trade in new industries. ―Clearly, the
pace of movement has picked up in the past couple years,‖ Badanes says. ―There was a lot of movement into
technology,‖ not only the dot-com sector, but also hardware and software companies, she says. Now, many
of those same marketers, however, are returning to their previous employers—frequently for the same or
even lower salaries. Badanes and others note that the lower salaries are the result of market forces and are not
punitive in nature. ―A lot depends on where the person went and how long they were gone,‖ as well as the
terms under which they left, Abrahamson says. ―In many cases, companies welcome that kind of experience

Technology continues to have a positive impact on salaries—only this time, it’s as a tool rather than an
employer. Marketers have become much more sophisticated in their use of technology to gather and
manipulate data on markets and consumers to improve their chances of success.

―Companies are looking more and more for ways to increase their return on their marketing investment,‖
Kanovsky says. ―The amount of information a brand manager has at his fingertips is light years ahead of
where it was 20 years ago, even 10 years ago.‖ As a result, he says executives who know how to take
advantage of these new tools are in high demand. ―You have to be able to use those tools and use them to
drive the business,‖ he says.

Survey methodology
Abbott, Langer & Associates calculated statistics for base salary and bonuses—including commissions, cash bonuses and cash profit-
sharing—and total cash compensation for marketing and sales jobs in 2000, based on questionnaires mailed in April to AMA
members as well as to numerous nonmember companies. The report was prepared from the data provided by the 169 respondents
who had returned questionnaires by September. Respondents answered questions on behalf of their companies, so the survey actually
represents data on more than 4,000 employees, but not every respondent answered every question. A similar survey conducted in
1999 had 405 respondents providing information on more than 7,600 employees, but not every respondent answered every question.
Companies included in the survey are located in all 50 states and range in size from less than 25 employees to more than 10,000
employees. For some categories, sample sizes were too small to be statistically significant and should be used only for reference
                                  Common Resume Blunders
1. Too Focused on Job Duties
Your resume should not be a boring listing of job duties and responsibilities. Go beyond showing what was
required and demonstrate how you made a difference at each company, providing specific examples. When
developing your achievements, ask yourself:
       How did you perform the job better than others?
       What were the problems or challenges faced? How did you overcome them? What were the results?
        How did the company benefit from your performance?
       Did you receive any awards, special recognition or promotions as a result?

2. Flowery or General Objective Statement
Many candidates lose their readers in the beginning. Statements like "A challenging position enabling me
to contribute to organizational goals while offering an opportunity for growth and advancement" are
overused, too general and waste valuable space.

3. Too Short or Too Long
Many people try to squeeze their experiences onto one page, because they've heard resumes shouldn’t be
longer. By doing this, job seekers may delete impressive achievements. There are also candidates who
ramble on about irrelevant or redundant experiences. When writing your resume, ask yourself, "Will this
statement help me land an interview?" Only include information that elicits a "yes."

4. Using Personal Pronouns and Articles
A resume is a form of business communication, so it should be concise and written in a telegraphic style.
There should be no mentions of "I" or "me," and only minimal use of articles.
For example: I developed a new product that added $2 million in sales and increased the market segment’s
gross margin by 12 percent. should be changed to: Developed new product that added $2 million in sales
and increased market segment’s gross margin by 12 percent.

5. Listing Irrelevant Information
Many people include their interests, but they should only include those relating to the job. For example, if a
candidate is applying for a position as a ski instructor, he should list cross-country skiing as a hobby.
Personal information, such as date of birth, marital status, height and weight, normally should not be on the
resume unless you’re an entertainment professional or a job seeker outside the US.

6. Using a Functional Resume When You Have a Good Career History
It is irksome for hiring managers not to see the career progression and the impact made at each position.
Unless you have an emergency situation, such as virtually no work history or excessive job-hopping, avoid
the functional format. The modified chronological format is often the most effective.

7. Not Including a Summary Section that Makes an Initial Hard Sell
This is one of the job seeker’s greatest tools. The summary should demonstrate the skill level and
experiences directly related to the position being sought. To create a high-impact summary statement,
peruse job openings to determine what’s important to employers. Next, write a list of your matching skills,
experience and education. Incorporate these points into your summary.

8. Typos
One typo can land your resume in the garbage. Proofread and show your resume to several friends to have
them proofread it as well. This document is a reflection of you and should be perfect.
                                          Resume Checklist

Use this checklist to ensure that your resume is complete:

    1.    One page only, unless you have significant previous experience
    2.    Word processor generated, with full spell check and proofing
    3.    Times Roman or other Serif font, 10 point to 12 point size
    4.    No more than two fonts or two sizes
    5.    Margins no less than .75" and no more than 1.5"
    6.    Quality bond paper, 8x11 inches
    7.    Contact information clearly stated; campus and permanent addresses both listed if appropriate
    8.    Clear, focused objective
    9.    Summary of your top three or four skills listed as bullet points
    10.   Degree listed first, college/university second
    11.   GPA listed if over 3.0
    12.   Major GPA listed if over 3.0 and overall GPA under 3.0
    13.   Graduation date listed, even if you have not yet graduated
    14.   Experience section listing most notable accomplishments
    15.   Descriptive (not actual) job titles
    16.   Industry buzzwords and keywords included
    17.   Activities section listing your most notable extracurricular activities
    18.   No personal data or potentially discriminatory data
    19.   Spell check and grammar check your resume--twice; then have at least two other people do it for you
                Prep for the 10 Most Common Interview Questions
                                            by Carole Martin
                                         Monster Interview Coach

Too many job seekers stumble through interviews as if the questions are coming out of left field. But many
interview questions are to be expected. So study this list, plan your answers ahead of time and you'll be ready
to deliver them with confidence.

What Are Your Weaknesses?

This is the most dreaded question of all. Handle it by minimizing your weakness and emphasizing your
strengths. Stay away from personal qualities and concentrate on professional traits: "I am always working on
improving my communication skills to be a more effective presenter. I recently joined Toastmasters, which I
find very helpful."

Why Should We Hire You?

Summarize your experiences: "With five years' experience working in the financial industry and my proven
record of saving the company money, I could make a big difference in your company. I'm confident I would
be a great addition to your team."

Why Do You Want to Work Here?

The interviewer is listening for an answer that indicates you've given this some thought and are not sending
out resumes just because there is an opening. For example, "I've selected key companies whose mission
statements are in line with my values, where I know I could be excited about what the company does, and
this company is very high on my list of desirable choices."

What Are Your Goals?

Sometimes it's best to talk about short-term and intermediate goals rather than locking yourself into the
distant future. For example, "My immediate goal is to get a job in a growth-oriented company. My long-term
goal will depend on where the company goes. I hope to eventually grow into a position of responsibility."

Why Did You Leave (Are You Leaving) Your Job?

If you're unemployed, state your reason for leaving in a positive context: "I managed to survive two rounds
of corporate downsizing, but the third round was a 20 percent reduction in the workforce, which included

If you are employed, focus on what you want in your next job: "After two years, I made the decision to look
for a company that is team-focused, where I can add my experience."

When Were You Most Satisfied in Your Job?

The interviewer wants to know what motivates you. If you can relate an example of a job or project when
you were excited, the interviewer will get an idea of your preferences. "I was very satisfied in my last job,
because I worked directly with the customers and their problems; that is an important part of the job for me."
What Can You Do for Us That Other Candidates Can't?

What makes you unique? This will take an assessment of your experiences, skills and traits. Summarize
concisely: "I have a unique combination of strong technical skills, and the ability to build strong customer
relationships. This allows me to use my knowledge and break down information to be more user-friendly."

What Are Three Positive Things Your Last Boss Would Say About You?

It's time to pull out your old performance appraisals and boss's quotes. This is a great way to brag about
yourself through someone else's words: "My boss has told me that I am the best designer he has ever had. He
knows he can rely on me, and he likes my sense of humor."

What Salary Are You Seeking?

It is to your advantage if the employer tells you the range first. Prepare by knowing the going rate in your
area, and your bottom line or walk-away point. One possible answer would be: "I am sure when the time
comes, we can agree on a reasonable amount. In what range do you typically pay someone with my

If You Were an Animal, Which One Would You Want to Be?

Interviewers use this type of psychological question to see if you can think quickly. If you answer "a bunny,"
you will make a soft, passive impression. If you answer "a lion," you will be seen as aggressive. What type
of personality would it take to get the job done? What impression do you want to make?
                                        Interview Questions
During the job interview, you want to impress the interviewer by providing brief, to-the-point answers that
relate your skills and experience to their needs. Where possible, your answers should blend your knowledge
of the firm based on your research and networking activities. This is also the time to impress the interviewer
with your knowledge of the organization by asking insightful questions that demonstrate your knowledge and
interest in their firm. In so doing, you will help the interviewer see you as the right person for the job. Your
goal at this stage in the process is to motivate the interviewer to ask you back for a second interview.

You should practice for the interview by mentally addressing several questions most interviewers ask. Some
of the most frequently asked questions include:


       Describe your educational background.
       What plans do you have to continue your education?
       Why did you attend __________ University (College or School)?
       Why did you major in __________?
       What subjects did you enjoy the most? The least? Why?
       What leadership positions did you hold?
       How did you finance your education?
       If you started all over, what would you change about your education?
       What skills do you hope to acquire through education during the next five years?

                                              Work Experience

       What were your major achievements in each of your past jobs?
       What did you do at XYZ company? Tell me about your different responsibilities.
       How does your previous experience relate to this job?
       What did you enjoy the most about your last job? The least?
       What is your typical workday like?
       What did you like about your boss? Dislike?
       Which job did you enjoy the most/the least? Why?
       Have you ever been fired? Why?

                                                Career Goals

       Why did you decide to leave your last job?
       Why do you want to join our organization?
       Why do you think you are qualified for this position?
       Why are you looking for another job?
       Why do you want to make a career change?
       Why should we hire you?
       How would you improve our operations?
       What do you want to be doing five years from now?
       How much do you want to be making five years from now?
       What are your short-range and long-range career goals?
       What other jobs and companies are you considering?
       When will you be ready to begin work?
       How do you feel about relocating? Traveling? Working overtime?
       What attracted you to our organization?
                                Personality and Other Concerns

   Tell me about yourself.
   What are your major weaknesses? Your major strengths?
   What do you do in your spare time? Any hobbies?
   What role does your family play in your career?
   How well do you work under pressure? In meeting deadlines?
   Tell me about your management philosophy.
   How much initiative do you take?
   What types of people do you prefer working with?
   How __________ (creative, analytical, tactful, etc.) are you?
                                Questions To Ask the Interviewer
Even if you don't ask any questions during an interview, many employers will ask you if you have any. How
you respond will affect their evaluation of you. So be prepared to ask insightful questions about the

Good topics to touch on include:
 the competitive environment in which the organization operates
 executive management styles
 what obstacles the organization anticipates in meeting its goals
 how the organization's goals have changed over the past three to five years.

Generally, it is most unwise to ask about pay or benefits or other similar areas. The reason is that it tends to
make you seem more interested in what the organization can do for you. It is also not a good idea to simply
have no questions at all. Doing so makes you appear passive rather than curious and interested.

        Quick Tip
        From "America Online's Career Center," hosted by Jim Gonyea.
        Q: I've been on several interviews lately, and invariably the interviewer invites me to ask
        questions about the position or the company. What kinds of questions would be most appropriate
        to show genuine interest? I know what not to ask, e.g. "How much am I gonna make at this
        place?" Still, I think it is possible that I have done less than my best in this regard.
        A: I would ask the following questions:

           1.   What are the main objectives and responsibilities of the position?
           2.   How does the company expect these objectives to be met?
           3.   What obstacles are commonly encountered in reaching these objectives?
           4.   What is the desired time frame for reaching the objectives?
           5.   What resources are available from the company and what must be found elsewhere to
                reach the objectives?

Second Interview Questions
Dona DeZube

Congratulations, you've made it to round two of the interview process. What are you likely to face, and what
are your best strategies for nabbing the job? Keep these tips in mind as you head toward the finish line.

         They'll quiz you to see if you really know your stuff. Here's where staying awake during class will
          finally pay off.
         You're likely to be introduced to potential coworkers. Try to make a personal connection with each
          of them.
         You may be fed. Be ready to display your beautiful table manners and breezy personality.
         They're looking for a reason not to like you. This is not the time to get cocky, because there are three
          other candidates in the wings.
         At an interview that ends without an offer, try to close the sale by asking, ""What's the next step in
          the process?" Follow up with, "What's the time frame for that?"
         Interviewers need to know you're interested in their company. Always ask at least one related
          question: "When you financed that widget deal in Germany last year, how did you hedge your
          currency risk?"
                 When and How to Discuss Salary During an Interview
                            Essential tips to help you get the salary you deserve.

It happens in almost every job interview. Your potential employer looks you straight in the eye and asks the
question that gets you squirming in your seat: "What kind of salary are you looking for?" It takes finesse and
negotiating know-how to get the best possible pay and perks. You can learn how to navigate the rocky waters
of talking about salary during an interview with the ensuing tips from experts.

1. Don't talk about salary too soon
Salary negotiation is all about timing, says Jack Chapman, a career consultant specializing in salary coaching
and the author of Negotiating Your Salary: How to Make $1,000 a Minute.

―The time to talk about salary is when they say they want you for the job. Before that, it’s a moot point,’’
Chapman says. It can also hurt your chances of getting the job if you price yourself out of the ballpark.
"Don’t give them a chance to eliminate you based on salary," he says.

―The biggest blunder made by job applicants is the tendency to jump to the issue of compensation too
quickly,‖ agrees Deb Koen, author of Career Choice, Change and Challenge and vice president of Career
Development Services, a nonprofit group based in Rochester, New York.

Ray Brizendine, the director of the Alexander Group, a national executive recruiting firm, warns that if you
ask about salary in the first interview, ―It makes you look as though you're applying for the job because of
the money. That [can] seem too mercenary.‖

2. If asked about salary right away, change the subject
If you don't want to answer the salary question right away, what should you do?

Change the subject, politely. Use statements such as: ―I don’t want to box myself in terms of salary right
now. If you don’t mind, I’d like to focus on the value I can produce for your company,‖ or ―I’m sure we can
come to a salary agreement if I’m the right person for the job. I’d like to see if we agree that I am.‖

This is not hedging. Waiting until the potential employer wants to hire you is a savvy strategic move,
Chapman says. ―You need to wait until they really want you. Once they’re hot about you, they’ll do what it
takes to get you.‖

3. Do your research and prepare to negotiate
Before you go into the interview, know the going rate for your experience and position. Websites such as
JobSmart or can give you a good idea of your salary range, says Chapman.

Once you have an offer, negotiate. According to Chapman, the correct way to begin negotiations is to say
"hmm." Next, he says, "Repeat the figure with a contemplative tone in your voice—like it's the start of a
multinational summit meeting. Count to 30 and think."

When you’re done thinking—and this time the interviewer will be the one squirming in his seat—respond
with the truth based on what you know you’re worth in the marketplace: "sounds great" or "sounds fair" or
"sounds disappointing." Just like that, the scales are tipped in your favor.

Author Bio
Marcia Passos Duffy is a freelance journalist who writes frequently about business, parenting, health care, and farming. She is a 1997
recipient of a New England Press Association award. (
                         Keys to Following Up After an Interview
   Interviewers love to be thanked, and a thank-you note shows consideration and allows you to
confirm your interest. How you go about writing the thank you could make or break your candidacy.

Your antiperspirant held up, you kept the butterflies in your stomach from flying away, and you feel
reasonably good about the answers you gave to the multiple interviewers you spoke to. What's the best way
to follow up?

Giving thanks
Interviewers love to be thanked, and a thank-you note shows consideration and allows you to confirm your
interest. Nevertheless, how you go about writing the thank you—what you say, how you say it, and who you
say it to—could make or break your candidacy.

In fact, if you're not careful, you botch a thank you and lose a job you want. Recruiters say that ill-considered
thank-you notes can kill your candidacy, especially if they have typos—and many do. Proofread your thank

And if you've talked to multiple people, you don't want to send them all the same thank you—interviewers
regularly assemble all documents, including thank-you notes, before making a hiring decision. If the four you
sent were identical, that's not going to look good when the recruiters hang them on the wall and compare. If
you individualize your sentiments, you'll make a much better impression.

Don't push it
Another gaffe: Appearing pushy. Remember, you haven't received an offer yet. Give your recruiters some
time to make a decision. Letting them know you expect an offer, and quickly, will help them narrow down
the list—by taking you off it.

Finally, think about the best form for your thank you. If the interviewer tells you she plans to make a
decision that night, don't send a letter by snail mail—e-mail promptly, as soon as you get home; otherwise,
the decision will have been made long before your letter arrived. On the other hand, if you're applying
somewhere that prides itself on doing personalized work for clients, you might want to send off a
handwritten message on a nice card. That shows an attention to detail that will be important on the job.

You might also considering faxing your thank you and putting the hard-copy in the mail. By faxing, the
interviewer gets your sentiments immediately; and then again when the hard copy arrives. You'll get your
name before the person twice with the same thank you—which will help keep you on the interviewer's mind.

The best advice is to follow-up with a thank you, but calibrate the form of the thanks (e-mail, snail mail, fax)
to the company and job. If you're going into IT, for instance, you won't want to send a letter snail mail—
you're going to be working with technology, so use it and send thanks via e-mail. Even if you don't want the
job, it's worth letting your interviewer know that you appreciated their time and consideration. Who knows,
they could be interviewing you again one day—and for a position you'll want.

You should also realize that an impeccably written and individually tailored letter will make your interviewer
feel warm and fuzzy inside, but it probably won't sway the unsentimental recruiter who has already decided
you're not right for the position. What it will do is leave a good impression if you decide to apply to the
company again—or give you an advantage if whomever the company does hire doesn't work out.

The bottom line in following up is that you should do it—graciously, promptly, and carefully.
                                    Sample Cover Letter

Director, Human Resources
P.O. Box 1111
Orlando Sentinel
Orlando, FL 32201

To the Director of Human Resources:

Four years in college and what have I learned? Plenty! Plenty that I can apply directly to the entry
level position you advertised in this Sunday's Orlando Sentinel.

The drive to focus and achieve: Your firm's success depends upon the ability of your staff to grasp
a problem, evaluate the best way to solve it, and then work until the solution is in hand. This is
precisely the process I followed all four years to graduate with a 3.80 average.

Flexibility and creativity: A business gets stale when it continually recycles the same ideas time
and time again. When you hire me, you get someone who thinks for himself, and who is not afraid
to suggest new ways to approach a task as I did as the Student Representative responsible for
researching and updating the University of Central Florida’s Ethics Standards to reflect the difficult
issues facing today's students and faculty.

The ability to work with a diverse population: Having been raised in an ethnic environment,
educated in a multicultural institution, and with a degree in Psychology, I am well equipped to
interact productively with customers and staff from a variety of backgrounds, with a range of
priorities, and from the stockroom to senior management.

An interview would grant me the opportunity to demonstrate my abilities. I will call you soon to see
if we might meet. Or you can reach me at the number listed below.

Thank you in advance for considering me.


R. Alexander Conen
(555) 456–7890
                                    Sample Cover Letter

Director, Human Resources
P.O. Box 1000
Orlando Sentinel
Orlando, FL 32201

To the Director of Human Resources:

Your ad for an Entry Level position caught my attention as I prepare to begin my professional
career upon graduation this spring from the University of Central Florida.

I say ―professional‖ because I have worked steadily throughout college, gaining valuable experience
that equips me to present your firm with advantages others may not offer.

For example, as a Resident Assistant for a 250–person coed dormitory, I acquired strong leadership
and interpersonal skills. I am now able to think quickly on my feet in emergency situations, and in
those requiring quick assessment of many factors in order to make appropriate decisions. Dealing
with the diverse concerns of students, parents and faculty, I have become adept at operating with the
proper mix of authority, diplomacy, and tact.

While working in this demanding position, I achieved a 3.75 cumulative grade point average. My
double major, Communications and Political Science, provided me with a thorough foundation in
principles that affect businesses every day.

I would welcome the chance to discuss openings at your firm. If you will contact me at (555) 456–
7890, we can schedule a meeting.

Thank you for your consideration.


Bert L. Vymer, Jr.
(555) 456–7890

Resume enclosed
                                   Sample Cover Letter

Mr. Presently Hiring
Vice President
The Successful Company
P.O. Box 1111
Business City, ST 09876

RE: Your ad for a __(position)__, City Times, 11/20/0X

Dear Mr. Hiring:

With responsibilities and deadlines that won't wait, why spend valuable time interviewing
unqualified candidates?

As you'll see on the enclosed resume, I have the educational background, professional experience,
and track record for which you are searching. In addition, I am motivated and enthusiastic, and
would appreciate the opportunity to contribute to your firm's success.

I can promise that meeting with me will not be a waste of your time–and I will make myself
available at your convenience, during or outside of normal business hours.


Work Telephone
Home Telephone

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