"Paraphrasing and Summarizing"
ENGLISH LANGUAGE SUPPORT | DEPARTMENT OF STUDENT SERVICES | RYERSON UNIVERSITY 1 PARAPHRASING AND SUMMARIZING What is paraphrasing? Why is Using one’s own words to convey someone else’s it done? ideas. Enables the writer to present only the relevant information and to tie it logically to the context. What is summarizing? Why is Using one’s own words to give the thesis and main it done? supporting points of a text. Enables a reader to see at a glance the main points and to judge whether more detailed study of a text is required. When do you quote? When do Quote when the original words are famous or express you paraphrase? When do you the idea in the best possible way. summarize? Quote famous authorities. Paraphrase when you want to answer a specific question, using information from a reference source. Summarize when the main points of an entire text are needed. What are some helpful Be careful with synonyms. For example, the underlined techniques for paraphrasing? words in the following sentence: “The ability to manage stress is one of the most important skills required of modern people.” can be replaced with synonyms to give: The capacity to control stress is one of the most crucial abilities needed by modern people. However, the thesaurus also gives other synonyms for those words, leading to nonsense such as: The endowment to rule stress is one of the most momentous dexterities coerced by modern people. If you look up an unfamiliar synonym, be sure to check it in a good learner’s dictionary before using it. ENGLISH LANGUAGE SUPPORT | DEPARTMENT OF STUDENT SERVICES | RYERSON UNIVERSITY 2 pack or unpack noun phrases. For example, change: agricultural subsidies to: subsidies for agriculture or change: size of the screen to: screen size change nouns and adjectives to verbs and verbs to nouns or adjectives. For example, change: To maintain your pet’s health, you cannot dispense with good medical care. to: Good medical care is indispensable for the maintenance of your pet’s health. What are the main steps in Read and study the original; summarizing? make an outline of main points; remove the original and write the summary from the outline. What should be omitted when examples, you summarize? statistics, quotations, anecdotal information, secondary facts. How long should a summary It depends on the nature of the material. Usually be? between about 15% and 25% of the original length. (Try the summarizing exercise in the handout entitled “Making a summary.”)