Electric cars can stabilize the. - DTU - Danmarks Tekniske Universitet

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Electric cars can stabilize the. - DTU - Danmarks Tekniske Universitet Powered By Docstoc
					12                    s TA bil izing T he griD

                    elecTric cArs
                     cAn sTAbilize The
                     inTelligenT griD
                      large-scale testing will show how electric
                      cars can renew the flexibility of the electrical
                      grid and reduce vulnerability to the
                      inevitable fluctuation in wind energy

                      Integrating electric cars, heat pumps      Denmark’s emissions. But two
                      and a more intelligent electrical system   new conventional power plants
                      can save €340 million per year in Den-     costing €230 million per year
                      mark according to a new report from        would be needed if the pro-
                      Denmark’s state-owned transmission         portion of wind energy in-
                      system operator Energinet.dk. This         creases without improving
                      conclusion energizes Jacob Østergaard,     the grid’s capacity to auto-
                      Professor and Director of the Center       matically balance produc-
                      for Electric Technology at the DTU         tion and consumption.
                      Department of Electrical Engineering.         Electric cars require an
                         “Denmark’s politicians have de-         intelligent grid because
                      cided that wind energy will provide        most people will not get up
                      half of Denmark’s power. Since wind        at night to recharge their
                      energy fluctuates and cannot yet be        car. They will plug it in
                      stored effectively, production and         when they get home, causing
                      use will inevitably be imbalanced.         consumption overloads in the
                      Denmark can buy electricity from           early evening from recharging
                      other countries, but activating the re-    and other household activities.
                      sources inherent in the grid would be
                      much more sensible.”                       recharge when the price is low
                         According to Energinet.dk, inte-        Jacob Østergaard explains, “Home
                      grating electric cars and heat pumps       charging stations can act on real-
                      into the grid can reduce annual CO2        time communication on price
                      emissions by 5 million tons, 10% of        changes. You set the charger to fully   >>

TechnicAl UniversiT y of DenmArk

   connie hedegaard, denmark’s minister for climate and
   energy, and Jørgen christensen, head of research and
development at the danish energy association, in a Tesla
              roadster during the press conference held
                   at the launching of the edison project.


                                                             DTU 2009
14                    s TA bil izing T he griD

                      “The experiment will be crucial
                in determining how cars can interact
                                  with wind energy”
                                       Jacob Østergaard, dTu department of electrical engineering

                      charge the car by 7 AM, and it buys        for wind power on the grid but also in-
                      power as inexpensively as possible be-     creasingly use cars as an extra storage
                      fore then.”                                facility to balance the grid. The system
                                                                 operator is pleased because reserve
                      bornholm on the front line                 power is available, and systems with
                      Jacob manages the research part of the     substantial wind power lack this. The
                      Edison project that includes experi-       consumers benefit because the battery,
                      ments in Bornholm, a Danish island in      an expensive car component, produces
                      the Baltic Sea. The experiment is de-      income.”
                      termining how cars can interact with
                      wind power, which provides 33% of          price signals result in action
                      Bornholm’s electricity versus the na-      Again, the incentive for consumers to
                      tional average of 20%. “So Bornholm’s      dump their power back onto the grid
                      situation is like Denmark’s will be in a   will be real-time communication that
                      few years.”                                the system operator is willing to buy
                         The project is developing technolo-     power at a certain price. The system
                      gy for intelligent interaction between     has to react automatically to price
                      electric cars and the grid. In addition    fluctuation:
                      to home charging stations, drive-in           “Experiments have shown that con-
                      charging stations could charge cars        sumers do not react if the system re-
                      quickly. Jacob Østergaard: “This           quires them to proactively buy power
                      reduces some of the economic ben-          when it is cheap. They would prob-
                      efit because the spot price is high.       ably not be willing to sell either, even
                      Perhaps home charging stations can         though the price is high. But the grid
                      be combined with ones on the road          becomes very predictable if it reacts
                      so that people can fill up on long         automatically.”
                         In the longer term, Jacob hopes that    Time is of the essence
                      electric cars can both take electricity    The system needs the extra capacity
                      from the grid and feed it back: “This      electric cars can provide, but how
                      will not only reduce CO2 emissions in      quickly can the system react? Jacob
                      transport and increase the potential       Østergaard: “Electric cars are very

TechnicAl UniversiT y of DenmArk

                        valuable as a reserve because their con-
                        sumption can be adapted to many lev-
                        els. Charging stations can react within
                        seconds, minutes or days depending on
                        what is needed.”
                           The grid needs to be modified to
                        achieve balance. The system operator
                        always has a list of electricity suppliers
                        ranked by price and purchases extra
                        supplies at the lowest price. These trans-
                        actions are manual and take about 15
                        minutes. Jacob Østergaard: “This model
                        will not work well if many electric cars
                        have a few kW each. The market must
                        be designed to fit the new situation.” <

                                                  morTen AnDersen

                           eDison moving
                           To bornholm
                           Electric cars, wind energy and the grid are be-
                           ing integrated in Bornholm because the island
                           is small and has substantial wind power.
                              The Edison project is led by a consor-
                           tium that includes the DTU Departments of
                           Transport and Informatics and Mathematical
                           Modelling, the Center for Electric Technology,
                           the Risø DTU National Laboratory for
                           Sustainable Energy and numerous other part-
                           ners. The total budget is €6.6 million, of which
                           €4.4 million is public research grants admin-
                           istered by Energinet.dk, Denmark’s system
                              In 2009 and 2010, the project is design-
                           ing the solutions needed. The demonstration
phoTo: heine PeTersen

                           phase with cars, charging stations and intel-
                           ligent management will be in 2011.

                                                                              DTU 2009

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Description: EV refers to the vehicle power supply as a driving force, with the motor drive the wheels moving in line with road traffic, vehicle safety regulations requirements. Because of the smaller environmental impact than conventional cars, is widely optimistic about its prospects, but the current technology is not yet mature.