arab_women

Document Sample
arab_women Powered By Docstoc
					  Arab women in science &
         Technology:
   The information society,
greater opportunities for Arab
           Women
     Presented by:  Sana GHENIMA
                   TUNISIA
    AWO, university of Cambridge, September 2005
                Contents

1. Introduction
2. Arab women: statistics
3. Involving Arab women in science and
   technology
4. The ICT challenges
5. Information society and gender caucus
6. Conclusion
                 INTRODUCTION

 A thousand years ago, the Arab World made
   remarkable contributions to science.
 Arabs introduced new methods of experiment,
   observation, and measurement.
 Some examples of those inventions:
   Al-Khwarizmi invented algebra and the word
     algorithm is derived from his name;
   Ibn al-Haytham wrote the laws of the
     reflection and refraction of light and
     expounded the principles of inertia
                    Actual situation

   Yet today, the number of original research papers
    published by scientists in Arabic countries is too
    small compared to the number published by
    scientists in Europe and the USA.
   It is to be hoped that this trend is set to change,
    with many Arabic countries opening new
    universities and introducing a variety of
    educational and training programs to improve
    their capabilities in science and technology.
   But even with these developments, there is still
    disparity between Arabic men and women when it
    comes to an education in science and technology
    subjects.
             Gender descrimination

   In many Arabic countries, gender-based
    discrimination, coupled with social and cultural
    barriers, limits access and participation of women
    in higher education.
   Some people attribute these barriers to the
    teachings of Islam, but this is false as we saw
    yesterday.
        Science & technology education


 Science education in most Arabic
  countries begins between 6 and 7 years of
  age and is taught in all countries to both
  boys and girls until the age of 15.
 The major science disciplines are then
  studied separately in the last 3 or 4 years
  of high school education.
 Girls are then less enrolled in high school
  science curricula because the existing
  education structure encourages girls to
  study more arts and humanities.
            Science & technology education


   There are various reasons for this related to
    gender stereotyping, misleading perceptions that:
       science and technology are subjects more suitable for
        boys
       the failure of curricula to relate science and technology
        to the everyday life of women.
   There is also self-inhibition and crystal barriers
    inside girls that affects:
       Number of young women entering university to study
        science and technology subjects,
       Employment involvement that inhibit women to
        introduce their own values and visions into a working
        world dominated by men.
               Cultural disparities

 Arabic countries vary greatly in their
  culture, traditions, and social systems,
  and there is a wide range of attitudes
  toward educating women at the university
  level.
 Although women in many Arabic countries
  have the right to a university education,
  those in more traditional rural areas often
  do not have this chance, whether for
  social, economic, or family reasons.
                          Gross enrolment ratios in tertiary education in selected Arab
                                            countries (1998-2001)




Note:
a) Data for Djibouti, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Libyan Arab
Jamahiriya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine,
Qatar and Saudi Arabia pertain to the year 2001/2002.
Data for Tunisia pertain to the year 2000/2001. Data for
Comoros and Yemen pertain to the year 1999/2000. Data
for Algeria, Bahrain, Kuwait, Egypt, Syrian Arab Republic,
Sudan and the United Arab Emirates pertain to                Source: UNESCO Institute for
1998/1999.
                                                             Statistics (UIS) databases
           Scientific university studies
            Percent female in SC Courses 1990-1991 in the Arab World

80
70
60
50
40                                                                     Percent female
30
20
10
 0
                    Le da n




                     S o n ia
                    Pa no n




                                    i
     U. in




                      A l ia
                      Jo q




                                  o
                      or a
         bia




                                  a

                      Dj n
    Ba en




                      Tu a
     Ye n




    i A ar




                                   t
                               r ia
                                  e
            it




                                ut
     Ku .




                              yp
          E




                             Ira




                             da
                               ri




                              ali
                   M o cc
          a




        wa




                             tin




                               y
          a




                           nis
          t




                         ibo
                           ge
                         Lib
       A.




                          Sy
        m
      Om




      Qa




                            a
       ra
       hr




                        Eg
                            r




                         m
                        ba




                       Su
                       les




                        r it
                     au
                    M
  ud
Sa




         Source: UNESCO, The Higher Education System in the Arab
              States (1993).
                        BAHREIN Gender indicators

                              BAHREIN GENDER INDICATORS 2000-2001

90
80
70
60
50                                                                                                 Women
40                                                                                                 Men
30
20
10
 0




                                                                                    unspecified)
                                               Science




                                                                       Health and
     Education




                                                         Engineering
                                 law, social
                 humanities


                                  Business,




                                                                                    (agriculture
                                   science




                                                                        welfare
                   Arts &




                                                                                      Others

                                                                                        and
        Source: ESCWA Social Statistics Information System
                                                                             20
                                                                             40
                                                                             60
                                                                             80
                                                                            100
                                                                            120




                                                                              0
                                                     Legislators, senior
                                                        officials and
                                                         business
                                                         managers




                                                          Professionals




                                                      Services workers
                                                       and shop and
                                                       market workers



                                                     Skilled agricultural
                                                         and fishery
                                                           workers


                                                     Crafts and related
                                                     workers/supervisor
                                                     s, food, industrial,
Source: ESCWA Social Statistics Information System




                                                     chemical industry
                                                          workers
                                                                                           BAHREIN Employed population by Occupational group (%) (1991)




                                                                             Men
                                                                                   Women
                                                                                                                                                          Gender Employment indicators
                                  SAUDIA Arabia

                           Saudia Arabia Gender Indicators 1997-1998

120
100
80
                                                                                               Women
60
                                                                                               Men
40
20
 0
      Education    Arts and     Business,    Science   Engineering Health and     Others
                  humanities   law, social                          welfare     (agriculture
                                 science                                            and
                                                                                unspecified)



        Source: ESCWA Social Statistics Information System
                                 OMAN

                   OMAN University Fields of study (%) 2000-2001

100
 90
 80
 70
 60                                                                                  Women
 50
 40                                                                                  Men
 30
 20
 10
  0
       Arts and     Business,    Science   Engineering   Health and     Others
      humanities   law, social                            welfare     (agriculture
                     science                                              and
                                                                      unspecified)


      Source: ESCWA Social Statistics Information System
                                                                             10
                                                                             20
                                                                             30
                                                                             40
                                                                             50
                                                                             60
                                                                             70
                                                                             80
                                                                             90
                                                                            100




                                                                              0
                                                     Legislators, senior
                                                        officials and
                                                         business
                                                         managers




                                                          Professionals




                                                      Services workers
                                                       and shop and
                                                       market workers
                                                                                                                                                   OMAN




                                                     Skilled agricultural
                                                         and fishery
                                                           workers


                                                     Crafts and related
                                                     workers/supervisor
Source: ESCWA Social Statistics Information System

                                                     s, food, industrial,
                                                                                           OMAN Active population by occupational group (%) 2000




                                                     chemical industry
                                                          workers
                                                                             Men
                                                                                   Women
                         JORDAN Indicators

                                Jordon Women Studies 2000-2001

90
80
70
60
50                                                                                               Women
40                                                                                               Men
30
20
10
 0


                                              Science




                                                                      Health and
       Education




                                                                                   Agriculture
                                                        Engineering
                                law, social
                   humanities


                                 Business,

                                  science




                                                                       welfare
                     Arts &




     Source: ESCWA Social Statistics Information System
                                                                             20
                                                                             40
                                                                             60
                                                                             80
                                                                            100
                                                                            120




                                                                              0
                                                     Legislators, senior
                                                        officials and
                                                         business
                                                         managers




                                                          Professionals




                                                      Services workers
                                                       and shop and
                                                       market workers



                                                     Skilled agricultural
                                                         and fishery
                                                           workers
                                                                                                                                                       JORDAN




                                                     Crafts and related
                                                     workers/supervisor
                                                     s, food, industrial,
                                                     chemical industry
                                                          workers
Source: ESCWA Social Statistics Information System
                                                                                           JORDAN Employed Population by Occupational group (%) 2002




                                                                             Men
                                                                                   Women
                                     LEBANON

                                 LEBANON Gender Indicators 2000-2001

100
 90
 80
 70
 60
                                                                                                     Women
 50
 40                                                                                                  Men
 30
 20
 10
  0
      Education    Arts and    Business, law,   Science   Engineering   Health and      Others
                  humanities   social science                            welfare     (agriculture,
                                                                                     services and
                                                                                     unspecified)


              Source: ESCWA Social Statistics Information System
                                                                             10
                                                                             20
                                                                             30
                                                                             40
                                                                             50
                                                                             60
                                                                             70
                                                                             80
                                                                             90
                                                                            100




                                                                              0
                                                     Legislators, senior
                                                        officials and
                                                         business
                                                         managers




                                                          Professionals




                                                      Services workers
                                                       and shop and
                                                       market workers



                                                     Skilled agricultural
                                                         and fishery
                                                           workers
                                                                                                                                                        LEBANON




                                                     Crafts and related
                                                     workers/supervisor
Source: ESCWA Social Statistics Information System


                                                     s, food, industrial,
                                                     chemical industry
                                                          workers
                                                                                           LEBANON Employed population by Occupational group (%) 1997




                                                                             Men
                                                                                   Women
                                                                    0
                                                                        10
                                                                             20
                                                                                  30
                                                                                         40
                                                                                                     50
                                                                                                          60
                                                                                                               70
                                                                                                                    80
                                                       Education




                                                        Arts &
                                                      humanities


                                                       Business,
                                                      law, social
                                                        science



                                                        Science




                                                     Engineering
                                                                                                                                                             EGYPT




                                                      Health and
                                                                                                                         EGYPT Gender Indicators 1998-1999




                                                       welfare


                                                       Others
Source: ESCWA Social Statistics Information System




                                                     (agriculture
                                                         and
                                                     unspecified)
                                                                                       Men
                                                                                             Women
                                                                             10
                                                                             20
                                                                             30
                                                                             40
                                                                             50
                                                                             60
                                                                             70
                                                                             80
                                                                             90
                                                                            100




                                                                              0
                                                     Legislators, senior
                                                        officials and
                                                         business
                                                         managers




                                                          Professionals




                                                      Services workers
                                                       and shop and
                                                       market workers



                                                     Skilled agricultural
                                                         and fishery
                                                                                                                                                      EGYPT




                                                           workers


                                                     Crafts and related
                                                     workers/supervisor
Source: ESCWA Social Statistics Information System




                                                     s, food, industrial,
                                                     chemical industry
                                                                                           EGYPT Employed population by occupational group (%) 1998




                                                          workers
                                                                             Men
                                                                                   Women
                Women involved in Sc & Tech

   In certain disciplines, such as
    public health at The Lebanese
    University, and pharmacy in
    Syrian universities, there are
    more female than male
    undergraduate students.

   Women tend preferentially to
    enroll in the life sciences and
    chemistry, with far fewer studying
    physics, mathematics, and
    engineering.
           Women involved in Sc & Tech


   This seems to be more the result of female students
    choosing these subjects than active discrimination by
    the education system.

   This trend is also seen among U.S. and European
    female students.

   For example, in the EU, women constitute more
    women undergraduates of natural science than of
    mathematics or computer and engineering
    undergraduates.
                  Cultures are changing!
   Recently, there has been a noticeable shift in the type of
    scientific disciplines chosen by Arab women, with more
    female students selecting courses in engineering, physics,
    mathematics or computer sciences.
   That examples were exposed in the figures I showed

   Bu as we see this positive trend is here but it does not
    necessarily mean that greater career opportunities await
    women graduating in science subjects.
                 Some EGYPTIAN indicators

In Egypt, a survey by the Supreme
     Council of Universities for 1995-96
     reports that:
     in disciplines such as pharmacy
        and dentistry, more than 40% of
        the faculty are women;
     in the sciences, 25% of the
        faculty are women,
     but this decreases to less than
        10% in departments of
        engineering and technology.
                   % Female Faculty members in EGYPT (1995-1996)

100
 90
 80
 70
 60                                                                                         Faculty Women
 50
 40                                                                                         Faculty Men
 30
 20
 10
  0
      Medicine




                                                                              Agriculture
                                                                Engineering
                                          Pharmacy
                              Dentistry




                                                     Sciences
                 Veterinary




                                                                technology
                 medicine




                                                                   and
 Once again, these statistics are very
  similar to those for U.S. universities or
  Europeen ones. So it seems to be a
  general gender problem.
                  Influent factors

 There are a number of socio-cultural factors that
  limit career advancement opportunities in
  science and technology for Arab women.
 Women are raised and educated in a male-
  dominated society with very traditional attitudes
  and constraints. These vary greatly not only from
  one Arab country to the next, but also between,
  for example, urban and rural areas of the same
  country.
              Other Influent factors


Other factors, such as the challenges of
 combining responsibilities for a household
 and family with a professional career.
In addition, it is extremely difficult for a
 woman to re-enter the scientific workforce
 once she has put her career on hold to
 raise and educate children for many years.
             Professional progress for women

 Despite all the constraints and obstacles in Arabic
  countries, women scientists have achieved considerable
  professional progress within a short period of time.

 Although there is an increasing pool of highly qualified
  women scientists in some Arabic countries, few women in
  universities and research institutes are presidents,
  directors of institutes, or heads of divisions or laboratories.
           Professional progress for women

 Very few women scientists are involved in the political life
  of their countries, although those who are involved have
  proved to be strong advocates for science and
  technological development.
 It is important that more Arab women scientists are
  encouraged to enter politics where their voices will be
  heard.
         Involvement in International Organizatio


A few female scientists from Arabic
 countries serve on national and
 international committees where they have
 the opportunity to promote science and
 technology at both the national and global
 level.
Some enhancing initiatives are noticed
 every day
          Arab network for women in scienc


 A network for women researchers was launched
  this Year (February 2005 ) in Salmania, Bahrain,
  to promote gender equality in scientific
  programmes and institutions in the Arab world.
 the network would be very important in
  promoting Arab women's access to careers in
  science and technology, and in correcting the
  gender imbalance in science that is present to
  varying degrees in Arab countries.
                      International Science awards

                          • Pr. Zohra Ben Lakhdar
                            Laureate 2005
                          • Professor of Physics
                            Laboratory of Atomic-Molecular
                            Spectroscopy and Applications
                            Department of Physics
                            Faculty of Sciences
                            University of Tunis El Manar Tunisia
The 7 th edition of the
L’ORÉAL-UNESCO FOR          "For her experiments and models on
WOMEN IN SCIENCE            infrared spectroscopy and its
(March 2005)                applications to pollution, detection and
                            medicine."
     HER Advice…
… to the would-be female physicist

Professor Ben Lakhdar's advice reflects her
struggles and the difficulties she has had to
overcome.
"Be aware of the importance of culture; be
open-minded as a scientist and as a person.
Seek independence. Understand how
important it is to be a responsible citizen. And
be optimistic: more and more women are
becoming involved in the sciences, especially
biology. Women are now more independent.
Women's careers are becoming more
important and more highly valued by society.
The average age of marriage is now higher:
27 compared to 15 when I was that age. Be of
good heart and be confident."
          So what is the main idea?

 In the words of Kofi Annan, as he launched a
  U.N. global initiative to educate girls, "Let us
  prove that a society which empowers its
  women is a society sure to succeed."
                    The Information society

 Information and communication technology (ICT) is
  transforming the global economy and creating new network
  that stretch over continents and cultures.

 However, there remain noticeable disparities as to the
  extend in which access and skills are available.

 The benefits of knowledge and technology are not available
  to the large majority of the world’s population.

 Not only do these differences affect developing nations and
  disadvantaged communities, but within societies there are
  also significant disparities.
                     Digital Divide

 Developing countries, in failing to respond to
  the transformation that the development of
  ICTs has produced, will be severely burdened
  when they participate in the global economy.

 There are unequal power relations in our
  societies that contribute to differential access,
  participation and treatment for men and women
  vis-à-vis access to, and control of ICTs.
              GENDER Digital Divide

 Women find themselves in most cases, not
  only excluded from equal social and economic
  opportunities in general, but also in terms of
  the benefits offered by ICTs.
 Without women’s participation in decision-
  making in all spheres of life and at all levels of
  society, poverty will not be eradicated, nor will
  fully democratic societies be created.
 Limited access to ICT for women also has the
  effect of reducing countries’ competitiveness in
  the global market.
             IT Can Take You Anywhere


 If you study technology subjects it does not
  automatically mean you are headed for a
  geeky job in a back room or laboratory.
 Technology is now part of every field of
  activity and mainly in business or industry.
 It can literally take you anywhere from
  concrete things like e-Learning or e-
  commerce to Virtual reality with 3D effects in
  movies.
               IT: A development mean

 Definitely, IT gives us a lot of things for women
  or for men, regardless of gender.
 The new technology has given us a new option,
  but still it is a tool.
 As long as we learn how to use this technology,
  this is enabling all people, including women, to
  participate in business and other social activities
  as well.
 But technology does not change everything, and
  we need to revisit obstacles for women.
                IT: A development mean

 To support our emerging economy in Arabic world, we
  need to reactivate our resources more effectively.
 Nowadays women are invited to be more active in
  business, but we need to look carefully into what the
  Arab community has done for women.
 We need certainly to develop more support systems for
  women in their communities, as men tend to have
  "automatic" expectations that women take care of family
  matters such as taking care of children.
 Unless we develop such support systems in any country,
  opportunities for women will remain much less than
  those for man no matter how hard women work.
                A concrete example

 Tunisia established since 1956 a Personal Status Code
  that redeemed the place of the Tunisian woman in the
  family & in society.
 In 1987, a new Era of deep constitutional, political,
  economic and social reforms were engaged in favor of
  Women.
 Women are provided with specific mechanisms aimed to
  consolidate their achievements and promoting their
  integration as a full partner into dynamics of
  development.
 Some indicators will give us more details
              Tunisian gender indicators
Regarding 2004-2005 official statistics in Tunisia, women
  represent:

      27% of the active population.
      More than 10.000 women head of offices but
       mainly in classic economic branch.
      57% of students in universities
      33% of students in scientific branch
      49% of students in ICT field
      Women represent 22,17% of the decision makers
       in the public sector.
      women represent 15% of the government: 2
       Ministers, 5 secretaries of state and 23% of the
       Parliament.
                     The Key of Success

How to ensure women involvement everywhere
 even in science & technology, in our countries?
   To continue the development of female human
    resources mainly Education at the 3 required levels.
   To develop women’s empowerment and to promote
    their opportunities for integration into the economic
    activities.
   To reinforce the role of women in civil and political life
    and especially as a decision maker.
   To reinforce the principle of equity in the legislation
   But even with all these factors, we need essentially a
    very strong political will to ensure equity and
    partnership between men and women at all levels.
My personal opinion
 Because of the nature of my job, I
  often come and work with many
  European or American nationals,
  both men and women, and actually I
  don't feel that there are
  disadvantages for me as being an
  Arab woman to conduct business
  anywhere.
 Some difficulties I experience here,
  as I experience in some other
  countries, are the language,
  stringent regulations, etc., but those
  are nothing to do with being a
  woman.
                    My personal opinion

 If you as a woman want to be successful, you have to
  possess all the elements for success and you have to
  well prepare yourself, just like any successful man.
 What are the key factors for success? You have to have
  the right attitude, skills, experience, education, self-
  confidence, stamina, commitment, etc., and at the same
  time you have to be in the right place at the right time to
  grab the opportunities.
 Over my fourteen year's career life, I have never felt
  disadvantaged by being a woman especially because I
  born with great gender achievements in my country.
 Sometimes I actually feel that I have some advantages
  of being a woman.
                  Some ICT advantages

For women, the advantages offered by ICT are
  appreciated since they allow, for all people, but
  especially for them:
      More freedom regarding work timing
      More mobility thanks to the e-work solutions
      More self confidence and fulfilling their potential thanks to
       intellectual effort that gives same chance for both man and
       women.
      Continuous training and improvement with e-learning
       solutions taking in account their specific familial constraint.
      In the field of entrepreneurship there are enormous
       opportunities for women.
         New rules for the 21st century Econom

 The Internet and other advances in information
  technology have dramatically changed the playing field
  for women.
 It has brought down barriers that kept women out of the
  work force by providing opportunities to telecommute
  and work from home.
 It has also made it easier for women to start up
  businesses with very little capital and only a handful of
  employees.
 The rules of the new economy also call for a different
  type of leadership, one that is based on team building
  and a flatter organizational chart.
 That will open up more possibilities for women and men
  to work on an equal and level playing field.
           More new Opportunities

 We are at the beginning of
  potentially, enormously
  interesting new era.
 We are entering this new
  phase, where we can all
  become more international,
  more global, etc. without
  losing specificity and
  rooteness in our countries.
 These new technologies open
  up a field, where we can
  connect to each other as
  organizations, as entities, as
  projects across the world.
            More new Opportunities

 Information technologies give opportunities to women
  to enter spaces, political, economic, cultural spaces,
  etc., where before we were more excluded or had
  limited options.
 There are enormous possibilities, but it will take
  initiative. It will take action. It is not going to fall from
  the sky. It is much more than simply knowing how to
  use the hardware.
 There is an intervening set of cultures, economic
  cultures, political cultures, etc., that need to be
  developed and within which these technologies can
  really enable us.
                WSIS & Gender Caucus

 Strenuous efforts will be needed to
  capitalize on the opportunities
  offered by the World Summit on
  Information Societies (WSIS) to
  bridge the gender divide which is
  already apparent within the
  emerging information society.
 To achieve this, we must foster the
  broadest possible participation of
  decision-makers, professional
  communities, and representatives of
  civil society, bilateral and multilateral
  partners, and the private sector.
              WSIS & Gender Caucus

Together all will set out:
    to discuss ongoing initiatives on gender and ICT
    to raise awareness on gender-related barriers to ICT
     access;
    to include women as leaders and decision-makers;
    to facilitate better understanding of the needs and
     directions within the framework of gender and ICT,
    to render assistance,
    to support local solutions and content;
    and lastly also to take forward the commitments that
     were made at previous UN conferences and summits.
                        Conclusion
So I just want to finish on this positive note and
  to tell to ALL WOMEN OF THE WORLD:

Welcome to Tunisia 16-18 November 2005 to
    take part to the WSIS and to build the
                future together.



                   Thank you.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:70
posted:9/16/2010
language:English
pages:54