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					NASA
GSFC                                        PSL
WFF                                         CSBF




  Gamma-Ray Astronomy From
         Balloons
                      Jack Tueller
                Balloon Project Scientist



       SWRI Balloon Workshop Jack Tueller          1
   NASA
   GSFC
   WFF
                        Gamma Rays                PSL
                                                  CSBF




• Gamma rays are the highest energy photons.
• Gamma rays do not penetrate to the ground.
• Balloons can provide access to all energies >20 keV
  (Hard X-rays and Gamma Rays)
          SWRI Balloon Workshop Jack Tueller             2
NASA
GSFC
WFF
         What makes suborbital different?                PSL
                                                         CSBF

                                 Different Risk Management
                                   Strategy
                                 • the payload is recovered
                                 • re-flights are inexpensive
                                   (<$1M for a balloon vs
                                   >$100M for a rocket)
                                 Higher Risk is the Best Strategy
                                 • lower cost
                                 • faster migration of new
                                   technology
                                 • smaller more focused efforts
                                 • training new workforce

       SWRI Balloon Workshop Jack Tueller                       3
   NASA
                                                           PSL
   GSFC    Gamma-Ray Astronomy from Balloons               CSBF
   WFF
Boggs NCT       GRIS             • atmospheric cutoff is 20keV
                                   no soft x-rays
                                 • To get a high sensitivity
                                   gamma-ray payloads must be
ProtoEXIST                         big and heavy
                                 • gamma-ray payloads work
                                   best at low latitudes
                                       magnetic shielding
                                           low background
                InFOCuS
                HEFT
                                 • gamma-ray payloads must be
                                   pointed
                                 • real science is possible but we
                                   need LDB at low latitudes
 GLAST
          SWRI Balloon Workshop Jack Tueller                      4
   NASA
   GSFC
   WFF
                            SN1987A                          PSL
                                                             CSBF
• first nearby supernova in 400
  years
• every instrument possible               after     before
  was used
• many new phenomena were
  discovered

• balloons can                                    HST rings
  provide quick
  access to space
  for timely
  measurements




          SWRI Balloon Workshop Jack Tueller                        5
   NASA
   GSFC
   WFF
            High Resolution Spectroscopy              PSL
                                                      CSBF

• In 1987 there were no high
  resolution germanium                   GRIS
  spectrometers in space like
  INTEGRAL
• Gamma-ray lines yield
  nuclear yields and velocity
  distribution that cannot be
  determined at other
  wavelengths
• Balloon experiments filled
  the gap GRIS, HEXAGONE,
  Lockheed Martin
• balloon's success leads to
  INTEGRAL                                      INTEGRAL

          SWRI Balloon Workshop Jack Tueller                 6
NASA
GSFC
WFF
                  SN1987A Lines                            PSL
                                                           CSBF

                                     • Gamma ray line profiles
                                       are not distorted by
                                       complicated effects such
                                       as resonant scattering.
                                     • Line profiles did not fit
                                       the standard models.
                                       Lines are red-shifted not
                                       blue-shifted.
                                     • But, they validate the
                                       detailed IR line profiles.
                                     • SN1987a was an
                                       asymmetric explosion!
                                     • future: 44Ti lines?
       SWRI Balloon Workshop Jack Tueller                         7
   NASA
   GSFC
   WFF
                       Nuclear Lines           PSL
                                               CSBF




  Boggs ACT Concept Study
• Nuclear lines are the unique signal
   of the production of new elements
          SWRI Balloon Workshop Jack Tueller          8
  NASA
  GSFC
  WFF
            Type Ia Supernovae                            PSL
                                                          CSBF




Explosion is driven by radioactive decay.



 Much Cosmology rests on using
 Type Ia's as a standard candle but
 the physics are not understood!




                                               Boggs ACT study
          SWRI Balloon Workshop Jack Tueller                     9
    NASA
    GSFC
    WFF
                  Compton Scattering            PSL
                                                CSBF

• GRIS worked with large
  detectors to capture all the
  energy and a thick collimator
  (800 lbs of NaI) to isolate the
  source.
• Compton scattering is the
  dominant cross section
  between 200 keV and 2 MeV
  where most of the interesting
  gamma ray lines occur.
• Localizing all the interactions
  allows accurate reconstruction
  of the source positions and
  spectra over a wide field

           SWRI Balloon Workshop Jack Tueller      10
   NASA
   GSFC
   WFF
                 Compton Telescopes                     PSL
                                                        CSBF

Development of an Advanced                Boggs NCT
  Compton Telescope
• several technologies are
  possible
   –   Si & Ge strip detectors
   –   Si & CdZnTe strip detectors
   –   thick Si
   –   Liquid Xe                          ACT Concept
   –   Gaseous Xe-LaBr3
   –   LaBr3
• All are now or are proposed
  balloon payloads




           SWRI Balloon Workshop Jack Tueller              11
   NASA
   GSFC
   WFF
            High Energy Gamma Rays                              PSL
                                                                CSBF

• Technology for                         EGRET All-Sky >100 MeV
  EGRET
  developed on
  HEBE balloon
  experiment
                           CGRO/EGRET
• Go-no go test of
  GLAST                              balloon test bed
  technology on
  balloons                    detector
  Would the
  background
  rejection work?
                                                        GLAST
          SWRI Balloon Workshop Jack Tueller                       12
   NASA
                                                            PSL
   GSFC   Understanding Supermassive Black Holes            CSBF
   WFF

• How do black
  holes form and
  grow?
                                               unabsorbed   absorbed (52)
                                               (49)


• What stops the
  growth?
• How do black
  holes effect galaxy
  formation?
• Only in hard x-ray can you find                           BAT
                                               XMM
  all the sources and measure their
  luminosity.


          SWRI Balloon Workshop Jack Tueller                      13
NASA
GSFC                                                          PSL
WFF                                                           CSBF

 ProtoEXIST               Swift/BAT Hard X-ray Survey >14 keV




                                      • A hard X-ray all-sky monitor
                                        can make great advances in
                                        variability studies of black
                                        holes.
                                      • A sensitive hard X-ray all-
                                        sky survey is the only way to
                   EXIST                find all the obscured sources.
       SWRI Balloon Workshop Jack Tueller                         14
   NASA
   GSFC
   WFF
              Hard X-ray Focusing Optics              PSL
                                                      CSBF
• multilayer grazing
  incidence focusing
  optics                         Launch
• long focal lengths are         Sep 16,
  required (InFOCuS is                                         9m
                                 2004
  8m)
                                 Ft. Sumner
• CdZnTe focal plane is          NM
  the other critical
  technology. (A Si focal
  plane would be 1 cm                             InFOCuS
  thick.)
• Balloons can
  accommodate long
  focal lengths without                        No mechanism
  costly mechanisms.                           was required to
                                               launch 9m truss.
          SWRI Balloon Workshop Jack Tueller              15
   NASA
   GSFC
   WFF
               3 Balloon Instruments                         PSL
                                                             CSBF

  Three instruments are
  currently active:
• HEFT-CIT Columbia                                   HEFT
• InFOCuS-GSFC Nagoya
• HERO-MSFC
  Each of these instruments                InFOCuS
  test alternative
  technology for hard x-ray
  focusing optics.
  Proposed for Con-X
  enhancement and
                                                     HERO
  SMEX-NuSTAR
          SWRI Balloon Workshop Jack Tueller                    16
       NASA
       GSFC    The Black Hole at the Galactic Center PSL         CSBF
       WFF
•   A supermassive black hole
    lurks at the Galactic
    Center.
•   Like most black holes at
    the center of galaxies it is a
    very weak source at all
    wavelengths.
•   What is the accretion rate
    and why is it so low?
•   The GC is a very crowded                       INTEGRAL
    area.
                                   INTEGRAL imaging with >10 arcmin
•   Only high resolution hard      resolution is hopelessly confused. Soft
    X-ray imaging can answer       X-ray imaging with Chandra sees 2000
    this question.                 sources <10 arcmin from the center.
              SWRI Balloon Workshop Jack Tueller                     17
     NASA
     GSFC
     WFF
                    What is the future?          PSL
                                                 CSBF

  How do we maintain strong
  balloon science in this field?
• long duration flights at low
  latitude
   – super pressure balloon
   – trajectory modification system
   – long duration requires higher
     reliability - more cost and
     oversight
• advanced designs:
  bigger and heavier payloads
• secure and adequate funding

            SWRI Balloon Workshop Jack Tueller      18
    NASA
    GSFC
    WFF
             Workforce Replenishment                      PSL
                                                          CSBF

Mission/       PI                  How are future instrument
                                   builders recruited and
Instrument
                                   trained?
CGRO
                                   BALLOONS!
 BATSE      Fishman
                               • fast enough for grad student
 EGRET      Fichtel
                                   to complete all phases of a
INTEGRAL                           project
 SPI        Teegarden          • small enough for the
            Matteson               university researcher
HEAO-3      Jacobson           • open to hands-on student
HEAO-1      Peterson               participation
                               • pushing newest technology
                               • produces significant science
                                   results
       SWRI Balloon Workshop Jack Tueller                     19
NASA
GSFC
WFF
                      Conclusions                 PSL
                                                  CSBF

• Gamma-ray astronomy could have a bright
  future in ballooning.
• Significant science can be achieved on
  balloons.
• Balloons are crucial to the development of
  new missions.
• Low cost ballooning can keep a field alive in
  hard times.
• Ballooning is the natural way to recruit and
  train a workforce.
  NASA and gamma-ray astronomy need a
  vigorous balloon program
       SWRI Balloon Workshop Jack Tueller            20

				
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