Theories of Migration Theories

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					Theories of Migration
 Tasneem Siddiqui
 Professor, Dept. of Political Science
 Chair, RMMRU
 University of Dhaka
 Causes    of Migration
  Dr.   Tasneem Siddiqui
 Consequences        of Migration
  Dr.   Ganesh Gurung
 Recent    Theoretical Approaches
  Mr.   Jeetendra Soni
 Theories: Causes of Migration

 Aim:
  To understand why some people migrate and
   others do not
  Variety of theoretical models available

  Social scientists from different disciplines
        Neo-Classical Economics
   Macro-Economic Models of Neo-Classical
     Geographic difference in demand and supply for
     Surplus of labour compared to capital will have lower
      wage rate
     Limited supply of labour compared to capital will have
      high wage rate causing movement of wage labour
    (Lewis, 1954; Ranis and Feni 1961; Harris and Todaro,
      1970; Todaro, 1976)
          Push-Pull Framework
   Equal pressure of pull from receiving country
    and push from sending countries jointly
    contribute to migration
   Migration brings certain equilibrium between
    forces of economic growth and contraction
    among different geographical regions of the
   Two equally important forces: one operational at
    the country of origin and the other at host
    country, jointly create migration
        Micro Economic Model
   Human Capital Theory/Rational Choice Theory:
     Rational economically based decision of the
      individual to maximize return to his/her human
      capital over space
     Person is likely to migrate if expected income is
      greater in a location other than where his currently
     Desire for income maximization
     Difference in wage
     Difference in employment opportunity
(Sjaastad, 1962: Todaro 1969)
Critique of Neoclassical Theories
   “New economics of migration”
   Neoclassical theories explain migration pattern of industrial
    era, but current day migration is more complex
   Economic disparities appear to be necessary but not sufficient
    condition for today’s migration
   In the 1990s push and pull factors not equally operational
   Strength of pull factor has weakened due to restrictive
    admission policies of the receiving post-industrial states
   Decisions to migrate is not made by isolated individuals,
    rather it is arrived at collectively by larger family units and
   Migration not only maximizes expected income but also
    minimizes risks of market failure
   Migration is a risk reducing strategy, not for individual but for
    the household
Historical Structuralist School
   Broader social and historical forces created conditions of
    widespread inequalities in access to resources, political
    power and prestige with and across communities which
    both stimulate and constrain migration
    (Singer, 1971-75; Stern 1988)

 Social        Capital Theory
   Social capital is the sum of resources, actual or virtual,
    that accrue to an individual or a group by virtue of
    possessing a durable network of institutional relationships
    of mutual acquaintance and recognition
   People gain access to social capital through membership
    in network
Social Capital Theory (contd.)
   Kinship, friendship and shared community, origin
   Network increases the likelihood of migration by
    reducing cost and risk
   Private recruiting agencies
   Information, trade links, higher education links
    (Bouriu and Wacqueant 1992)
   Migration decisions are arrived through a
    complex process
   It is not possible to explain migration decisions
    by a single theory
   A holistic perspective derived from historical-
    structuralist, push-pull, rational choice, social-
    network provides a better tool.