EVALUATION OF PROPOSED ASHRAE ENERGY AUDIT FORM AND PROCEDURES

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					 EVALUATION OF PROPOSED
   ASHRAE ENERGY AUDIT
  FORM AND PROCEDURES
         (RP-669)


                 Final Report
                February 1996




                Prepared For:

  American Society of Heating, Refrigeration
    and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
           1791 Tullie Circle, NE
          Atlanta, Georgia, 30329




                 Prepared By:

  Principal Investigator - Ish Sud, PhD., P.E.
Co-principal Investigator - Jerome C. Hay, P.E.
              Sud Associates, P.A.
             1805 Chapel Hill Road
              Durham, NC 27707
                 919/493-5277
                                   ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The authors would like to thank ASHRAE, the sponsors of this research project, and the
ASHRAE Technical Committee TC 9.6, which initiated the project. In addition, we would like to
thank all those who provided input into the process by providing constructive comments and
suggestions to improve the Energy Audit Form and database.

Particular acknowledgment is due to the members of the Project Monitoring Subcommittee and
the project subcontractors.

Project Monitoring Subcommittee

Mr. Richard Mazzucchi
Mr. Richard J. Pearson, PE
Mr. William R. Mixon


Subcontracting Engineering Firms

ADM Associates, Sacramento, California
Landsberg Engineering/The Fleming Group, Syracuse, NY
Prism Engineering, Burnaby, British Columbia




                                              i
                                 TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                           Page

    Acknowledgments                                                          i
    Table of Contents                                                       ii
    List of Tables                                                         iii

    Executive Summary                                                       1

 I Introduction                                                             3

    a) Objective                                                            3
    b) Background                                                           3
    c)   Scope of Work                                                     4

II Procedure                                                                5

m Conclusions                                                               9
  a) Selection of Buildings                                                 9
  b) Energy Audit Form                                                      9
  c) Trial Database                                                        10
IV Utilization                                                             12

    a)   Results                                                           12
    b)   Relationship of this Work to Existing Knowledge                   12
    c)   Recommendations and Suggestions for Further Research              13
    d)   ASHRAE Handbook                                                   13

Bibliography                                                               14

Appendix A - Energy Audit Form and Procedures, as Originally Proposed by SP-56
Appendix B - Revised Energy Audit Form and Procedures
Appendix C - List of Buildings Analyzed
Appendix D - Comments by Auditors
Appendix E - Sample Database Analyses
Appendix F - Trial Database Documentation and Data Dictionary




                                             ii
                                     LIST OF TABLES

              Table                                   Page

Table H-l:    Distribution of Selected Buildings       3
              Type vs. Location


Table II-2:   Distribution of Selected Buildings       3
              Type vs. Gross Floor Area


Table n-3:    Distribution of Selected Buildings       3
              Type vs. Heating Fuel




                                               iii
                                   EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

ASHRAE developed a uniform Energy Audit Form and Procedures as a part of a previous
research project, ASHRAE Special Project SP-56.

The objective of this research, ASHRAE Research Project RP-669, was to utilize, test, and
evaluate the proposed Energy Audit Form and Procedures (Proposed Form) and to make
informed recommendations for their improvements based on the experience of those performing
the evaluation. An additional objective was to produce and analyze a trial database to determine
the adequacy of the data collected to normalize and compare building energy performance.

The goal was to establish forms and procedures to be used by experienced auditors in the auditing
of a variety of buildings in the field.

The principal aims of the project were to:

1) Analyze the effectiveness of Proposed Forms.

2) Identify strengths and weaknesses of the Proposed Form.

3) Recommend improvements to the Proposed Form.

4) Discuss how well data collected with the Proposed Form can be incorporated into a database.

5) Determine if the collected data is adequate to normalize and compare building energy
   performance.

Energy audit data from 100 buildings which had previously had level 2 or higher energy audits
performed on them were assembled by four engineeringfirmswith significant energy auditing
experience. The buildings selected represented a diversity of climatic and fuel cost regions, as
well as a broad cross section with respect to building type, building size, fuel sources, and
building energy costs.

Datafromthe buildings were transferred from the auditors' original audit form or report to the
Proposed Form. Comments were solicited on several occasionsfromthe auditors, the Project
Monitoring Subcommittee (PMS), and the ASHRAE TC 9.6 research subcommittee about the
Proposed Form. The Proposed Form was modified, based on this input, several times before the
majority of the datafromthe 100 buildings were input. Not only was the Proposed Form tested,
but that the revised form was thoroughly tested, resulting with a reviewed, modified, and tested
Energy Audit Form ready for distribution to the auditing community.

An important aspect of the Energy Audit Form is inclusion of Space Functions for the building
being analyzed. SP-56 recognized the need to not only analyze building energy usage with


                                                 1
respect to building type, but also to the functions which take place in that building.

The Energy Audit Form, in its revised form, can be valuable to the industry in two important
ways. First, it provides a guide to a building owner or auditor as to what information should be
collected, analyzed, and reported for an energy audit. It standardizes information to be collected
without trying to dictate or constrain the actual analysis of the data. In this capacity, it can be
used to improve the overall level of energy auditing in thefield,as well as give a building owner
an idea of what should be expected from an energy audit. Second, the Energy Audit Form can
serve as a data collection form for entry into a database. Because of its standardized format and
database friendly entries, it serves as an excellent tool for this purpose.

Concurrent with the revision and testing of the Proposed Form, a trial database was developed.
The database contained primarily the building, energy, and space function datafromthe Proposed
Form. Comments and suggestions were solicitedfromthe auditors, the PMS, and TC 9.6, and
the database was finalized. The database was populated with datafromthe completed energy
audit forms for the 100 buildings, and the data in the database was analyzed based on several
parameters: building type, fuel type, climate zone, square footage, fuel usage, operating cost, etc.

The trial database proved to be an effective tool for collecting and analyzing this data. Use of
such a database on a widespread basis would permit the collection and analysis of a lot of valuable
information for building owners, utilities, agencies, and energy analysts. Perhaps the most
valuable use would be to compare energy usage any individual building to the entire building
stock of similar buildings with similar space functions, climate, energy sources, and fuel costs.

The principle products resultingfromthis research project are:

1) An improved, evaluated, and tested Energy Audit Form ready for use in thefieldby the
   energy auditing industry,

2) A trial database developed, tested, and revised. While not ready for widespread distribution,
   it is available for guidance and to be built upon to develop a polished database.

Recommendations and suggestions for further research are summarized as follows:

1) Distribute the revised Energy Audit Form and Procedures to the energy auditing community.

2) Develop a database, based on the trial database developed in this project, to disseminate to the
   industry to provide a tool for collecting building and energy information on existing building
   stock.

3) Once there is a statistically significant amount of data collected in the database, utilize this
   data to analyze energy usage of existing building stock. This information would be valuable
   for researchers, utilities, agencies, building owners, designers, and energy auditors.


                                                  2
                                      I. INTRODUCTION

OBJECTIVE

ASHRAE developed a uniform Energy Audit Form and Procedures as a part of a previous
research project, ASHRAE Special Project SP-56.

The objective of this research, ASHRAE Research Project RP-669, was to utilize, test, and
evaluate the proposed Energy Audit Form and Procedures and to make informed
recommendations for their improvements based on the experience of those performing the
evaluation. An additional objective was to produce and analyze a trial database to determine the
adequacy of the data collected to normalize and compare building energy performance.

The goal was to establish forms and procedures to be used by experienced auditors in the auditing
of a variety of buildings in the field.


BACKGROUND

As a part of the US Department of Energy's Commercial Retrofit Research Program, the Pacific
Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked to develop improvements to tools, procedures and
techniques used to perform energy audits in commercial buildings. It was felt that certain aspects
of the energy audit process are weak and contain levels of uncertainty which affect the quality of
the audit results.

PNL engaged ASHRAE to conduct a study to identify the areas of uncertainty that affect the
quality and credibility of commercial building energy audits and to develop a plan to improve
those aspects of the process. The work was performed as ASHRAE Special Project SP-56 by a
project team identified by ASHRAE. The Proposed ASHRAE Energy Audit Form and
Procedures being evaluated in this project (RP-669) were developed by SP-56.

Thefirstphase of the work by SP-56 was to assess the audit tools and procedures in order to
identify and prioritize the areas of need and to develop recommendations for work to be
conducted in the second phase. The assessment performed during thefirstphase identified the
need to develop the scope of work involved for the various levels of analysis, and the need for a
standard format for reporting the results of an analysis.

The second phase of the work by SP-56 resulted in the development of a document entitled
"Development of a Guide for Analyzing and Reporting Building Characteristics and Energy Use
in Commercial Buildings" (The Guide). The Proposed Energy Audit Form and Procedures which
were evaluated in RP-669 are contained in The Guide and are included as Appendix A in this
report.



                                                 3
The Guide outlines the purpose and various levels of an energy analysis. It also develops the
typical procedures to be followed for each level of analysis, and uniform means of reporting
certain building, system and energy use characteristics as well as the results of an analysis. It is
intended to provide guidance to energy analysts and to provide some standardization of the results
of the analysis. It can also be used by building owners to provide an understanding of results to
be expectedfromthe analyst, and what level of analysis may be appropriate for a facility. The use
of uniform reporting methods will facilitate sharing of data, and may eventually lead to the
development of a building energy and functional usage database for use by the profession.

RP-669 resultedfromthe need to evaluate, test, and refine the Proposed Energy Audit Form and
Procedures developed by SP-56 before its release and widespread use by the energy auditing
community. In addition, RP-669 takes thefirststep toward developing and evaluating the usable
database of building energy and functional usage envisioned in SP-56.

SCOPE OF WORK

In order to fulfill the objectives, the following scope of work was developed for the project.

Data would be transferredfrompreviously completed level 2 or higher energy audits to the
Proposed Energy Audit Form (the Proposed Form). The Proposed Form would be completed by
experienced auditors for 100 buildings of various types, sizes, and usesfromdiverse climate and
fuel cost regions in the United States and Canada. Comments and recommendationsfromthe
auditors andfromthe Project Monitoring Subcommittee would be solicited in order to evaluate
and improve the Proposed Form.

A trial database would be developed and the informationfromthe completed forms would be
input and analyzed.

A report would be prepared summarizing the data collected, analysis conducted,findings,trial
database, and recommended form changes.

The principal aims of the project were to:

1) Analyze the effectiveness of Proposed Forms vs. those used for the original audits.

2) Identify strengths and weaknesses of the Proposed Form.

3) Recommend improvements to the Proposed Form.

4) Discuss how well data collected with the Proposed Form can be incorporated into a database.

5) Determine if the collected data is adequate to normalize and compare building energy
   performance.

                                                  4
                                       H. PROCEDURE

Thefirststep of the project was to assemble a list of 100 buildings which had previously had level
2 or higher energy audits performed on them. Informationfromthe audits would be transferred
to the Proposed Form as a means of evaluating the Proposed Form without the time and expense
of performing new audits. In order to ensure a diversity of climatic andfiielcost regions, 25
buildingsfromeach of the following regions were selected:

1)   Southeast - Hot, humid
2)   Southwest - Hot, dry
3)   Northeast - Cold (>6,000 degree days), high fuel cost
4)   Northwest - Mid, low fuel cost.

The buildings in the Southeast were provided by Sud Associates, in the Southwest by ADM
Associates, in the Northeast by Landsberg Engineering/The Fleming Group, and in the Northwest
by ADM Associates (11 buildings) and Prism Engineering (14 buildings).

The auditors (the contractor and the subcontractors) provided a list of approximately 50
commercial or institutional buildings on which they had performed audits in their region(s). These
buildings were to represent a broad cross section with respect to:

1)   Building Type
2)   Building Size
3)   Fuel Sources
4)   Building Energy Costs.

From the 50 buildings per region, 25 were chosen for the study based on the above criteria. A list
of these buildings with key characteristics is included in Appendix C. Tables II-1, -2, and -3
summarize the distribution of building types, climatic zones, size, and heating fuel for the
buildings included in the study.




                                                5
               TABLE H-l: DISTRIBUTION OF SELECTED BUILDINGS
                             BUILDING TYPE VS. LOCATION
                                                    Location
Tvoe                SE             NE                 SW              NW           Total
Office              3               5                  7              10            25
Lodging             1               1                  0                2           4
Apartments          1               1                  0                0           2
Education           3              4                   5                1           13
Food Sendee         2               1                  3                4           10
Health Care         4              4                   4                3           15
Retail              5              2                   5                3           15
Assembly            4               5                  0                1           10
Other               2              2                   1                1           6
Total               25             25                 25              25           100



               TABLE H-2: DISTRIBUTION OF SELECTED BUILDINGS
                    BUILDING TYPE VS. GROSS FLOOR AREA
                                       Gross Floor Area - Square Feet
    Type             0-20.000      20,000-50,000           50,000-100,000   >100,000
    Office               9                  9                    3             4
    Lodging              0                  1                    1             2
    Apartments           0                  1                    1             0
    Education            1                  3                    6             3
    Food Service         9                  1                    0             0
    Health Care          4                  3                    2             6
    Retail               6                  4                    3             2
    Assembly             3                  6                    0             1
    Other                0                  2                    2             2
    Total                32                30                    18           20


                                                6
                TABLE H-3: DISTRIBUTION OF SELECTED BUILDINGS
                             BUILDING TYPE VS. HEATING FUEL
                                                     Energy Form
 Type                # 2 Oil       Natural Gas        Electricity      Steam            Other
 Office                  1              15                9               0               0
 Lodging                0                2                2               0               0
 Apartments             0                1                0               0                1
 Education              2                8                2               1               0
 Food Service           0                7                2               0                1
 Health Care            3                7                3               0               2
 Retail                  1               7                5               1                1
 Assembly               4                3                 1              0               2
 Other                  0                3                 1              0               2
 Total                  11              53                25              2               9


Data from several buildings per climatic region were transferred from the auditors' original audit
form or report to the Proposed Form. Each auditor was requested to submit comments on the
Proposed Form, based on their experience, regarding how the Proposed Form compared to the
original data collected on the building and how it could be improved.

The complete commentsfromauditors are included as Appendix D of this report. Some of the
more common and salient comments are summarized below:

1) Improvements to format of form.

2) Define building area to use and stay consistent.

3) Is the form an audit tool or database entry form?

4) Clarify which parts of the form to be included in the database and make them easier to input.

5) More information needed about weather data.

6) Need expanded list of space types.

                                                 7
7) Expand the list of HVAC system types and revise their structure to make it more useful as a
   database analysis tool.

8) Need information on electrical load profile.

9) Basic envelope construction should be included in the database.

10) Include units commonly used in Canada.

Based on the comments, the Proposed Form was revised and presented to the Research
Subcommittee of TC 9.6, the sponsors of the research project, at the ASHRAE annual meeting in
Orlando in June 1994. The presentation of the revised Proposed Form to this committee resulted
in additional comments and suggestions for revisions. These suggestions were also incorporated
into the form.

Concurrent with this process the trial database was developed. Though not intended to be a final
database to be distributed to the public, every effort was made to create a database that was easy
to use, both for the person inputting the data and the analyst who may use the data. The database
was not intended to contain all the informationfromthe Proposed Form, but primarily the
building, energy, and space function data that could be quantified. The items to be included in the
database were discussed with and approved by the Project Monitoring Subcommittee (PMS).
On-screen data entry forms were created which would, for example, allow energy usage to be
input in original units (e.g. therms, CCF, MCF, or Gigajoules for natural gas) and then
automatically converted to a common unit (e.g. 1000 BTUs for all energy sources) for storage in
the database. The entry forms were also created to follow logically along with the revised
Proposed Form to facilitate ease of entry.

Datafromseveral buildings were input into the trial database for preliminary analysis. The
database and revised Proposed Form were distributed to the subcontractors and presented to the
TC 9.6 Research Subcommittee meeting at the ASHRAE winter meeting in Chicago in January
1995. Comments and suggestionsfromboth were incorporated into the database and Proposed
Form, and they were distributed to the subcontractors for completion.

The newly revised Proposed Form and the trial database were completed for all 100 buildings by
the auditors. Additional comments and evaluation were received at this time based on the
experience of completing all the forms and the database. After the forms and data were received
and compiled, the data in the database was analyzed based on several parameters: building type,
fuel type, climate zone, square footage, fuel usage, operating cost, etc.

The Proposed Form was revised again based on the comments receivedfromthe auditors and the
inputfromthe PMS. It was then formatted infinalform on a word processor. The Energy Audit
Form in its final form is attached in Appendix B of this report.



                                                  8
                                       m. CONCLUSIONS
SELECTION OF BUILDINGS

The procedure for obtaining a cross section of buildings was very successful. A diverse cross
section of climate zones, audit levels, building types, building sizes, heating fuels, and fuel costs
were included. This allowed for evaluation of the Proposed Formfromthe perspective of several
experienced auditors and of audits on a varied building stock. Inclusion of one subcontractor
from Canada also added an important perspective for making the form accessible to a broader
audience.

ENERGY AUDIT FORM

The process of transferring datafromexisting audits to the Proposed Form proved valuable for
evaluating and improving the form. At the most basic level it pointed out errors and deficiencies
in the Proposed Form. It also resulted in improvements in content and format. In addition, it
helped clarify what information would be valuable in a database and how to make it clear to the
auditorfillingout the form.

The use of the contractor and three subcontractors tofillout the form and enter data into the
database resulted in valuable inputfrommany experienced auditors. One of the primary results of
this research project was to end up with a reviewed, modified, and tested Energy Audit Form
ready for distribution to the auditing community. The perspective of the auditors who completed
forms, the members of the PMS, and those who made suggestions at the TC 9.6 Research
Subcommittee meetings was invaluable in improving the form. The Proposed Form was modified,
based on this input, several times before the majority of the datafromthe 100 buildings were
input. The result was that not only was the Proposed Form tested, but that the revised form was
thoroughly tested.

An important aspect of the Energy Audit Form is inclusion of Space Functions for the building
being analyzed. SP-56 recognized the need to not only analyze building energy usage with
respect to building type; but also to the functions which take place in that building, termed here
"space functions". While it is very difficult to actually determine the energy usage per space
function in a building without extensive monitoring and/or analysis, total building energy usage
can be analyzed based on the building's space function breakdown. As far as the investigators are
aware, this has not been done in other surveys of building energy usage.

In order to be consistent with other ASHRAE work, it was suggested that the list of Space
FunctionsfromStandard 90.1 be incorporated. This was done, but with some reservations. The
90.1 Space Functions are largely based on appropriate lighting levels for various spaces. This
results in a large number of space types that add confusion, not clarity, to a space function
analysis. For example, there are more subdivisions of office areas and sporting arenas/spaces than
are necessary for the purposes of the Energy Audit Form. Further, the numbering system for


                                                  9
Space Functions in 90.1 is sequential instead of having numbered groupings of "super" categories
such as "office", "athletic", "retail", etc. with numbered subcategories. Instead of merely
choosing between "enclosed offices" and "open offices with partitions", this requires the auditor
to choose between, for example, accounting offices with partitions 3.5-4.5 feet below the ceiling
and accounting offices with partitions less than 3.5 feet below the ceiling. These distinctions are
too fine.

The Energy Audit Form, in its revised form, can be valuable to the industry in two important
ways. First, it provides a guide to a building owner or auditor as to what information should be
collected, analyzed, and reported for an energy audit. It standardizes information to be collected
without trying to dictate or constrain the actual analysis of the data. In this capacity, it can be
used to improve the overall level of energy auditing in thefield,as well as give a building owner
an idea of what should be expected from an energy audit.

Second, the Energy Audit Form can serve as a data collection form for entry into a database.
Because of its standardized format and database friendly entries, it serves as an excellent tool for
this purpose.

TRIAL DATABASE

The trial database was developed in order to determine how well data collected with the Proposed
Form could be incorporated into a database, and to determine if the collected data is adequate to
normalize and compare building energy performance.

The trial database proved to be an effective tool for collecting and analyzing this data. The
custom input forms and programs allowed for streamlined data input, once the relevant data was
entered in the paper Energy Audit Form, requiring only about 15 minutes to enter the data.

Use of such a database on a widespread basis would permit the collection and analysis of a lot of
valuable information for building owners, utilities, agencies, and energy analysts. Perhaps the
most valuable use would be to compare energy usage any individual building to the entire building
stock of similar buildings with similar space functions, cfimate, energy sources, and fuel costs.
Examples of sample analyses performed using the database are included in Appendix E.

Concurrent development of the trial database and revision of the Proposed Form gave guidance to
the revisions to the Proposed Form. For example, Building Types were assigned numbers instead
ofjust being listed by name, permitting quantifiable and sortable entry in the database.

The trial database was developed using Paradox 4.0 for DOS. This was chosen because of its
ability to run on nearly any PC, without Windows, and because of its widespread use. As it
turned out, the Paradox for DOS programming language was not always well suited to developing
the input and report forms desired for this project. Thus, the programmer was forced to create
some constructions that were, at times, complicated and confusing. It may be determined that a


                                                  10
different database program would be more appropriate if afinal,full featured database is
developed.

Development of such afinaldatabase, suitable for distribution and use by the public, is beyond the
scope of work of this project. If, however, it is developed, it should build on the structure and
features of the trial database and include, at a minimum, the following features:

1) Follow the input format of the paper Energy Audit Form,

2) Provide input forms that allow entry of data in native units for each energy source and
   convert them to a common unit for storage in the database. Custom report forms could then
   convert this unit to any unit desired by an analyst.

3) Provide ability to input energy cost information in various currencies, at a minimum US and
   Canadian dollars, with current exchange rates. This would allow for normalization of energy
   costs, which would be necessary for meaningful analysis.

4) Include space function information on buildings, as is collected on the Energy Audit Form, in
   a format in which is can be easily extracted for analysis.

5) Include ability to "pack" and "unpack" the data to facilitate transfer via disk or modem to a
   central location which maintains the database.

6) Provide some basic output reports, as well as the ability to easily develop custom reports for
   analysis of the data.

7) Be streamlined enough to require minimal time to enter the data, 15 to 20 minutes at the
   most.

8) Be a stand alone application which does not require the user to own a separate, proprietary
   software application.

Monthly energy usage and cost information, by meter, was incorporated into the database.
However, it is the opinion of the investigators that it should not be included, in such detail, in a
final database for distribution. A facility may have several meters for several fuels, and the
information would become cumbersome. While this information may prove useful for a
researcher, this benefit is outweighed by the increase in database complexity, unwieldy quantity of
information, and amount of time required by an auditor to enter this data. Inclusion of this
information could easily double the amount of time required by the auditor to input information
into the database, thus reducing the likelihood of getting the database filled in at all. An
alternative would be to input the total monthly energy usage and cost information per fuel without
separating it out per meter. This would provide more valuable information with less data input
time.


                                                 11
                                      IV. UTILIZATION

RESULTS

The principle products resultingfromthis research project are:

1) An improved, evaluated, and tested Energy Audit Form ready for use in thefieldby the
   energy auditing industry,

2) A trial database developed, tested, and revised. While not ready for widespread distribution,
   it is available for guidance and to be built upon to develop a polished database.

RELATIONSHIP OF THIS WORK TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE

Energy Audit Form and Procedures

This research project, ASHRAE RP-669, evaluated, tested, and revised the Energy Audit Form
and Procedures which were developed as a part of ASHRAE SP-56. The revised forms provide a
standardized tool for collecting and reporting building and energy information for conducting an
energy audit on a commercial or institutional building. The form and procedures outlined here do
not attempt to proscribe analysis procedures and techniques, or define lists of potential energy
conservation opportunities.

Building Energy Database

Databases of energy usage in commercial buildings in the United States already exist. Most
notable is the database on building energy usage collected and maintained by the Energy
Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy. Other collections of data
are also availablefromutility companies, state or provincial governments, and the Building
Owners and Managers Association (BOMA). The database resultingfromthis project differs
from most other building energy usage databases in two fundamental ways:

1) The building and energy usage information is collected, on site, by an engineer or energy
   analyst as a part of an energy audit.

2) The database includes detailed information about the space functions of the building. Energy
   usage could be analyzed not only based on building type, but also the functional usage of the
   building.




                                               12
RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

1) Develop a database, based on the trial database developed in this project, to disseminate to
   the industry to provide a tool for collecting building and energy information on existing
   building stock.

    Included in this would necessarily be a determination of the most effective method of
    distribution. Reliance purely on voluntary data entry and submission of the database may not
    result in adequate response. Other means of encouraging compliance may be to get utilities
    or federal agencies to require completion of the database in conjunction with their energy
    audits.

    Also, it would be necessary to develop a central repository for the database and a means for
    keeping it updated, maintained, and available to interested parties for analysis. Reports
    should be published on a regular basis to distribute the most up-to-date content and analysis
    of the database.

2) Following up on item 1) above, once there is a statistically significant amount of data
   collected in the database, utilize this data to analyze energy usage of existing building stock.
   This information would be valuable for researchers, utilities, agencies, building owners,
   designers, and energy auditors.

ASHRAE HANDBOOK

Chapter 32 - "Energy Management" of the 1995 ASHRAE Handbook - HVAC Applications
discusses energy management and energy auditing. It also includes tables of energy usage
information compiledfromDOE/EIA surveys.

The Energy Audit Form and Procedures could be mentioned in this context as an energy auditing
tool. Also, information gatheredfromthe proposed database could be incorporated into this
chapter.




                                                 13
                                     BIBLIOGRAPHY

ASHRAE. 1987. An Assessment of the Energy Auditing Process in Commercial Buildings.
   ASHRAE Special Project Report 56.
         i   *



ASHRAE. 1989. Energy Efficient Design of New Buildings Except Low-rise Residential
   Buildings. ASHRAMES Standard 90.1-19Z9.

ASHRAE. 1990. Standard Methods of Measuring and Expressing Building Energy Performance.
   ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 105-1984 (RA 90).

ASHRAE. 1990. A Guide for Analyzing and Reporting Energy Use and Characteristics of
   Commercial Buildings. Prepared for Pacific Northwest Laboratory by ASHRAE. 1989,
                                                6
   revised 1990.

ASHRAE. 1995.1995 ASHRAE Handbook - HVAC Applications.

CTBSE. 1991. Applications Manual, Energy Audits and Surveys. The Chartered Institution of
   Building Services Engineers, London, England.

MacDonald, J.M., T.R. Sharp, andM.B. Gettings. 1989. A Protocol for Monitoring Energy
   Efficiency Improvements in Commercial and Related Buildings. ORNL/Con-291. Oak Ridge
   National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.

SBCCI. 1988. Standard Building Code, 1988 Edition. Southern Building Code Congress
   International, Inc., Birmingham, AL.

U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. 1989. Commercial Buildings
    Energy Consumption Survey for 1989, Building Questionnaire. Form EIA-871A.




                                             14
           APPENDIX A

ENERGY AUDIT FORM AND PROCEDURES,
  AS ORIGINALLY PROPOSED BY SP-56
                                                     APPENDIX I
                      ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

          PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE AND WALK-THROUGH DATA

                                 Table of Contents

                                                            Page

Preface                                                    1-2

Preliminary Energy Use                                      1-3

      Building Characteristics                             1-3

      Energy Performance                                   1-5

      Energy and Cost Indices                              1-5


Walk-Through Data                                          1-10

      Space Function Analysis                              1-10

      Building Data                                        1-12

      Lighting Systems Data                                1-13

      HVAC Systems Data                                    1-14

      Special Loads                                        1-14




                                        1-1
        PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE AND WALK-THROUGH DATA

                                       PREFACE


The data required in the Preliminary Energy Use Analysis section, pages 1-1 through I-
9, can ususally be obtained from the owner-operator of the building without a visit to
the building. The forms utilize standard definitions for building area, building type, and
energy usage. The result is the development of energy cost, indices which can be
used to compare with other, similar buildings, and to make a rough determination of
the need for further evaluation. If no further evaluation is conducted, this data is
expected to have some value in the development of a building energy-use data base.

The information required in the Walk-Through Data section, pages 1-10 through 1-14,
can be obtained without conducting a detailed analysis of the building. A major goal
of data collected in this seciton is to define the various SPACE FUNCTIONS in the
building. This information, in conjuction with specific information on the building itself,
the HVAC system type(s) and the lighting system(s) will enable the analyst to
commence a more detailed assessment of building energy performance.

It is intended that the information requested can contribute to the establishment of a
large, useful data base of building functions and energy use. Therefore, the analyst is
strongly urged to provide all possible information in the format provided.




                                             I-2
                                          PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE

                                           BUILDING CHARACTERISTICS

                      Building ID
                                                For 19                  19

City.                                            Zip/Postal Code.                        Lat                 Long.

Gross conditioned area1                                                                  sq.ft.

Number of conditioned floors - above grade.                                           below grade.

Primary Year of Construction2

Primary Building Type3 (Check one only)

Office                []                                                Retail            Drycleaning
                                                                                          Supermarket
Lodging               [ ] Hotel                                                           General Merchancise
                      [ ] Motel                                                           Shopping Mall Without Tenant
                                                                                          Loads
Apartment             [   ]   Seniors                                                     Shopping Mall Without Tenant
                      [   ]   Family                                                      Lighting Load
                      [   ]   Retirement Home                                             Shopping Mall
                      [   ]   Other - Define                                              Other - Define


Education             [ ] Primary                                   Industrial            Laboratory
                      [ ] Secondary                                                       Manufacturing
                      [ ] University                                                      Warehouse
                                                                                          Warehouse - Refrigerated
Food Service          [   ]   Restaurant-Full Service
                      [   ]   Fast Food                                 Other             Jail
                      [   ]   Take Out                                                    Transport Terminal
                      [   ]   Lounge                                                      Multi-Bldg. Complex
                                                                                          Other - Define
HealthCare            [   ]   Nursing Home
                      [   ]   Psychiatric
                      [   ]   Clinic                               Assembly               Theatre
                      [   ]   Active Treatment Hospital                                   Museum/Gallery
                                                                                          Church/Synagogue
                                                                                          Arena/Gym
                                                                                          Arena/Rink
                                                                                          Other Assembly (Define)




    1
      All floor area contained within the outside finished surface of permanent outer building walls including basements, mechanical
equipment floors and penthouses (ANSI Standard 265.1-1980, "Construction Area"). No exclusions are made for shafts, stairs or
atria. Conditioned area is that area provided with heating or colling to maintain temperature between 50°F and 86°F (ANSI/ASHRAE
Standard 105-1984).

   2
       The median year for construction of at least 5 1 % of the conditioned space.

       Building Type as characterized by at least 51% of the conditioned space.


                                                                 1-3
                                    Preliminary Building Usage Period4

Average Hours/Week                                        Average Weeks/Year



Schedule during months of                                     Optional Usage Schedule


          Days                          M             T   W      TH     F    SAT    SUN   HOL

          Hour Open
          Hour Close
 Peak no. of employees
 Avg. no. of employees
 Peak no. of customers
 Avg. No. of customers




Schedule during months of


          Days                          M             T   W      TH     F    SAT    SUN   HOL

          Hour Open                                                                         .

          Hour Close
 Peak no. of employees
 Avg. no. of employees
 Peak no. of customers
 Avg. No. of customers




   Usage for at least 51% of the conditioned space.
                      ENERGY PERFORMANCE SUMMARY

  ENERGY TYPE         TOTAL      CONVERSION         THOUSANDS      TOTAL
                     ANNUAL       MULTIPLIER          OF BTU      ANNUAL
                       USE       To Thousands                      COST
                                  Btu See Next                       $
                                      Page



 ELECTRICITY


 NATURAL GAS


 STEAM
 HOT WATER
 CHILLED WATER
 OlL#
 PROPANE
 COAL
 OTHER

                                                             A             B



                           ENERGY AND COST INDICES

Energy Index (A * Gross Conditioned Area)                     MBTU/SQ.FT./YR

Cost Index (B + Gross Conditioned Area)                     $/SQ.FT./YR

Annual Maximum metered demand

                   KW(C)

Maximum Demand Index (C x 1,000 * Gross Conditioned Area)           W/SQ.FT.

TOTAL WATER USE                           KGAL/YR

Further Analysis recommended? Y/N

Explain                                         •



                                          I-5
                  Multipliers for Conversion

                    to Thousands of BTU

       (Ref ASHRAE Standard 105-1984 for unusual fuels)


                     Measured           Conversion
Fuel                  Units             Multiplier

Electricity          KWH                3.41
                     MWH                3413

Natural Gas          CCF                103.
                     MCF                1030.
                     Therm              100
                     m                  36.4

Propane              US Gallon          91.6
                     Litres             24.2
                     Imp. Gallons       110

Steam                1000 LBS           1000
                     Therm              100

Hot Water            1000 BTU           1.0

Chilled Water        1000 BTU           1.0
                     Ton Hours          12.0

Oil # 2              US Gallon          139.
                     Imp. Gallons       167
                     Litres             36.7

Oil # 6              US Gallon          154
                     Imp. Gallons       185
                     Litres             40.7

Anthracite Coal      Tons               25,400




                              1-6
                                      ENERGY

                      (Check one in each column)


                            TYPE                         UNITS
                            Natural Gas                  CCF
                                                         MCF
                                                         THERM
                                                         CU. THERMS


                            Steam                        1000 LBS
                                                         THERM


                            Hot Water                    1000 BTU
                                                         BTU


                            Chilled Water                1000 BTU
                                                         TON HOURS


                            Electricity                  KWH
                                                         MWH


                            Water                        KGAL


                            Other                        (DEFINE
                                                         UNITS)


Serves More Than 5% Total                 Energy Type
                                          (from above)

       Heating Fuel

       Cooling Fuel

       Domestic Water Heating Fuel

       Kitchen Equipment

       Laundry Equipment

       Other Processing Equipment




                                            1-7
                              METERED CONSUMPTION FOR METER #



    METERING PERIOD          CONSUMP-     "E"IF      ELECTRICTY ONLY               C O S T
    DAY/MONTH/YEAR             TION     ESTIMATE K W _ KVA_    KW
                                                 Measured    Billed    CONSUMP-
    From            To                           Demand      Demand    TION $     DEMAND $   TOTAL $
                                  (D




1           Total

                    Utility Company

                    ApplicableRate

                    Schedule Number




(1) ccf, therms, hWh, gal, etc.




                                                    1-8
                     DELIVERED CONSUMPTION FOR FUEL #


                                                          ENERGY
     DELIVERY    DELIVERY   TOTAL
       DATE      AMOUNT     COST                TYPE                UNITS

0
                                               OIL#1                US GAL
1                                              OIL 2                IMP GAL
                                               OIL 4                UTRES
2
                                               OIL 5L
3                                              OIL 6
                                               PROPANE
4

5                                              COAL                 TONS
6
                                               OTHER                (DEFINE
7                                                                   UNITS)

8

9
                                          SERVES MORE THAN 5% OF:
10
                                          Heating Fuel
11                                        Cooling Fuel
                                          Electric Generator Fuel
12
                                          Domestic Hot Water Fuel
13                                        Kitchen Equipment
                                          Laundry Equipment
14                                        Other Processing Equipment
15

16
                                          INVENTORY:
17                                          AT DATE 0                       (A)


18                                        INVENTORY:
                                            365 DAYS AFTER DATE 0                 (B)
19
                                          USE OF INVENTORY (A-B)                  (Q
20                                        COST OF INVENTORY USED                  (D)
                                          (C) x LATEST PRICE
       USE OF           C       D
     INVENTORY
   TOTAL
CONSUMPTION




                                    I-9
                                                         WALK-THROUGH DATA
                                                         SPACE FUNCTION ANALYSIS
                               Building ID
                                                           For 19            -19

 SPACE NUMBER?                          A            B          C            D         Unaccounted   Total
                     3
 FUNCTION TYPE

 CONDITIONED AREA
 SQ.FT.                                                                                              ,

 USAGE FOR SPACE7
 TYPES 1 - 30
       HRS/WK
         WKS/YR

Arena/Stadium                                                       Atrium
Auditorium                                                          Conditioned Parking Garage
Classroom                                                           Corridor/Stairway
Computer Room-Raised Floor                                          Locker/Small Storage
Conference Room                                                     Mechanical/Electrical
Dining                                                              Sleeping
Drafting/Accounting                                                 Storage
Gallery Display                                                     Vacant
Gymnasium                                                           Walk-in Cold Storage
Ice Rink
Jail Ceil
Kitchen
Laboratory
Laundry
Living Area
Locker/Shower
Lobby/Reception
Lounge
Manufacturing Process
Material Handling/Loading
Office
Patient Care
Patient Treatment
Production/Shop Area
Reading Room
Retail Refrigerated Display
Retail General
Shopping Mall Common Area
Surgical Suite/Recovery
Swimming Pool

Optional information for SPACE FUNCTION ANALYSIS (provided separately for each space
1. served by HVAC system type:
2. served by lighting system type:                               w/sq.ft


         'Separata Zones with 10% of conditioned space


         *Ma(of Space Function Types


         'See detailed Usage Schedule, page 1-11



                                                                      1-10
                                 DETAILED USAGE SCHEDULE
                                        (OPTIONAL)




Schedule during months of                  Optional Usage Schedule



       Days              1   M     T   W      TH       F   SAT   SUN   HOL

       Hour Open
       Hour Close
 Peak no. of employees
 Avg. no. of employees
 Peak no. of customers
 Avg. No. of customers




Schedule during months of


       Days                  M     T   W      TH       F   SAT   SUN   HOL

       Hour Open
       Hour Close
 Peak no. of employees
 Avg. no. of employees                             •

 Peak no. of customers
 Avg. No. of customers




                                            1-11
                                        BUILDING DATA


GROSS CONDITIONED AREA

Gross Heated Only                                                    sq.ft.
Gross Cooled Only                                                    sq.ft.
Gross Heated and Cooled                                              sq.ft.
       Total Gross Conditioned Area                                  sq.ft


BUILDING SHELL CHARACTERISTICS

                                                               Insulated
                                                                 Y/N

Total Exposed Above Grade Wall Area (sf)

Glazing area (% of exposed wall area)

Roof area (sf)

Floor Surface area exposed to outdoor
        conditions (sf)
Above grade wall area common with other
       conditioned building (sf)


OPERATION & MAINTENANCE

Discuss/describe operation and maintenance procedures as pertaining to building efficiency or
longevity.




                                                 1-12
                   LIGHTING SYSTEMS DATA




Average installed load including ballast in more than              _w/sq.ft.
       51% of occupied space

Switches Accessible to more than 51% of occupants       Y/N?

Special Automatic Controls                              Y/N?




     Major Liqhtina Types                     % of Occupied Area
              1 = Ruorescent
             2 = Incandescent
             3 = Mercury Vapor
             4 = Sodium
             5 = Other




                                  1-13
   HEATING, VENTILATING AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM DATA


       Check all that apply in a significant way
       (affect > 5% of floor area or energy consumption)


               Centrifugal Chiller
               Reciprocating Chiller
               Absorption Chiller

               Hot Water Boiler
               Steam Boiler
               Hot Air Furnace
               Electric Resistance Coils
               Central Heat Pump
               Active Solar Equipment
               Energy Recovery Equipment
               Thermal Storage Systems
               Cogeneration Systems
               Packaged Heat Pumps
               Air Row Modulation Controls
               Lighting Controls
               Humid ifiers/Dehumidifters
               Cooling Tower
               Comfort Control by Reheat
               Free Cooling




SPECIAL LOADS
Significant Energy Requirements not normally associated with this buPding type (for example:
unconditioned Parking Garage Lighting. Ventilation, Outdoor Heated Pool, Snow Melting)



          Describe                          Peak Load      Operating Period        Meter
                                       KW         MBH      HRS/WK WKS/YR          Number




                                                  1-14
                                                      APPENDIX II
                     ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

                 BUILDING AND SYSTEMS INFORMATION

                                  Table of Contents


                                                             Page


Preface                                                      11-2

Envelope Characteristics                                      13
                                                             1-

Lighting System Characteristics                              11-4

HVAC Systems Characteristics                                  15
                                                             1-

Inventory of Major HVAC Equipment                            11-6

Domestic Hot Water Characteristics                           11-7

Other Systems Characteristics                                 18
                                                             1-




                                         11-1
                  BUILDING AND SYSTEMS INFORMATION

                                      PREFACE

The forms in this section are intended to provide general guidance in preparing a
report on the analysis of the building and its systems. It is not uncommon for the final
report to be disseminated to and used by people with a wide variety of interests,
including finance, management, operation, maintenance and engineering. Therefore,
within practical constraints of time and budget, the analyst is encouraged to be as
thorough and clear as possible in collecting and presenting the measured data and
the descriptions thereof.




                                           11-2
                   ENVELOPE CHARACTERISTICS
        Building ID
                             For 19               19



              Construction           R              Glass          Area
                 Code              Value           Shading        (sq.ft)
                                                  Coefficient




              (Include miniature building floor plan, showing orientation)

                    CONSTRUCTION TYPE CODES
Walls
        W0=Other
        VV1=Wood
        W2=Masonry
        W3=Concrete, Above Grade
        W4=Concrete, Below Grade
        W5=Metal
        W6=Stone
        W7=Glass
        W8=Adjacent Building

Roofs
        R0=Other
        R1 = Concrete Deck
        R2=Wood Deck
        R3=Metal Deck

Windows
Sash Type
       GO=Other
       Fixed, Wood Sash: G11 = Single Glaze G21 = Double Glaze
       Operable, Wood Sash: Gl2=Single Glaze G22=Double Glaze
       Fixed, Metal Sash: G13=Single Glaze G23=Double Glaze
       Operable, Metal Sash: G14=Single Glaze G24=Double Glaze

Doors
        DO=Other
        D1 = Solid Wood
        D2=Hollow Wood
        D3=Uninsulated metal
        D4=Metal, Insulated Core
        D5 - Glass (> 85%)




                                           II-3
                    LIGHTING SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS


Describe in detail, include typical ceiling plans. Utilize space function format, (refer to
page 1-10)


      Typical watts/sq.ft. design
      Typical watts/sq.ft. installed, by type of light source (refer to page 1-13)
      Types of controls
      Operating schedules
      Light levels, footcandles (fc), 3 feet above floor, without daylight
      Operating and maintenance problems




                                            II-4
                      HVAC SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS

Describe in detail, include floor plans and sketches.

      - Fuel Source                      -   Control Description and Setting
      - Fuel Conversion Equipment        -   Operating Periods
      - Distribution Method              -   Space Temperature Setting and Setback
      - Terminal Type                    -   Operating and Maintenance Problems
      - Equipment Capacity


Heating System




Cooling System




                                             11-5
               Inventory of Major HVAC Equipment



Designation   Location   Model   Size     Capacity Serves   Operating   Remark
                                                            Hours/Yr




                                               -




                                        11-6
           DOMESTIC HOT WATER SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS



Describe in detail

      -   Fuel Source
      -   Distribution
      -   Storage
      -   Hours required
      -   Hours operated


Domestic Hot Water System




                              11-7
                   OTHER SYSTEMS CHARACTERISTICS

Describe in detail, include schematics as needed. Include any operating and
maintenance problems.

Laundry




Food Preparation




Conveying System




Other




                                        11-8
                                           APPENDIX III
                   ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

      ENERGY ANALYSIS SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

                                                      Page

Preface                                               III-2

Energy Analysis Summary                                1-
                                                      1 13

Recommended Energy Conservation Measures               1-
                                                      1 14

Components of Annual Energy Use                        1-
                                                      1 15




                                   111-1
       ENERGY ANALYSIS SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

                                     PREFACE

The forms in this section are intended to report the results of the calculations and
recommendations of the analyst. The forms provide a breakdown of energy use and
cost by system components as well as recommendations for modifications. System
interaction must be properly accounted for when combining more than one
modification. The economics of each modification may vary, depending upon the
order in which they are accomplished.




                                          1-
                                         1 12
                            ENERGY ANALYSIS SUMMARY

              Building ID
                               For 19            19


                                          MBTU/          $/       $/YR
                                         SQ.FT./YR    SQ.FT./YR

 ACTUAL USE                        A

 TARGET                            B

 TECHNICAL" POTENTIAL SAVINGS       C
                                 (A-B)
 SAVINGS FROM MEASURES        D
 RECOMMENDED FOR IMPLEMENTATION
 (SEE ATTACHED)

 REMAINING TECHNICAL               E
 POTENTIAL SAVING TO BE
 DEFINED                         (C-D)

 REALISTICALLY ACHIEVABLE          F
 POTENTIAL SAVINGS STILL TO BE
 DEFINED

 TOTAL ACHIEVABLE SAVINGS
                                 (D+F)



COST OF NEXT STAGE IN ANALYSIS                            $              (G)

COST OF MEASURES RECOMMENDED (D)                          $              (H)

COST TO IMPLEMENT (I)                                     $              C± %)

REALISTICALLY ACHIEVABLE
POTENTIAL SAVINGS AND POSSIBLE RANGE

TOTAL REMAINING     G+H +1
     IMPLEMENTATION COST




 'SOURCE




                                         III-3
         RECOMMENDED ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES



Measure Description   ENERGY    UNITS    $/YR   IMPLEMEN-   EXTRA    SIMPLE
                      TYPE(S)   SAVED   SAVED     TATION    OPER+   PAYBACK
                                                   COST     MAINT     (YRS)
                                                             COST

1.

2.

3.

Combined effect of
  1.2,3

4.

5.

Combined effect of
1.2,3,4,5




                                        III-4
                    COMPONENTS OF ANNUAL ENERGY USE



                        Electricity    Fuel     Other   Total   Total   % of Total
                       KW   |   KBTU   KBTU     KBTU    KBTU    Cost      Cost

Space Heating

Space Cooling

Fans

Pumps
DHW Generator

Lighting

 Within Conditioned
 Area
 Outside Conditioned
 Area
Other

 Receptacles

 Kitchen
 Laundry
 Central Computer
 Conveyance
Laboratory Equipment
Other
(describe)
Unaccounted
TOTAL




                                        III-5
              APPENDIX B

REVISED ENERGY AUDIT FORM AND PROCEDURES
                                       APPENDIX I
                          ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

   PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE AND WALK-THROUGH DATA

                                     Table of Contents


Preface                                                   I_2

Preliminary Energy Use                                    1-3

          Building Characteristics                        1-3

          Energy Performance                              1-6

          Energy and Cost Indices                         1-6

Walk-Through Data                                        1-11

          Space Function Analysis                        1-11

          BuildingData                                   1-14

          Lighting Systems Data                          1-15

          HVAC Systems Data                              1-16

          Special Loads                                  1-16




                                           1-1
                                                                           APPENDIX I
ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES                      PREUKMABYEMEBBYUSE AMD WmTHBOUBHDATA
            warn



                                             Preface
The data required in the Preliminary Energy Use Analysis section, pages 1-3 through 1-10, can
usually be obtainedfromthe owner-operator of the building without a visit to the building. The
forms utilize standard definitions for building area, building type, and energy usage. The result is
the development of energy cost indices, which can be used to compare with other similar buildings
and to make a rough determination of the need for further evaluation. If no further evaluation is
conducted, this data is expected to have some value in the development of a building energy-use
database.

The information required in the Walk-Through Data section, pages 1-11 through 1-16, can be
obtained without conducting a detailed analysis of the building. A major goal of data collected in
this section is to define the various SPACE FUNCTIONS in the building. This information, in
conjunction with specific information on the building itself, the HVAC system type(s), and the
lighting system(s) will enable the analyst to commence a more detailed assessment of building
energy performance.

It is intended that the information requested can contribute'to the establishment of a large, useful
database of building functions and energy use. Therefore, the analyst is strongly urged to provide
all possible information in the format provided. Shaded areas indicate information which is input
into the database.




                                                 1-2
                                                                                                                                 APPENDIXI
         ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

                                                  PRELIMINARY ENERGYUSE ANALYSIS
                                                     Building Characteristics
         Building ID _
         Date of Audit            Month                               Year


         City.                                     State/Province                           Zip/Postal Code
         Lat              Long.                      HDD                  CDD.             _ (Base 65 °F) For Year of Data
                                                     HDD                  CDD              _ (Base 18 °C) For Year of Data
         Gross Floor Area 1 .                              .sq.ft.
         Conditioned Area1                                 .sq.ft.       Climate Zone (1-38).
                                                                                              (see attached sheet)
         Number of conditionedfloors•               above grade.                  . below grade
         Year of Construction:                      Primary2                        Secondary


Primary Building Type:3 (Check one only)                                   HealthCare        61           Nursing Home
                                                                                             62           Psychiatric
Office                  Low-rise                                                             63           Clinic
                   12 [ High-rise                                                            64           Active Treatment Hospital
                        Other - Define                                                       69           Other-Define


Hotel/Motel        21      High-rise                                       Retail            71 [ ] Drycleaning
                   22      Low-rise                                                          72     Supermarket
                   23      Convention                                                        73     General Merchandise
                   24      Resort                                                            74     Shopping Mall Without Tenant Loads
                   25      Residential                                                       75     Shopping Mall Without Tenant
                   29      Other - Define                                                          Lighlhg Loads
                                                                                             76     Shopping Mall
                                                                                             77     Specialty Shop
Apartment          31 p Low-rise                                                             78     Bakery
                   32   High-rise                                                            79   •
                                                                                                    Other - Define
                                                                                                      •



                   33   Retirement Home
                   39   Other - Define
                                                                           Assembly          81 f 1 Theatre
                                                                                             82     Museum/Gallery
Education          41 |    Primary                                                           83     Church/Synagogue
                   42 |    Secondary                                                         84     Arena/Gym
                   43 |    University                                                        85     Arena/Rink
                   491     Other - Define                                                    89 j Other - Define


Food Services 51        Restaurant - Full Service                            Other           91           Laboratory
              52        Fast Food                                                            92           Warehouse
              53        Take Out                                                             93           Warehouse - Refrigerated
              54        Lounge                                                               94           Recreation/Athletic Facility
                   59£] Other-Define                                                         95           Jail
                                                                                             96           Transport Terminal
                                                                                             97           Multi-Bldg. Complex
                                                                                             99   •   •
                                                                                                          Other - Define



            1
                Grossfloorarea is allfloorarea contained within the outsidefinishedsurface of permanent outer building walls including
                basements, mechanical equipmentfloorsand penthouses (ANSI Standard Z65.1-1980, "Construction Area'O- No exclusions
                are made for shafts, stairs or atria. Conditioned area is that area provided with heating or cooling to maintain temperature
                between 50°F and 86°F (ANS1/ASHRAE Standard 105-1984).
                The median year for construction of at least 51% of the conditioned space.
                Building Type as characterized by at least 51% of the conditioned space.

                                                                                                          •wwawwwwwMwaww

                                                                         1-3
                                                                      RPPEHBttl
ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES                   PBEUMimYEMEBBYBSEmWUKTBBBBBBBATA

                                Climate Data Grouped by Zones
                Based on ACP Tables from ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989

  Zone     HDD50        CDD65      VSEW      CDH80         HDD6S     Example Cities
 Number    Range        Range      Range     Range         Range
    1              0   3001-4500     >800                            Barbers Point Hilo, Honolulu, Lihue
    2              0      >4500      >845                            Guantanamo Bay, Kwajalein, San Juan, Wake Island
    3        1-1000       0-1150   560-845                           Areata, North Bend
    4        1-1000        0-300     >845                   1-3000   Oakland, Point Mugu, Sunnyvale
   5         1-1000        0-300      >845                  >3000    San Francisco, Santa Maria
   6         1-1000     301-1150      >845                           El Toro, Long Beach, Los Angeles, San Diego
   7         1-1000    1151-2000   560-845                  1-3000   Augusta, Birmingham, Cape Hatteras, Cherry Point
   8         1-1000    1151-2000   560-845                  >3000    Atlanta, Greenville
   9         1-1000    1151-2000     >845                            Fresno, Red Bluft Sacramento

   10        1-1000    2001-3250   560-845                  1-3000   Charleston, Houston, Jackson, New Orleans
   11        1-1000    2001-3250   560-845                  >3000    Little Rock
   12        1-1000    2001-3250     >845    0-18000        1-3000   Austin, Bakersfield, El Paso, Fort Worth, Tampa
   13        1-1000    2001-3250     >845    0-18000        >3000    Wichita Falls
   14        1-1000    2001-3250     >845     >18000                 China Lake, Las Vegas, Tucson
   15        1-1000    3701-4500     >845    0-18000                 Miami, West Palm Beach
   16        1-1000    3251-3700     >845    0-18000                 Brownsville, Corpus Christi, Orlando, Kingsville
   17        1-1000    3701-4500     >845    >18000                  Laredo, Yuma
   18        1-1000    3251-3700     >845    >18000                  Phoenix

   19     1001-1750        0-500   560-845                           Olympia, Portland OR, Salem, Seattle/Tacoma
   20     1001-1750     501-1150   560-845                           Asheville, Medford
   21     1001-1750       1-1150     >845                            Prescott, Winslow, Yucca Flats
   22     1001-1750    1151-2000   560-845                           Charlotte, Chattanooga, Knoxville, Raleigh,
   23     1001-1750    1151-2000      >845                           Albuquerque, Lubbock, Oklahoma City, Roswell
   24     1001-1750    2001-3250   560-845                           Fort Smith, Memphis, Tulsa

   25     1751-2600     501-1150   560-845                           Baltimore, Boston, Columbus, New York,
   26     2601-3200     501-1150   560-845                           Akron, Chicago, Detroit, Hartford, Pittsburgh
   27     1751-3200        1-500   560-845                           Redmond, Yakima, Spokane
   28     1751-3200       0-1150     >845                            Boise, Denver, Reno, Salt Lake City
   29     1751-3200    1151-2000   560-845                           Lexington, Louisville, Saint Louis, Springfield
   30     1751-3200    1151-2000     >845                            Dodge City, Grand Junction


   31     3201-4000     501-1150   560-845                           Albany, Buflalo, Rapid City, Des Moines, Milwaukee
   32     3201-4000        0-500   560-845                           Great Falls, Helena, Missoula, Portlan ME, Sheridan
   33     4001-5000       0-1150   560-845                           Bangor, Huron, Minneapolis, Rochester, Sioux Falls
   34     3201-4000       0-1150     >845                            Casper, Cheyenne, Ely, North Platte
   35     4001-5000       0-1150     >845                            Bryce Canyon, Eagle, Rock Springs
   36     5001-6500       0-1150   560-845                           Bismarck, Duluth, Fargo, International Falls
   37     2501-6500         >100     >560                            Adak, Anchorage, Juneau, Kodiak, Yakutat
   38         >6500         >100     >560                            Bethel Fairbanks, King Salmon, Nome, Summit


For more example cities in the U.S., see ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989 Appendix C.

                                                     1-4
                                                                                   APPBIBUI
ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES                                    PRWMimYBimYUSENmwm-muiUGHDm
i»amimm«i«»      nmmmwamiumim          •""•'•"'"»<^»'""^»»™I»«»»«ITOUIM~..»^^




                               Preliminary Building Usage Period4
Average Hours/Week                                                   Average Weeks/Year                   -
Average Number of Occupants                                          After Hours Cleaning (y/n)
during Normal Occupied Period
                                  Total Building Usage Schedule
                        Schedule during months of

 Days                                M           T            W             Th    F       Sat     Sun   Hoi
 Hour Open
 Hour Close
 Peak no. of employees
 Avg. no. of employees
 Peak no.' of customers
 Avg. no. of customers




                       Schedule during months of

 Days                                M           T            W             Th    F       Sat     Sun   Hoi
 Hour Open
 Hour Close
 Peak no. of employees
 Avg. no. of employees
 Peak no. of customers
 Avg. no. of customers




     4
         Usage for at least 51% of the conditioned space.
                                                                      APPENDIX/
ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES                     PREUMINARYEHERGYUSEANDWALK-TMWUGHDATA


                           Energy Performance              Summary

    ENERGY TYPE           TOTAL       UNITS       CONVERSION          THOUSANDS           TOTAL
                         ANNUAL                    MULTIPLIER           OF BTU           ANNUAL
                           USE                   To Thousands Btu       (KBTU)           COST ($)
                                                   See Next Page


 ELECTRICITY


 NATURAL GAS


 STEAM
 HOT WATER
 CHILLED WATER
 OIL#
 PROPANE
 COAL
 OTHER
                                                                                   A                 B
If other than $US, average currency unit per $US conversion rate for past year.

                                Energy and Cost Indices

Energy Index (A + Gross Floor Area)                                               kBTU/sq.ft./yr.

Cost Index (B -*- Gross Floor Area)                                           . $/sq.ft./yr.

Seasonal Maximum metered electrical demand

   Summer             kW or            kVA (C)        Winter.         kWor                kVA(D)

Maximum Demand Index (MAX of C or D X 1,000 -^ Gross Floor Area),                              ,W/sq.ft
                     (MAX of C or D X 1,000 -s- Conditioned Area).                             .W/sq.ft.

TOTAL WATER USE                       . kGal/yr or          CuFt/yr                    $/yr.

Further Analysis recommended? Y/N,
Explain




                                                1-6
                                                                        APPENDIX I
ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES               PRELIMINARYEHERGYUSE AND WALKTHROUGHDATA


                           Multipliers for Conversion
                             to Thousands ofBtu

                  (Ref ASHRAE Standard 105-1984 for unusual fuels)




        Fuel                       Measured Units     Conversion Multiplier
        Electricity                kWh                3.413
                                   mWh                3413
        Natural Gas                CCF                103
                                   MCF                1030
                                   Therm              100
                                   Cu. Meter          36.4
                                   GigaJoule          947.8
        Purchased Steam            1000 BTU           1.0
                                   1000 lbs.          1000
                                   Therm              100
        Purchased Hot Water        1000 BTU           1.0
        Purchased Chilled Water    1000 BTU           1.0
                                   Ton Hour           12.0
        Oil #2                     US Gallon          139
                                   Imp. Gallon        167
                                   Liter              36.7
        Oil #6                     US Gallon          154
                                   Imp. Gallon        185
                                   Liter              40.7
        Propane                    US Gallon          91.6
                                   Liter              24.2
                                   Imp. Gallon        110

        Anthracite Coal            Ton                25,400




                                         1-7
                                                                                  APPENDIX!
ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES
                                                     *ma

                                          Energy
                     (Check one in each column, where applicable)

             TYPE                                      UNITS
                       Electricity                              kWh
                                                                mWh
                      Natural Gas                               CCF
                                                                MCF
                                                                Therms
                                                                Cu. Meters
                                                                GigaJoules
                       Purchased Steam                          1000 BTU
                                                                1000 Lbs.
                                                                Therms
                       Purchased Hot Water                      1000 BTU
                       Purchased Chilled Water                  1000 BTU
                                                                Ton Hours
                       Water                                    kGal
                       Oil                                      US Gal
                                                                Imp. Gal
                                                                Liters
                       Propane                                  US Gal
                                                                Imp. Gal
                                                                Liters
                       Other                                    (Define units')




Serves More Than 5% of Total                   Energy Type (from above)

                                     Primary                     Secondary
Heating Fuel
Cooling Fuel
Domestic Water Heating Fuel
Kitchen Cooking Equipment
Laundry Equipment
Other Processing Equipment



                                               1-8
                                                                                APPENDIX!
     ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES                        PRttmMRYMRGYUSEaNDWM-THROUGHDm


                       Metered Consumption for Meter #

                                        Fuel Type

METERING PERIOD        CONSUMP-        "E"IF            ELECTRICITY ONLY                   COST 6 - 7
DAY/MONTH/YEAR         TION            ESTIMATE
                                                       kW              kW
                           Unitss                      kVA                      Consump-    Demand $    TotalS
To        # of days                                      Measured      Billed    tions
                                                         Demand       Demand




                                         h




      TA*O1



         UtiHty Conlpany
         Applicable Rate
         Schedule IS umber




     5
       CCF, therms, kWh, gal, etc.
     6
       Costs should include tax, fees, contract charges, etc.
     7
       If other than SUS currency, enter exchange rate on page 1-6.

                                                        1-9
                                                                                           APPENDIX I
ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

                               Delivered Consumption for Fuel


      DELIVERY        DELIVERY         TOTAL                               ENERGY
        DATE          AMOUNT           COST7                        TYPE                UNITS
0                                                                  OIL#l                US GAL
1                                                                  OIL #2               IMP GAL
                                                                   OIL#4                LITERS
2
                                                                   OIL#5L
3                                                                  OIL #6
4
                                                                   PROPANE

5                                                                  COAL               ;TONS

6                                                                  OTHER                (DEFINE
7                                                                                        UNITS)

S
                                                           SERVES MORE THAN 5% OF:
9
10                                                         Heating Fuel
                                                           Cooling Fuel
 1!
                                                           Electric Generator Fuel
12                                                         Domestic Hot Water Fuel
13                                                         Kitchen Equipment
                                                           Laundry Equipment
14
                                                           Other Processing Equipment
15
16                                                         INVENTORY:
                                                           AT DATE 0                            (A)
 17
IS                                                         INVENTORY:
                                                           365 DAYS AFTER DATE 0 .                (B)
19
                                                           USE OF INVENTORY (A-B) _
20                                                         COST OF INVENTORY USED_            _(D)
USE OF                          c              D           (C)x LATEST PRICE
INVENTORY

TOTAL
CONSUMPTION


7
    If other than $US currency, enter exchange rate on page 1-6.

                                                    1-10
                                                                                    APPENDIX I
 ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES                            PREUMINARYENERGYUSEANDWALK-THROUGHDATA


                                            WALK-THROUGH DATA
                                       Space Function Analysis

 Bunding ID.

SPACE                  A           B             C            D            E        F         UNACCOUNTED
NUMBER8

FUNCTION
TYPE9

CONDITIONED
AREA.SF

USAGEFOR
SPACE10
HRS/WK

WKS/YR

PRINCIPAL
LIGHTING
TYPE

PRINCIPAL
TERMINAL
HVAC TYPE


 Function Tvpe                            Stair                                Atrium (Multi-Story)
                                            11 Active Traffic                    23 First 3 Floors
 Auditorium                                 12 Emergency Exit                    24 Each Additional Floor
   1 Auditorium
                                          Toilet and Washroom                  Locker Room and Shower
 Corridor                                   13 Toilet and Washroom               25 Locker Room and Shower
   2 Corridor
                                          Garage                               Offices (Partitions > 4.5 ft below
 Classroom/Lecture Hall                     14 Auto and Pedestrian             ceiling) Enclosed offices, all open
   3 Classroom/Lecture Hall                    Circulation                     plan offices without partitions or
                                            15 Parking Area                    with partitions lower than 4.5 ft
 Electrical/Mechanical Equipment                                               below the ceiling.
  Room                                    Laboratory                             26 Reading, Typing & Filing
   4 General                                16 Laboratory                        27 Drafting
   5 Control Room                                                                28 Accounting
                                          Library
 FoodService                                17 Audio Visual                    Offices (Partitions 3.5 - 4.5 ft
   6 Fast Food/Cafeteria                    18 Stack Area                      below2ceiling) Open plan offices
   7 Leisure Dining                         19 Card Filing & Cataloguing       900 ft or larger with partitions
   8 Bar/Lounge                             20 Reading Area                    3.5 to 4.5 ft below the ceiling.
   9 Kitchen                                                                     29 Reading, Typing & Filing
                                          Lobby (General)                        30 Drafting
 Recreation/Lounge                          21 Reception and Waiting             31 Accounting
   10 Recreational/Lounge                   22 Elevator Lobbies




    8
        Separate Zones with at least 10% of conditioned space.
    9
        Major Space Function Types
   10
        See detailed Usage Schedule, page 1-13


                                                       1-11
                                                                                MPPEHDOtl
ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES                          PREUMINWEHERGYUSEAHDmLK-THROUGHDJITA

Offices (Partitions <3.5 ft below     Surgery &O.B. Suites                Bowling
ceiling) Open plan offices 900 ft2      75 General Area                    113 Approach Area
or larger with partitions higher        76 Operating Room                  114 Lanes
than 3.5 ft below the ceiling.          77 Recovery
Offices less than 900 ft2 shall use                                       Boxing/Wrestling (Platform)
types 26,27, or 28.                   Hotel/Conference Center              115 Amateur
                                       78 Banquet/Multipurpose             116 Professional
Common Activity Areas                       Room
  35 Conference/Meeting Room           79 Bathroom/Powder Room            Gymnasium
  36 Computer/Office                   80 Guest Room                       117 General Exercise &
     Equipment                         81 Public Area                         Recreation
  37 Inactive Filing                   82 Exhibition hall
  38 Mail Room                         83 Conference/Meeting              Handball/Racquetball/Squash
                                       84 Lobby                            118 Club
Shop (Non-Industrial)                  85 Reception Desk                   119 Tournament
  39 Machinery
  40 Electrical/Electronic            Laundry                             Ice Hockey
  41 Painting                           86 Washing                         120 Amateur
  42 Carpentry                          87 Ironing & Sorting               121 College/Professional
  43 Welding
                                      Museum & Gallery                    Skating Rink
Storage & Warehouse                    88 General Exhibition               122 Recreational
  44 Inactive Storage                  89 Inspection/Restoration           123 Exhibition/Professional
  45 Bulky Active Storage              90 Inactive Artifacts Storage
  46 Fine Active Storage               91 Active Artifacts Storage        Swimming
  47 Material Handling                                                     124 Recreational
                                      Post Office                          125 Exhibition
Unlisted Space                          92 Lobby                           126 Underwater
 48 Unlisted Space                     93 Sorting & Mailing
                                                                          Tennis
Airport, Bus & Rail Station           Service Station/Auto Repair          127 Recreational (Class ffl)
  49 Baggage Area                      94 Service Station                  128 Club/College (Class H)
  50 Concourse/Main Thruway                                                129 Professional (Class I)
  51 Ticket Counter                   Theater
  52 Waiting & Lounge Area             95 Performance Arts                Table Tennis
                                       96 Motion Picture                   130 Club
Bank                                   97 Lobby                            131 Tournament
  53 Customer Area
  54 Banking Activity Area            Retail Establishments
                                      (Merchandising & Circulation        HVAC Types
Barber & Beauty Parlor                Area) Applicable to all lighting,   (from page 1-16)
  55 Barber & Beauty Parlor           including accent and display
                                      lighting, installed in              30 Single Zone
Church, Synagogue, Chapel             merchandising and circulation       31MuItiZone
  56 Worship/Congregational           areas.                              32 Dual Duct
  57 Preaching & Sermon/Choir            98 Type A (Mass                  33 Variable Air Volume
                                            Merchandising)                34 Reheat Coils
Dormitory                                99 Type B (Service Retail)       35 Fan Coil Units
  58 Bedroom                            100 Type C (Mixed Use Retail)     36 Electric Resistance
  59 Bedroom with Study                 101 Type D (Specialty Shop)       37 Packaged Terminal Air
 60 Study Hall                          102 Type E (Fine Merchandise)        Conditioner
                                       103 Type F (Service                38 Economizer
Fire & Police Department                    Establishment)                39 Steam/Hot Water Radiator/
  61 Fire Engine Room                   104 Mall Concourse                   Convector
  62 Jail Cell
                                      Retail Support                      Lighting Types
Hospital/Nursing Home                  105 Tailoring
 63 Corridor                           106 Dressing/Fitting Rooms         1 Fluorescent
 64 Dental Suite/Exam/                                                    2 Incandescent
    Treatment                         All Sports                          3 Mercury Vapor
 65 Emergency                          107 Seating Area                   4 Sodium
 66 Laboratory                                                            5 Metal Halide
 67 Lounge/Waiting Room               Badminton                           6 Other
 68 Medical Supphes                    108 Club
 69 Nursery                            109 Tournament
 70 Nurse Station
 71 Occiu/Physical Therapy            Basketball/Volleyball
 72 Patient Room                       110 Intramural
 73 Pharmacy                           111 College
 74 Radiology                          112 Professional


                                                    1-12
                                                          APPENDIX I
ENERGY AHHIYSIS PROCEDURES          mUMimYmBBYBSEAHOWUMTHHOUBHam

                            Detailed Usage Schedule

                                       (OPTIONAL)


                        Usage Schedule for Major Space Types


Space Type
                Schedule during months of

Days                       M       T        W      Th   F      Sat   Sun   Hoi
Hour Open
Hour Close
Peak no. of employees
Avg. no. of employees
Peak no. of customers
Avg. no. of customers



               Schedule during months of

Days                       M       T        W      Th   F      Sat   Sun   Hoi
Hour Open
Hour Close
Peak no. of employees
Avg. no. of employees
Peak no. of customers
Avg. no. of customers




                                            1-13
                                                                                    APPENDIXI
ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES                      PBEUMIMABYENERGY USE AMD        WmiUBOOGBDATA
                     mmsaai

                                        Building Data
GROSS CONDITIONED AREA

Gross Heated Only                           ;                       sq.ft.
Gross Cooled Only                                                   sq.ft.
Gross Heated and Cooled                 .                           sq.ft.




BUILDING SHELL CHARACTERISTICS

Total Exposed Above Grade Wall Area (sf)                            Insulated? Y/N

Glazing area (% of exposed wall area)                               Insulated? Y/N

Roof area (sf)                                                      Insulated? Y/N

Floor surface area exposed to outdoor conditions (sf)      .        Insulated? Y/N

Above grade wall area common with other
             conditioned building (sf)



OPERATION & MAINTENANCE

Discuss/describe operation and maintenance procedures pertaining to building energy efficiency or
longevity.




                                                1-14
                                                                    UPPEMDIKI
ENERGY AHAIYSIS PROCEDURES                     PBWmmYaimYUStmwUK-nHOUBHDm

                                   Lighting Systems Data



Average installed load including ballast in more than 51 %                          w/sq.ft.
               of occupied space

Switched Accessible to more than 51% of occupants       Y/N?

Special Automatic Controls                              Y/N?




             Major Lighting Types
              1 = Fluorescent
              2 = Incandescent
              3 = Mercury Vapor                                % of Occupied Area
              4 = Sodium
              5=MetalHalide
              6 = Other
.




                                              1-15
                                                                                       APPENDIX I
ENERGY ANAIYSIS PROCEDURES

           Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning System Data
Check all that apply in a significant way (affect > 5% offloorarea or energy consumption)
Primary Cooling
    10 Centrifugal Chiller                              36 Electric Resistance            [1]
    11 Reciprocating Chiller    •                       37 Packaged Terminal Air
    12 Screw Chiller                                       Conditioner
    13 Absorption Chiller                               38 Economizer
    14 Cooling Tower                                    39 Steam/Hot Water Radiator/
    15 Package DX                                          Convector
    16 Split DX
                                                     Other
Primary Heating                                         50 Cogeneration                  [ ]
   20 Hot Water Boiler                                  51 Energy Monitoring and
   21 Steam Boiler                                         Control System
   22 Furnace                                           52 On-site Generation
   23 Ground Source Heat Pump                           53 Active Solar Equipment
   24 Air Source Heat Pump                              54 Energy Recovery
                                                        55 Thermal Storage
AHU/Terminal Systems                                    56 Humidifiers/Dehumidifiers
  30 Single Zone                                        57 Dessicant System
  31 Mufti Zone                                         58 Evaporative Cooling
  32 Dual Duct                                          59 Other
  33 Variable Air Volume                                   Define
  34 Reheat Coils
  35 Fan Coil Units




                                       Special Loads
Significant Energy Requirements not normally associated with this building type (for example:
unconditioned Parking Garage Lighting, Ventilation, Outdoor Heated Pool, Snow Melting,
Extensive Outdoor Lighting, Process)

         Describe              Peak Load      Avg. Load      Operating      Period      Meter
                               kW   kBTU     kW      kBTU     Hrs/Wk       Wks/Yr      Number
                                     /hr              /hr




                                              1-16
                                     APPENDIX II

                       ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

                BUILDING AND SYSTEMS INFORMATION


                                  Table of Contents


Preface                                               n-2

Envelope Characteristics                              II-3

Lighting System Characteristics                       II-4

HVAC Systems Characteristics                          II-5

Inventory of Major HVAC Equipment                     II-6

Domestic Hot Water Characteristics                    II-7

Other Systems Characteristics                         II-8




                                         n-i
                                                                                  APPENDIXII
ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES    MMMMMMIMMMM^
                                                            BUIIDINBAMD SYSTEMS INFORMATWH


                                             Preface

The forms in this section are intended to provide general guidance in preparing a report on the
analysis of the building and its systems. It is not uncommon for thefinalreport to be disseminated
to and used by people with a wide variety of interests, including finance, management, operation,
maintenance, and engineering. Therefore, within practical constraints of time and budget, the
analyst is encouraged to be as thorough and clear as possible in collecting and presenting the
measured data and the descriptions thereof.




                                               H-2
                                                                                      OPPEMDUII
ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES                                           BUIUUNBMDSYSTBHStHHUUUTIM
mmummmmuumauuMmm         lllllllllllllllNIHini«




                                  Envelope Characteristics

Building ID.

Date of Audit           Month                           Year



               Construction                   RValue         Glass Shading         Area (sq.ft.)
                  Code                                        Coefficient




                     (Include miniature building floor plan, showing orientation)


Construction Type Codes


Walls                                                   Roofs
WO = Other                                              R0 = Other
Wl=Wood                                                 Rl = Concrete Deck
W2 = Masonry                                            R2 = WoodDeck
W3 = Concrete, Above Grade                              R3 = MetalDeck
W4 = Concrete, Below Grade
W5= Metal                                               Windows
W6 = Stone                                               Sash Type
W7 = Glass                                               GO = Other
W8 = Adjacent Building                                  Fixed, Wood Sash:
                                                            Gl 1 = Single Glaze   G21 = Double Glaze
Doors                                                   Operable, Wood Sash:
DO = Other                                                  G12 = Single Glaze    G22 = Double Glaze
Dl = Solid Wood                                         Fixed, Metal Sash:
D2 = Hollow Wood                                            G13 = Single Glaze    G23 = Double Glaze
D3 = Uninsulated Metal                                   Operable, Metal Sash:
D4 = Metal, Insulated Core                                  G14 = Single Glaze    G24 = Double Glaze
D5 = Glass (<85%)




                                                       n-3
                                                                                APPiNOUU
ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES                                  BUIIDINGANDSYSTEMSINFORMATWH
                                                                                         mmmrmttm



                     Lighting System Characteristics


     Describe in detail, include typical ceiling plans. Utilize space function format.
     (Refer to page 1-11)
        Typical watts/sq.ft.       • Operating schedules
        Types of controls          • Operating and maintenance problems
        Typical watts/sq.ft. Installed, by type of light source (Refer to page 1-15)
        Light levels, footcandles (fc), 3 feet abovefloor,without daylight
        % of lamps not functioning




                                             H-4
                                                                             MPPEMDUU
ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES                               BUIIDINGANDSYSTIMSINFOBMRWH
                                                                                       BSSffl




                     HVAC System Characteristics


     Describe in detail, includingfloorplans sketches.
                                           and

     •   Fuel Source                      •    Control Description and Setting
     •   Fuel Conversion Equipment        •    Operating Periods
     •   Distribution Method              •    Space Temperature Setting and Setback
     •   Terminal Type                    •    Operating and Maintenance Problems
     •   Equipment Capacity




Heating System




Cooling System




                                         n-5
                                                                                      jwpaauu
ENERGY AHAIYSIS PROCEDURES                                  BUILDIHG WD SYSTEMS IHFOHMATWH


                    Inventory of Major HVAC                   Equipment

This table format is intended as a guide. The information collected on systems need not be
restricted to the format or categories below.


 Designation     Location      Model/     Size    Capacity Serves     Operating      Remark
                               Type                                   Hours/Yr.




                                                 n-6
                                                    appifinuii
ENERGY AKflLYSIS PROCEDURES
mmmmmmmammmmzmmmmmmammmm                            ssssss



           Domestic Hot Water System Characteristics


       Describe in detail

       •   Fuel Source        •    Distribution
       •   Storage            •    Hours Required
       •   Hours Operated




Domestic Hot Water System




                                  n-7
                                                                                     MPPimuu
ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES                                 BUIIDIHBAND SYSTEMSINFORMATION



                         Other System Characteristics

Describe in detail, include schematics as needed. Include any operating and maintenance
problems.


Laundry




Food Preparation




Conveying System (Elevators, etc.)




Other




                                              n-8
                                     APPENDIX III

                     ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

  ENERGY ANALYSIS SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

                                  Table of Contents

Preface                                                                              DI-2

Energy Analysis Summary                                                              ni-3

Recommended Energy Conservation Measures                                             III-4

Components of Annual Energy Use                                                      DI-5




                                                      sgTOwgscwwgMwggcw^gg^igtggggjggg^gegg^g^ggjggg^


                                         m-i
ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES                 EHEBGYAN/UYSIS SUMMARY AND RECOMMEHDATIONS




                                        Preface

The forms in this section are intended to report the results of the calculations and
recommendations of the analyst. The forms provide a breakdown of energy use and cost by
system components as well as recommendations for modifications. System interaction must be
properly accounted for when combining more than one modification. The economics of each
modification may vary, depending upon the order in which they are accomplished.




                                            m-2
                                                                              APPENDUIU
ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES                      ENERGY ANALYSIS SUMMARY ANDRECOMMENDATIONS



                            Energy Analysis Summary

Building ID

Date of Audit          Month                              Year



                                                        KBTU/SQ.   $/SQ.FT./YR.   $/YR.
                                                        FT./YR.
 Actual Use                                       A
 Target1                                          B
 "Technical" Potential Savings                    C
                                               (A-B)
 SavingsfromMeasures Recommended                  D
 for Implementation (see attached)
 Remaining Technical Potential Savings             E
 to be Defined                                 (C-D)
 Realistically Achievable Potential               F
 Savings still to be Defined
 Total Achievable Savings
                                               (D+F)

Cost of Next Stage in Analysis                            $         (G)

Cost of Measures Recommended (D)                          $         (H)

Cost to Implement Potential Savings Still to
be Defined                                                $         (±    %)(I)

Total Implementation Cost (G+H+I)                         $




 1
     Source:


                                                ffl-3
                                                                         RPPEMDIXin
ENERGY ANM.YSIS PBOCEDURES          BEmMmmimmmmuemmmmm


         Recommended Energy Conservation Measures



Measure Description   Energy    Units     $/Yr.   Implement-    Extra      Simple
                      Type(s)   Saved     Saved    ation Cost   Oper +    Payback
                                                                Maint      (Yrs.)
                                                                 Cost
 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Total




                                        m-4
                                                                                  APPENDIXIII
  ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES                     ENERGY ANALYSIS SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
             3SE2SSSS3E53S&S3S&3




                          Components of Annual Energy Usage


                            Electricity   Fuel   Other   Total   % of Total   Total   % of Total
                         kWh 1 kBTU kBTU         kBTU    kBTU      Usage      Cost      Cost
Space Heating
Space Cooling
Fans
Pumps
DHW Generator
Lighting
 Within
 Conditioned Area.
 Outside
 Conditioned Area
Other
 Receptacles
 Kitchen
 Laundry
 Central
Computer
 Conveyance
Laboratory
Equipment
Other (describe)
Unaccounted
TOTAL
  See fuel conversion factors page 1-7.




                                                 m-5
       APPENDIX C

LIST OF BUILDINGS ANALYZED
Building id   City             State Gross area    Heating Fuel   Build Type             Energy Cost ($/sq ft/yr)   Energy Use (kBTU/sq ft/yr)
NE01          Syracuse         NY         73760    Natural Gas    Education:Primary               $0.76                       97.65
NE02          Oswego           NY         29756    Natural Gas    Office                          $2.16                      126.36
NE03          Oswego           NY         17600    Oil #2         Office                          $0.79                      128.84
NE04          Alexandria Bay   NY         31092    Oil #2         Heath:Hospital                  $2.58                      222.27
NE05          Syracuse         NY        138700    Natural Gas    Heath.Nursing Home              $1.81                      201.83
NE06          Watertown        NY         30680    Natural Gas    Education:Primary               $0.50                       55.95
NE07          Beaver Falls     NY          7200    Oil #2         Asnr.Church/Synagogu            $0.23                       30.77
NE08          Watertwon        NY         38500    Natural Gas    AptrOther                       $0.42                       63.98
NE09          Albany           NY         25830    Oil #2         AsmrOther                       $0.59                       92.68
NE10          Harris           NY        250000    Oil #6         Heath:Hospital                  $2.04                      367.28
NE11          Johnstown        NY         60635    Natural Gas    Office                          $0.58                       80.37
NE12          Albany           NY        330000    Oil #2         Education.Secondary             $1.74                      161.17
NE13          Napanoch         NY         48600    Oil #6         OthenJai!                       $2.41                      430.28
NE14          Albany           NY         43183    Steam          Education:Other                 $1.83                      262.43
NE15          Albany           NY         43847    Oil #6         Asm:Arena/Rink                  $0.27                       63.14
NE16          Albany           NY         27816    Oil #6         Asm:Arena/Gym                   $0.38                      119.27
NE17          Albany           NY         83110    Oil #6         OthenTransport Term             $1.95                      396.41
NE18          Albany           NY         53800    Natural Gas    RetailiGeneral Mse              $1.24                       63.18
NE19          Albany           NY         66700    Natural Gas    Lodging:Motel                   $1.63                      149.76
NE20          Albany           NY         50832    Natural Gas    Retail: Other                   $1.71                      111.49
NE21          Albany           NY         29388    Electricity    Health:Clinic                   $2.49                      119.30
NE22          Albany           NY         10555    Natural Gas    Food:Restaurant                 $6.67                      452.05
NE23          Syracuse         NY         41378    Natural Gas    Asm:Churcn/Synagogu             $0.79                       84.69
NE24          Syracuse         NY         20000    Natural Gas    Office                          $2.30                      152.97
NE25          Syracuse         NY          6000    Electricity    Office                          $1.19                       28.70
NW01          IDAHO FALLS      ID           3627   Natural Gas    Food:Fast Food                  $2.05                      311.08
NW02          IDAHO FALLS      ID         27720    Natural Gas    Retail:Supermarket              $2.63                      285.81
NW03          IDAHO FALLS      ID           5776   Electricity    RetailiGeneral Mse              $1.26                      107.07
NW04          IDAHO FALLS      ID         21600    Natural Gas    Food:Restaurant                 $2.69                      379.49
NW05          IDAHO FALLS      ID           4019   Natural Gas    Food:Restaurant                 $6.17                      878.42
NW06          IDAHO FALLS      ID           2570   Electricity    Food:Fast Food                  $3.34                      354.49
NW07          IDAHO FALLS      CA         38064    Electricity    Office                          $0.40                       34.28
NW08          IDAHO FALLS      ID           8000   Electricity    Office                          $1.42                      123.00
NW09          IDAHO FALLS      ID           9858   Electricity    Office                          $0.58                       41.99
NW10          IDAHO FALLS      ID         11700    Electricity    Health:Clinic                   $0.97                       74.28
NW11          IDAHO FALLS      ID           2400   Natural Gas    Health:Other                    $0.36                       29.67
NW12          Vancouver        BC        213706    Natural Gas    Heatrr.Hospital                 $0.92                      133.86
NW13          Richmond         BC       1006000    Natural Gas    OthenOther                      $1.80                      254.29
NW14          Port Coqultlam   BC         74136    Natural Gas    Education:Secondary             $0.80                      109.66
NW15          Vancouver        BC        110000    Natural Gas    AsrruTheatre                    $1.37                      143.59
Building id   City          State   Gross area   Heating Fuel   Build Type             Energy Cost ($/sq ft/yr)   Energy Use (kBTU/sq ft/yr)
NW16          Bumaby        BC           33000   Natural Gas    Office                          $1.08                      108.59
NW17          Kamloops      BC           48700   Natural Gas    Office                          $1.19                      109.47
NW18          Vancouver     BC            5250   Natural Gas    Retail: Other                   $1.66                      124.37
NW19          Vancouver     BC          225700   Electricity    Lodging:Hotel                   $0.79                      109.82
NW20          Vancouver     BC          116400   Natural Gas    Lodging:Hotel                   $0.36                       31.84
NW21          Richmond      BC          110000   Natural Gas    Office                          $1.19                       99.59
NW22          Vancouver     BC          273000   Natural Gas    Office                          $1.09                       97.28
NW23          Vancouver     BC          113000   Electricity    Office                         $1.50                       115.83
NW24          Vancouver     BC           50000   Natural Gas    Office                         $1.25                       113.52
NW25          Vancouver     BC          106000   Natural Gas    Office                          $0.95                       86.31
SW01          RIVERSIDE     CA           54400   Electricity    Education-Primary               $0.68                       22.04
SW02          RIVERSIDE     CA           61500   Natural Gas    Education:University            $2.30                      130.99
SW03          RIVERSIDE     CA           17775   Natural Gas    Education:Secondary             $0.93                       49.60
SW04          RIVERSIDE     CA          192400   Steam          Retail:General Mse              $1.04                       41.76
SW05          RIVERSIDE     CA          197800   None           Retail:General Mse              $1.21                       43.80
SW06          RIVERSIDE     CA          113300   Natural Gas    Education:Secondary             $1.51                       59.14
SW07          RIVERSIDE     CA           53000   Natural Gas    Education:Primary               $0.95                       39.09
SW08          RIVERSIDE     CA           30700   Natural Gas    Office                         $11.47                      441.42
SW09          RIVERSIDE     CA          383100   Natural Gas    Heath:Hospital                  $2.83                      181.62
SW10          LAJOLLA       CA            4270   Natural Gas    FoodrRestaurant                 $5.97                      506.93
SW11          ENCINITAS     CA            3650   Electricity    Health:Other                    $1.21                       65.94
SW12          SAN DIEGO     CA            3264   Natural Gas    Food:Other                      $4.06                      406.80
SW13          SAN DIEGO     CA            2728   Natural Gas    Retail: Other                   $5.26                      209.91
SW14          CHULA VISTA   CA            2188   Natural Gas    Food:Fast Food                 $11.46                      618.47
SW15          ESCONDIDO     CA            2049   Natural Gas    Office                          $1.09                       43.88
SW16          EL CAJON      CA           10828   Natural Gas    Retail:Supermarket              $2.89                      139.05
SW17          CHULA VISTA   CA           11040   Electricity    Office                          $0.58                       75.68
SW18          LA MESA       CA           15612   Natural Gas    Office                          $1.36                       73.01
SW19          SAN DIEGO     CA           19950   Natural Gas    Health:Other                    $2.02                      120.63
SW20          CARLSBAD      CA           20678   Electricity    Office                          $2.74                      105.34
SW21          SAN DIEGO     CA           21018   Natural Gas    Retail: Other                   $1.32                       54.58
SW22          SAN DIEGO.    CA           16800   Natural Gas    Office                          $0.97                       47.59
SW23          SAN DIEGO     CA           35884   Electricity    Office                          $0.83                       37.47
SW24          SAN DIEGO     CA           33060   Natural Gas    Health:Clinic                   $1.49                       74.48
SW25          SAN MARCOS    CA          111128   Natural Gas    OthenWhse Refrig                $0.94                       38.11
se01          La Grange     NC           64500   Oil #2         Heath:Nursing Home              $1.69                      110.24
se02          Lenoir        NC           31600   Electricity    Office                          $0.00                      161.25
se03          Asheville     NC          120000   Electricity    Education:Other                 $1.42                       71.74
se04          Cornelius     NC           43000   Electricity    Lodging:Hotel                  $0.60                        42.69
se05          Columbia      SC           71580   Natural Gas    Office                          $1.58                       89.27
Building id   Citv             State Gross area   Heating Fuel   Build Type             Energy Cost ($/sq ft/yr)   Energy Use (kBTU/sq ft/yr)
se06          Bluefield        WV         62892   Natural Gas    Office                         $2.02                       198.68
se07          Alexandria       VA         57093   Natural Gas    OtherrOther                    $1.05                       64.01
se08          Rodanthe         NC          6500   Electricity    Retail:Supermarket             $0.32                        12.56
se09          Lenoir           NC         46000   Electricity    OtherOther                     $2.05                       110.05
se10          Hickory          NC        365461   Natural Gas    Heath:HospitaI                 $2.26                       317.78
sell          Statesville      NC         15700   Natural Gas    Asm:Other                      $3.44                       265.47
se12          Davidson         NC         32960   Electricity    RetaiLSupermarket              $3.30                       197.00
se13          Atlantic Beach   NC         34000   Oil #2         Asm:Other                      $1.55                        74.37
se14          Elon College     NC         73000   Natural Gas    Education:University           $1.10                       100.86
se15          Homestead        FL         23314   Oil #2         Asm:Other                      $3.31                       194.05
se16          Cullowhee        NC         81785   Oil #6         AptrOther                      $0.60                       127.81
se17          Misenheimer      NC         13047   Electricity    Asnr.Church/Synagogu           $0.61                        7.60
se18          Sparta           NC          3700   Propane        Food:Fast Food                 $7.89                       496.48
se19          Cornelius        NC          7900   Electricity    Retail:General Mse             $0.76                       40.44
se20          Banner Elk       NC         86887   Oil #2         Heath:Hospital                 $2.13                       274.78
se21          Shallotte        NC          7425   Electricity    Food:Restaurant                $3.09                       102.05
se22          Lexington        NC         23490   Oil #2         Retail:Shopping Mall           $1.97                       106.11
se23          Jacksonville     NC         98000   Electricity    Retail.-General Mse            $1.33                        63.73
se24          Burgaw           NC         27556   Oil #2         Education-Primary              $1.06                        99.82
se25          Durham           NC        116214   Coal           Heath:Hospital                 $3.78                       255.58
     APPENDIX D

COMMENTS BY AUDITORS
            PRELIMINARY COMMENTS ON ASHRAE ENERGY AUDIT FORM

                                 Jerome Hay and Mohd Mateen
                                    SUD ASSOCIATES, P.A.

GENERAL COMMENTS

1.    The energy audit form takes about four to five man hours to fill out the complete information.
      Most of the information collected during the energy audit and during the development of energy
      conservation measures are included in the form. Therefore this form can be modified in the
      form of an energy audit report to avoid repetition of work.

2.    The form in its present size is too big to be used in a database. The contents of the present
      form have to be reduced so that it can be used in the database. From this form, the part for
      the database has to be separated from the energy audit report.

3.    The energy audit form has extensive information on the present energy usage but very less
      information on energy conservation measures. Expect for brief title of the energy conservation
      measures, description of these measures are not given any where in the report.

4.    As a part of energy usage, the average price of different fuels used is not available in the
      report. Enough information is available in the report about the fuel usage to calculate the
      average prices of different fuels used. But the actual price of different fuels as charged by the
      fuel suppliers is not available in the form.

5.    At most places in the form, the units to be reported are not mentioned and are sometimes
      confusing. The use of MBTU and KBTU within the same form is confusing. MBTU is often
      used for 1000 BTU in the industry, so its use here should be clarified or eliminated.

6.    A comprehensive guide has to be provided in filling out these forms. The present guide
      accompanying the energy audit form does not provide clear understanding as to what is needed
      in the forms. The problems that were encountered while completing the form are discussed in
      the accompanying section.


PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE ANALYSIS

PAGE I-3

1.    Is the time period mentioned for the building same as that of electricity usage period.

2.    While describing the location of the building, the state in which the building is located should be
      mentioned.

3.    In order to compare and normalize data from around the country, more information on location
      and weather conditions may be necessary. Heating and Cooling Degree Days may be
      satisfactory. Average and extreme temperatures, humidities, and insolation would be nice, but
      probably excessive at this level.

4.    Another way of classifying building type is by the use of SIC numbers. These codes describe in
      detail the building operation.
PAGE 1-7

1.    Oil as fuel source is not mentioned. Comment has to be made that only primary fuel has be
      reported as energy source for heating/cooling/DHW/etc.

PAGE I-8

1.    Space has to be provided for writing units below the consumption. After the units, the number
      for note 1 should be printed.

2.    The average price of the fuel should be calculated and the price of the fuel as given by the
      utility company be reported.

PAGE I-9

1.    In case this page is used, a note should be written whether the total consumption was
      estimated or from actual bills.


WALK-THROUGH DATA

PAGE MO

1.    It is not clear why there are two columns of space function types and if there is any intended
      difference between the two.

2.    The space function types should be numbered to simplify input into the table. Do these types
      has to be from the table below.

3.    Thirty space function types are mentioned in the table. The first column has 30 entries, the
      second has 9. What is intended?

4.    What is the source of these space types? Perhaps they should be standardized with ASHRAE
      Standard 90.1-1989, which identifies space types primarily with lighting density characteristics in
      mind.

5.    Would a motel room be considered "sleeping", "living area", have a specific space type for it?

6.    It may be more instructive for normalizing the data to have space type floor areas broken down
      by percent of total instead of SF. It may be helpful to have both.

7.    There should be separate rows for conditioned and unconditioned floor areas within the space
      function type. Is the definition of conditioned area same as given on page I-3.

8.    Optional information for HVAC and lighting should either be put into tabular form here, or left
      until the more thorough sections in Section II. The format presented on this page is confusing
      and would be difficult to input into a database in a meaningful way. For the lighting, the types
      or only the w/sq. ft. for each space be reported.

PAGE 1-11

1.    Not clear what top chart and bottom chart should represent, with the top one stating "Optional
      Usage Schedule". If used by space type, then the preliminary schedule on I-4 is redundant.
      This detailed level of information is not normally recorded for low level 2 analysis.
PAGE 1-13

1.     Perhaps this information should be incorporated into a Space Function type of format, similar to,
       or included with, sheet 1-10. This way lighting for each space type could be compared with the
       criteria set up in Standard 90.1-1989, particularly if the Space Function format is the same as in
       90.1-1989.


PAGE 1-14

1.     Doesn't include DX cooling, either split or packaged. Also doesn't include split heat pump. In
       case all the system names cannot be mentioned, then space can be provided to enter type of
       the system.


BUILDING SYSTEMS AND INFORMATION

PAGE II-3

1.     Wall areas not always available for low level II analysis.


PAGE II-6

1.     Not enough space in chart, as presented, to write requested information.

2.     The model should include manufacturer's name, model number and serial number. Explanation
       is needed for describe the size and capacity of the equipment. Should have space to report
       units used.


PAGE II-8


1.     Should include space for Exhaust Systems.


ENERGY ANALYSIS SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS


PAGE IH-3
1.     What is the difference between "cost of measures recommended" and "cost to implement"?
       Inconsistent labeling of blanks with letters. Perhaps it should state "Cost to Implement
       Realistically Achievable Potential Savings Still to Be Defined (F)", with its corresponding blank
       on the right being labeled (I).

2.    What should units for "Realistically Achievable Potential Savings and Possible Range" be? It
      should be shown on form to provide for consistent results.

3.     Instead of "Total Remaining Implementation Cost", it should simply state "Total Implementation
       Cost".
PAGE 111-4

1.     Need more room for reporting of savings of more than one fuel in a single measure along with
       space to input units. In case there are more than six modifications, similar table is needed
       below.

2.     Some energy conservation modifications results in extra usage of certain fuel. These usage
       should be shown.

PAGE III-5

1.     In the component of electricity usage, kwh should be reported as the unit.
               PRELIMINARY COMMENTS ON ASHRAE ENERGY AUDIT FORM

                                            Ish Sud
                                        SUD ASSOCIATES

PREUMINARY ENERGY USE ANALYSIS

Page No.

1-3 (a)      Primary year of construction may not be available for older buildings that have
             undergone several additions and renovations. Perhaps an option to provide a range
             should be available.

1-4 (a)      What is meant by the term "Optional Usage Schedule" above the first table?

1-4 (b)      The instructions should specify if the hours include regular cleaning and custodial work.

I-8 (a)      Exact metering dates may not be available.


WALK-THROUGH DATA

1-10(a)      The table should be able to accommodate more than four space types. Even a modest
             building is likely to have at least four .space types (e.g., office, lobby, corridor,
             mechanical/electrical).

1-10(b)      The space names should be numbered.

1-10(c)      Provide a place to list space types not included in the list   (Other                 ).


l-12(a)      A part of the wall or glass may be insulated. Instead of Y/N, we may want to ask "%

             insulated."

1-14(a)      Need to provide space to mark a simple DX split system.

1-14(b)      Need to provide space for including systems not included in the list.   (Other             )

BUILDING SYSTEMS AND INFORMATIONS

II-3 (a) .   In addition to the "Area" column, we should provide space for"%." (This is more
             important for entering previous audits onto forms, because wall areas may not have
             been calculated.)

11-6 (a)     This table is very inadequate. It needs a major redesign.
ENERGY ANALYSIS SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATION

ill-3 (a)   This table is confusing. What should go into Line (I)? Into (+ %)?

111-4 (a)   Electrical savings should also include a space for KWD savings.

Ill—4 (b)   Some ECMs will involve more than one type of fuel. For example, lighting mods will
            save KWH and KWD while increasing the heating fuel usage.
111-4 (c)   What is the purpose of the intermediate combined effects? (e.g., combined effect of 1,
            2,3)

III-4 (d)   Need more space in each row to accommodate more than one fuel type. Also need
            rows to accommodate more than 5 ECMs.

Ill—5 (a)   Since cooling can involve electrical demand, allocating its cost may be quite involved.

Ill—5 (b)   Need to include space for electricalusage (KWH).
                 PREUMINARY COMMENTS ON AHSRAE ENERGY AUDIT RFORM

                                           Jay Parkarinen
                                       ADM ASSOCIATES, INC.


The present format of combined report guide and database entry form was confusing to me. It was
difficult to determine which information is intendent as a report instruction and which information is
intended to be entered in the database. The report guide and database entry form should be separate
documents.

The concept of energy analysis levels is good, but in the present format forces the user to input same
data in several places. Maybe this can be addressed if a separate data entry form for each analysis
level is provided.


GENERAL COMMENTS

The questions and data tables need more explanation and refinement. Also, the units to be used in
each answer should be defined. Below I have noted some problems encountered while completing the
form. Again, the major problem was to interpret each question - is for database or is this intended as
report guideline?


PREUMINARY ENERGY USE ANALYSIS

General:        Collect square footage data by heated, cooled and unconditioned area.

Page   1-3      Is the time period "19 - 19 " for billing period?
Page   I-4      How are the schedule months entered, in a list format?
Page   I-4      In the schedule table - is closed indicated by 0-0?
Page   I-4      Format of operating hours "24 hr" or "AM, PM" format?
Page   I-7      How is the table on this page used?
Page   I-7      How are dual fuels entered? Ex. kitchen equipment is 50% electric, 50% gas.
Page   I-9      Same comments as page I-7.


WALK-THROUGH DATA

Page   1-10     What is the purpose of time period "19 - 1 9 " in this section?
Page   1-10     Any function types entered as names or codes?
Page   1-10     Space type codes are referenced, but not defined.
Page   1-10     Are hours added in the total column?
Page   1-10     Where is information for lighting and HVAC entered, and how is it referenced to a
                space?

Page   1-11     How are these schedules referenced to different space areas?
Page   1-12     Is glazing insulation referring to the window frame insulation?
Page   1-13     Does occupied space refer to all non-vacant space?
Page   1-13     Lighting percentages per occupied areas is complicated to calculate. Ex. A building
                has fluorescent (25 kW) and incandescent (10KW) lighting throughout the building.
                How is this entered?
Page 1-14     Missing equipment Package DX, Evaporative Cooler, etc.


BUILDING SYSTEMS AND INFORMATION

Page   II-3   What is the purpose of time period "19 -19 " in this section?
Page   I1-4   How is the information in this section entered in the database?
Page   H-5    How is the information in this section entered in the database?
Page   II-6   Define the "Model" - is it manufacturer's model number?
Page   II-6   Is the "Size" the physical size of the unit?
Page   II-6   What are the units of capacity?
Page   il-6   Are operating hours/year full load hours or available hours?
Page   II-6   If a building has 20 3-ton units, are these entered one on each line?
Page   II-7   What is referenced by DHW distribution?
Page   II-7   Are hours reported per day or per year?
Page   II-8   Where is refrigeration, office and other common equipment described?


ENERGY ANALYSIS SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Page III—3    Unclear what is included in cost to implement.
Page III—3    Also unclear on two last items on this page.
Page III-5    Electricity should be reported in KWh on this page instead of KBTU.
           PREUMINARY COMMENTS ON ASHRAE ENERGY AUDIT FORM

                                  THE FLEMING GROUP, P.A.

PREUMINARY ENERGY USE ANALYSIS

PAGE 1-4

Buildings are typically closed for selected weeks rather than months.

PAGE 1-5

Taking information on water consumption is a good idea. It has never been in the scope of work on our
Energy Studies, so I cannot fill it out.


PAGE 1-6

The conversion factors should be incorporated into the table on Page 1-5.


ENERGY ANALYSIS SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

PAGE 111-4

                                                                                                1—
An additional column is needed for BTU savings so that they can be added up and placed on Page 11
3.
 Comments On ASHRAE Energy Audit Form and Database



 GENERAL

 In our review of the audit form, we have attempted to be as critical as possible in order to provide insight
 on possible improvements to the form. We have also attempted to provide inputfroma Canadian
 perspective.

 The comments are broken down by page number. Comments regarding the database follow.

 FORMAT

Although the design of the form is set up so that different levels of analysis can be carried out, the
drawback is that there is significant repetition throughout the audit form. Specific examples are provided
in this document. Perhaps a sectional breakdown with general, building, energy, lighting, and mechanical
would prevent this overlap.

The form seems to have multiple purposes:
1. to determine whether or not to proceed with an energy analysis
2. to provide a comparison to other buildings
3. to be used as a tool for data collection
4. to be used for reporting and executive summary
5. to be an input form for a database
6. to provide recommendations

. Given the above, the form may be trying to do too much. An alternative may be to separate the "Energy
 Audit Form"from"Energy Audit Procedures" so that the Form can be used for data entry and the
 Procedures can be used as a guide. Thefinalsection of the form incorporates elements of an "Energy
  Study" that would typically be based on an analysis of the facility and not just the audit.

Notwithstanding any of the above, our comments apply to the document in the current format. A title page
for the entire document outlining how the sectionsfittogether may be useful. At a minimum, the following
data should be shown:

                          Energy Analysis Procedures
                          Section I
                          Preliminary Energy Use
                          Walk Through Data

                          Section II
                          Building and System Information

                          Section III
                          Energy Analysis andSummary Recommendations


Prism Engineering Ltd.                                                                                          1
Comments On ASHRAE Energy Audit Form and Database


SECTION I - PRELIMINARY ENERGY USE
Page 1-3
• Provide a metric option for HDD with an 18°C base.
• We question the use of CDD as a measure of cooling requirements, especially in cooler Canadian
   climates.
• Provide a definition of conditionedfloorarea as a footnote. For example, are heated garages included
   in conditioned space?
Page 1-4
• What is the difference between "occupants" in the top part of the form and "employees, customers" in
   the usage table. These entries are repetitive.
• Average hours/week should be derived from usage table.
• 24 hour time is recommended for usage schedule.
• After hours cleaning may be an appropriate input.
Page 1-5
• Should the data be for the most recent complete year? Most recent 12 months? A base year? An
   average of 3 years?
• Add units of energy type to table.
• Adding energy costs into database for Canadian sites may be misleading because costs are in Canadian
   dollars. Database will have to differentiate currencies.
• Should costs include total billed, which will may include taxes and other municipal charges?
• Use of ekWh/ftVyr is more predominant in Canada than kBTU/ftVyr as an energy index.
• Define winter/summer months for the demand entries. How do you handle the swing seasons?
• There are too many indices. Decide on an area to use (gross or conditioned) throughout.
• The 'further analysis' question appears too early in the questionnaire. Only the obvious savings
   potential can be identified at this point and additional savings will almost always be feasible.
Page 1-6
• Add natural gas conversion for gigajoules (GJ) of 947.813.
Page 1-7
• Why not combine table with page 1-5.
• Add GJ units for natural gas.
• Keep order of energy types the same as page 1-5.
Page 1-8
• Leave line to input meter number (i.e. Meter #          ).
• Leave line to input fuel type at top of the units column.
• Should the data be for the most recent complete year, the most recent 12 months or a base year?
• # days and use per day eliminates variance in billing period.
• Our province uses power factor penalties instead of KVA and so power factor is more relevant.
• Demand and consumption cost breakdown was not available for our audits but could be derived from
   rate.
• Consider putting 2 tables of meters data per page.
• It may make more sense to put the metered data before the energy summary and/or to refer to the
   metered data sheets on the energy performance summary .



Prism Engineering Ltd.
Comments On ASHRAE Energy Audit Form and Database


SECTION I - WALK THROUGH DATA
Page 1-10
• Is this date different from audit date page 1-3 ?
• Add a row for space name (i.e. office, kitchen) instead of only function.
• ASHRAE 90.1 is categories may be too detailed (office may be a combination of 26 through 34 and
   not just one of these codes).
• Lighting information should be on page I-13 and not here.
Page 1-12
• The inputting of areas is repetitive. Could this be combined with 1-10 areas?
• The building shell data is detailed for a walk through audit. What purpose does it serve at this stage?
   A sketch of the building, surrounding buildings, and orientation may be more useful to get an
   understanding of the environment. For example, the presence of shading devices or solar film would
   seem more beneficial than the actual glaring area.
Page 1-13
• Use space codes from page 1-10.
Page 1-14
• Sections such as cooling, heating, ventilation, and controls may improve the HVAC input section.
   Lighting controls does not belong.
• Clarify the definition of special loads. Is all outside lighting special or simply large amounts?
• Are controls pneumatic, electric or DDC?

SECTION H - ENERGY ANALYSIS PROCEDURES
PageH-2
• The preface leaves the impression that this section is setting up the structure of a report. What is really
   needed is a more detailed audit, one that is more complete than the walk through conducted in section I.
   This section should have the forms required to collect the data that is needed for the energy analysis.
PageII-3
• The data is used only for simulations and in that case more detail is required so is this data relevant?
• If you want building plan, a grid on 1/2 page would be useful.
Page II-4
• This page is too general: to identify the energy saving potential of the lighting systems requires more
   detailed audit information.
• Need more than w/ft2: need to know how space light levels compare to code requirements.
• Use space type codesfromearlier.
• Lighting system characteristics collected in the audit should include:
              - luminaire description or spec of each typical fixture;
              - lighting system voltage;
              - typical wall, ceiling and floor surface colours and dimensions for redesigns.




Prism Engineering Ltd.                                                                                       3
Comments On ASHRAE Energy Audit Form and Database


PageH-5
• Many of the same commentsfrompage II-4 apply.
• Need section for ventilation and for controls.
• Equipment capacity overlaps with page II-6.
• With this lack of structure, inconsistency will occur between people completing form.
PageII-6
• Column widths are too narrow.
• For major HVAC equipment should identify drive type (constant speed or ASD), belt type (v-belt or
   synchronous) and motor type (regular, E.E.). Maybe a notes column is needed.
• Consider separate table forfens,pumps and plant equipment as different information is needed.
• Useful fen information would be: control, HP, CFM, motor efficiency, load factor, and driver/driven
   rpm.
PageH-7
• Provide more structure by numbering items and/or providing blank spaces next to or below the topic.
• How about controls? Setpoint?
• What is meant by distribution?
Pagen-8
• Usually beyond the scope of typical HVAC and lighting systems audit.
• Are these examples of special loads on page 1-14?

SECTION m - ENERGY ANALYSIS SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Pagem-3
• Actual Use isfrompage 1-5.
• How is the target determined?
• What happens if the entry for E is negative?
• Is it not clear what is meant by cost of next stage of analysis. Is this the engineering required to
   achieve implement the measures? This table is confusing and need some explanations.
• Is kBtu/frVyr be based on 'conditioned' or 'gross' area?
Pagem-4
• Operator & Maintenance may be savings and not cost (i.e. fewer lamps to replace after retrofit)
• Should also allow for possibility that one measure can save more than one energy type (i.e. natural gas
   and electricity).
• Table is oriented towards consumption savings with no input space for peak shedding measures.
• Include column for demand savings.
• More explanation of measures is required somewhere in the report.
• Table is too constraining as it now appears.
• Add % savings to summary table.
• Column to narrow for Units Saved.
PageD3-5
• Column width not adequate.
• The energy breakdown may be more suited to Section II or before the energy savings in Section HI.



Prism Engineering Ltd.                                                                                   4
Comments On ASHRAE Energy Audit Form and Database


DATABASE
Page 1-3
• Doesn't ask for "month" in input form, only in "ParadoxYViewYTable" or "Add A New Building".
• Can't add more than two upgrades.
• When you enter "99 - Other" there is no where to specify a description of "Other".
• Building Type "Fl" doesn't work.
Page 1-5
•   Can't find "Energy and Cost Indices" output.
Page 1-7
• Only Primary appears in input form. Need to go to "Paradox\View\Tables" to enter Secondary or
   "Add A New Building".
• No place to enter "GJ" and no entry for "Laundry Equipment"
Page 1-8
• Consumption for "Natural Gas" has been entered in "GJ"
• Date in database is ordered month/day/year but in the audit form it is ordered day/ month/year.
Page 1-10
• Forced to enter something in 'Tag" field.
• Doesn't ask for "Unconditioned Area" in "Add A New Building" or in database "Update", but you can .
   enter it in "ParadoxYViewYTables".
Page 1-12
• Only the 1st column of shell characteristics is only in database. Both columns are in
   "ParadoxWiewYTables" & "Add A New Building".
Page 1-13
• When asked to press "Fl" for list, it takes you to "Editing a Table" and there's no list.
• Won't allow entry at "Switch Accessible" in database. Must go into "Paradox\View\Tables" or "Add
   A New Building".
• Only accepts 1 entry per building for major lighting types.
Page 1-14
• Hand-written notes are in "ParadoxWiewYTables" only and not in the input form.
• "Packaged Heat Pumps" is not in "Add A New Building".
• Where it asks "Other" you can't enter any description.
• Incorrect unit for special loads: database uses kWh twice while audit form uses kW and KBTU.
• Asks for value in 2nd entry. Can't press enter to continue, tells you to enter a 'Value" or you can press
   "Fl" for list. There is no list.
• Will only accept 1 entry for special loads.
• After entering in "Add A New Building" the entries don't show in 'Tables". You must go into
   'Tables" and re-enter in "Edit" mode.
General
It would be easier if the database entry followed the order of the audit form. Also, it would be convenient if
the buildings were sorted numerically instead of all l's than all 2's etc... (i.e. 11 follows 1)



Prism Engineering Ltd.                                                                                       5
       APPENDIX E

SAMPLE DATABASE ANALYSES
Gross area   Heating Fuel   Build Type           Energy Cost       Energy Use         Heating       Cooling
                                                  ($/sq ft/yr)    (kBTU/sq ft/yr)   Degree Days   Degree Days
      2049   Natural Gas    Office                       $1.09              43.88      1285           150
      2188   Natural Gas    Food:Fast Food             $11.46            618.47        1285           150
      2400   Natural Gas    Health:Other                 $0.36             29.67
      2570   Electricity    Food:Fast Food               $3.34           354.49
      2728   Natural Gas    Retail: Other                $5.26           209.91        1285          150
      3264   Natural Gas    Food:Other                   $4.06           406.80        1285          150
      3627   Natural Gas    Food:Fast Food               $2.05           311.08
      3650   Electricity    HealthrOther                 $1.21              65.94      1285          150
      3700   Propane        Food:Fast Food               $7.89           496.48
      4019   Natural Gas    Food:Restaurant              $6.17           878.42
      4270   Natural Gas    Food:Restaurant              $5.97           506.93        1285          150
      5250   Natural Gas    Retail: Other                $1.66            124.37       5404          68.4
      5776   Electricity    Retail:General Mse           $1.26            107.07
      6000   Electricity    Office                       $1.19              28.70      6678          551
      6500   Electricity    Retail:Supermarket           $0.32              12.56      2682          1556
      7200   Oil #2         Asm:Church/Synagogu          $0.23              30.77      7376          455
      7425   Electricity    Food:Restaurant              $3.09           102.05        2469          1904
      7900   Electricity    Retail:General Mse           $0.76              40.44      3440          1561
      8000   Electricity    Office                       $1.42            123.00
      9858   Electricity    Office                       $0.58              41.99
     10555   Natural Gas    Food:Restaurant              $6.67           452.05        6888          654
     10828   Natural Gas    Retail:Supermarket           $2.89            139.05       1285          150
     11040   Electricity    Office                       $0.58              75.68      1285          150
     11700   Electricity    Health:Clinic                 $0.97             74.28
     13047   Electricity    AsnrChurch/Synagogu           $0.61            . 7.60      3418          1465
     15612   Natural Gas    Office                        $1.36             73.01      1285           150
     15700   Natural Gas    Asm:Other                     $3.44          265.47        3792          1265
     16800   Natural Gas    Office                        $0.97             47.59      1285           150
     17600   Oil #2         Office                        $0.79           128.84       6792          435
     17775   Natural Gas    EducationrSecondary           $0.93             49.60      2103          670
     19950   Natural Gas    Health:Other                  $2.02           120.63       1285           150
     20000   Natural Gas    Office                       $2.30            152.97       6678           551
     20678   Electricity    Office                       $2.74            105.34       1285           150
     21018   Natural Gas    Retail: Other                 $1.32             54.58      1285           150
     21600   Natural Gas    Food: Restaurant             $2.69           379.49
     23314   Oil #2         Asm:Other                     $3.31           194.05
     23490   Oil #2         Retail:Shopping Mall          $1.97           106.11       3231          1672
     25830   Oil #2         Asm:Other                     $0.59             9Z68       6888          654
     27556   Oil #2         Education:Primary             $1.06             99.82      2469          1904
     27720   Natural Gas    Retail:Supermarket            $2.63          285.81
     27816   Oil #6         Asm:Arena/Gym                 $0.38           119.27       6888          654
     29388   Electricity    Health:Clinic                 $Z49            119.30       6888          654
     29756   Natural Gas    Office                        $216            126.36       6792          435
     30680   Natural Gas    EducatJonPrimary              $0.50             55.95      7376          461
     30700   Natural Gas    Office                     $11.47            441.42        2103          670
     31092   Oil #2         Heath:Hospital                $2.58          222.27        7239          455
     31600   Electricity    Office                       $0.00            161.25       3600          1146
     32960   Electricity    Retail.Supermarket            $3.30           197.00       3440          1561
     33000   Natural Gas    Office                        $1.08           108.59       5404          68.4
     33060   Natural Gas    Heaith:Clinic                 $1.49             74.48      1285           150
     34000   Oil #2         Asm:Other                     $1.55             74.37      2513          1844
     35884   Electricity    Office                        $0.83             37.47      1285           150
     38064   Electricity    Office                        $0.40             34.28
     38500   Natural Gas    AptOther                      $0.42             63.98      7376          461
Gross area    Heating Fuel   Build Type            Energy Cost        Energy Use        Heating       Cooling
                                                    ($/sq ft/yr)    (kBTU/sq ft/yr)   Degree Days   Degree Days
    41378 .   Natural Gas    Asm:Church/Synagogu            $0.79             84.69      6678           551
    43000     Electricity    Lodging: Hotel                 $0.60             42.69      3342          1546
    43183     Steam          Education:Other                $1.83           262.43       6888           654
    43847     Oil #6         Asm:Arena/Rink                 $0.27             63.14      6888           654
    46000     Electricity    OthenOther                     $2.05           110.05       3660          1146
    48600     Oil #6         Other Jail                     $2.41           430.28       6087           622
    48700     Natural Gas    Office                         $1.19            109.47      6586           45
    50000     Natural Gas    Office                         $1.25            113.52      5404          68.4
    50832     Natural Gas    Retail: Other                  $1.71           111.49       6888           654
    53000     Natural Gas    Education:Primary              $0.95             39.09      2103           670
    53800     Natural Gas    RetailiGeneral Mse             $1.24             63.18      6888           654
    54400     Electricity    Education:Primary              $0.68             22.04      2103           670
    57093     Natural Gas    OthenOther                     $1.05             64.01
    60635     Natural Gas    Office                         $0.58             80.37      7232          420
    61500     Natural Gas    Education: University          $2.30            130.99      2103          670
    62892     Natural Gas    Office                         $2.02           198.68
    64500     Oil #2         Heath:Nursing Home             $1.69           110.24       3124          1611
    66700     Natural Gas    Lodging: Motel                 $1.63            149.76      6888          654
    71580     Natural Gas    Office                         $1.58             89.27
    73000     Natural Gas    Education:University           $1.10           100.86       3537          1479
    73760     Natural Gas    Education: Primary             $0.76             97.65      6678          551
    74136     Natural Gas    EducatiomSecondary             $0.80            109.66      5404          68.4
    81785     Oil #6         Apt Other                      $0.60            127.81      4155          784
    83110     Oil #6         OthenTransport Term            $1.95           396.41       6888          654
    86887     Oil #2         Heath:Hospital                 $2.13           274.78       5923           167
    98000     Electricity    RetailiGeneral Mse             $1.33             63.73      3410          1454
   106000     Natural Gas    Office                         $0.95             86.31      5404          68.4
   110000     Natural Gas    Asm:Theatre                    $1.37            143.59      5404          68.4
   110000     Natural Gas    Office                         $1.19             99.59      5404          68.4
   111128     Natural Gas    OtherWhse Refrig               $0.94             38.11      1285           150
   113000     Electricity    Office                         $1.50            115.83      5404          68.4
   113300     Natural Gas    Education:Secondary            $1.51             59.14      2103          670
   116214     Coal           Heath: Hospital                $3.78           255.58       3614          1387
   116400     Natural Gas    Lodging:Hotel                  $0.36             31.84      5404          68.4
   120000     Electricity    Education:Other                $1.42             71.74      4139          914
   138700     Natural Gas    Heath:Nursing Home             $1.81           201.83       6678          551
   192400     Steam          RetaifcGeneral Mse             $1.04             41.76      2103          670
   197800     None           RetailiGeneral Mse             $1.21             43.80      2103          670
   213706     Natural Gas    Heath: Hospital                $0.92           133.86       5404          68.4
   225700     Electricity    Lodging:Hotel                  $0.79           109.82       5404          68.4
   250000     Oil #6         Heath:Hospital                 $2.04           367.28       7447          272
   273000     Natural Gas    Office                         $1.09             97.28      5404          68.4
   330000     OH #2          Education:Secondary         . $1.74            161.17       6888          654
   365461     Natural Gas    Heath: Hospital                $2.26           317.78       3754          1270
   383100     Natural Gas    Heath:Hospital                 $2.83           181.62       2103          670
  1006000     Natural Gas    OthenOther                     $1.80           254.29       5404          68.4
Gross area   Heating Fuel   Build Type   Energy Cost      Energy Use         Heating       Cooling
                                          ($/sq ft/vr)   (kBTU/sq ft/yr)   Degree Days   Degree Days
     2049    Natural Gas    Office               $1.09            43.88       1285           150
     6000    Electricity    Office               $1.19            28.70       6678           551
     8000    Electricity    Office               $1.42          123.00
     9858    Electricity    Office               $0.58            41.99
    11040    Electricity    Office               $0.58            75.68       1285           150
    15612    Natural Gas    Office               $1.36            73.01       1285           150
    16800    Natural Gas    Office               $0.97            47.59       1285           150
    17600    Oil #2         Office   .           $0.79          128.84        6792          435
    20000    Natural Gas    Office               $2.30          15297         6678          551
    20678    Electricity    Office               $2.74          105.34        1285           150
    29756    Natural Gas    Office               $2.16          126.36        6792          435
    30700    Natural Gas    Office             $11.47           441.42        2103          670
    31600    Electricity    Office               $0.00           161.25       3600          1146
    33000    Natural Gas    Office               $1.08          108.59        5404          68.4
    35884    Electricity    Office               $0.83            37.47       1285           150
    38064    Electricity    Office               $0.40            34.28
    48700    Natural Gas    Office               $1.19          109.47        6586           45
    50000    Natural Gas    Office               $1.25           113.52       5404          68.4
    60635    Natural Gas    Office               $0.58            80.37       7232          420
    62892    Natural Gas    Office               $2.02           198.68
    71580    Natural Gas    Office               $1.58            89.27
   106000    Natural Gas    Office               $0.95            86.31       5404          68.4
   110000    Natural Gas    Office               $1.19            99.59       5404          68.4
   113000    Electricity    Office               $1.50           115.83       5404          68.4
   273000    Natural Gas    Office               $1.09            97.28       5404          68.4

                                           Average          Average          Average       Average
                                         Energy Cost       Energy Use        Heating       Cooling
                                          ($/sq ft/yr)   (kBTU/sq ft/vr)   Degree Days   Degree Days
                                            $1.61            108.83           4330           278
Gross area   Heating Fuel    Build Type   Energy Cost       Energy Use        Heating       Cooling
                                           ($/sq ftfyr)   (kBTU/sq ftfyr)   Degree Days   Degree Days
     2049    Natural Gas     Office               $1.09             43.88      1285           150
    15612    Natural Gas     Office               $1.36             73.01      1285           150
    16800    Natural Gas     Office               $0.97             47.59      1285           150
    20000    Natural Gas     Office               $2.30           152.97       6678          551
    29756    Natural Gas     Office               $2.16           126.36       6792          435
    30700    Natural Gas     Office             $11.47            441.42       2103          670
    33000    Natural Gas .   Office               $1.08           108.59       5404          68.4
    48700    Natural Gas     Office               $1.19           109.47       6586           45
    50000    Natural Gas     Office               $1.25            113.52      5404          68.4
    60635    Natural Gas     Office               $0.58             80.37      7232          420
    62892    Natural Gas     Office               $Z02            198.68
    71580    Natural Gas     Office               $1.58             89.27
   106000    Natural Gas     Office               $0.95             86.31      5404          68.4
   110000    Natural Gas     Office               $1.19             99.59      5404          68.4
   273000    Natural Gas     Office               $1.09             97.28      5404          68.4

                                            Average          Average         Average       Average
                                          Energy Cost       Energy Use        Heating       Cooling
                                           ($/sq ftfyr)   (kBTU/sq ftfyr)   Degree Days   Degree Days
                                                 $2.02            124.55       4636          224

Gross area   Heating Fuel    Build Type   Energy Cost       Energy Use        Heating       Cooling
                                           ($/sq ftfyr)   (kBTU/sq ftfyr)   Degree Days   Degree Days
     6000    Electricity     Office               $1.19             28.70      6678           551
     8000    Electricity     Office               $1.42           123.00
     9858    Electricity     Office               $0.58             41.99
    11040    Electricity     Office               $0.58             75.68      1285           150
    20678    Electricity     Office               $2.74           105.34       1285          150
    31600    Electricity     Office               $0.00           161.25       3600          1146
    35884    Electricity     Office               $0.83             37.47      1285           150
    38064    Electricity     Office               $0.40             34.28
   113000    Electricity     Office               $1.50           115.83       5404          68.4

                                            Average          Average          Average      Average
                                          Energy Cost       Energy Use        Heating       Cooling
                                           ($/sq ftfyr)   (kBTU/sq ftfyr)   Degree Days   Degree Days
                                                 $1.03             80.40       3256          369
Gross area   Heating Fuel   Build Type              Fuel Use         Heating        Fuel Use
                                                 (kBTU/sq ft/yr)   Degree Days (kBTU/sq ft/yr/HDD)
   111128    Natural Gas    Other.Whse Refrig              2.11            1285               1.64
     2049    Natural Gas    Office                         2.24            1285                1.75
    53000    Natural Gas    Education:Primary              5.15            2103               2.45
   106000    Natural Gas    Office                        14.80            5404               2.74
   110000    Natural Gas    Office                        17.16            5404               3.18
    21018    Natural Gas    Retail: Other                  4.51            1285               3.51
   113300    Natural Gas    Education:Secondary            7.71            2103               3.67
    53800    Natural Gas    Retail.General Mse            30.56            6888               4.44
     5250    Natural Gas    Retail: Other                 25.90            5404               4.79
    29756    Natural Gas    Office                        32.71            6792               4.82
   273000    Natural Gas    Office                        30.85            5404               5.71
    48700    Natural Gas    Office                        38.28            6586               5.81
    30700    Natural Gas    Office                        12.88            2103               6.12
    30680    Natural Gas    EducationPrimary              46.79            7376               6.34
     2728    Natural Gas    Retail: Other                  8.91            1285               6.93
    50000    Natural Gas    Office                        40.11            5404               7.42
   110000    Natural Gas    Asm:Theatre                   42.16            5404               7.80
    38500    Natural Gas    Apt:Other                     59.52            7376               8.07
    60635    Natural Gas    Office                        65.75            7232               9.09
    16800    Natural Gas    Office                        12.24            1285               9.53
    33000    Natural Gas    Office                        53.44            5404               9.89
    50832    Natural Gas    Retail: Other                 71.07            6888              10.32
    20000    Natural Gas    Office                        69.75            6678              10.44
    41378    Natural Gas    Asm:Church/Synagogu           70.72            6678              10.59
    17775    Natural Gas    Education:Secondary           24.65            2103              11.72
    73760    Natural Gas    Education:Primary             87.94            6678              13.17
    73000    Natural Gas    Education:University          51.57            3537              14.58
    74136    Natural Gas    Education:Secondary           81.85            5404              15.15
    33060    Natural Gas    Health:Clinic                 20.36            1285              15.85
   213706    Natural Gas    Heath:Hospital                89.57            5404              16.57
    15612    Natural Gas    Office                        24.79            1285              19.29
    66700    Natural Gas    Lodging:Motel                144.81            6888              21.02
   138700    Natural Gas    Heath:Nursing Home           144.10            6678              21.58
    61500    Natural Gas    Education.University          53.89            2103              25.63
    10828    Natural Gas    RetailrSupermarket            32.99            1285          . 25.67
  1006000    Natural Gas    OthenOther                   158.74            5404              29.38
    15700    Natural Gas    Asm:Other                    134.60            3792              35.50
    10555    Natural Gas    Food:Restaurant              253.15            6888              36.75
    19950    Natural Gas    Health:Other                  50.99            1285              39.68
   383100    Natural Gas    Heath:Hospital                85.29            2103              40.56
   365461    Natural Gas    Heath:Hospital               193.50            3754              51.54
     2188    Natural Gas    Food:Fast Food               211.65            1285             164.71
     3264    Natural Gas    Food:Other                   298.68            1285            232.44
     4270    Natural Gas    Food:Restaurant              330.70            1285            257.36

                                                    Average         Average         Average
                                                    Fuel Use         Heating        Fuel Use
                                                 (kBTU/sq ft/yr)   Degree Days (kBTU/sq ft/yr/HDD)
                                                          73.62         4154.25               28.07
Gross area   Heating Fuel   Build Type             Fuel Use          Heating        Fuel Use
                                                (kBTU/sq fl/yr)    Degree Days (kBTU/sq ft/yr/HDD)
    34000    Oil #2         Asm:Other                     7.36             2513                2.93
     7200    Oil #2         Asm:Church/Synagogu          25.19             7376                3.42
    23490    Oil #2         RetaihShopping Mail          24.66             3231                7.63
    25830    Oil #2         Asm:Other                    78.08             6888               11.34
   330000    Oil #2         EducatiomSecondary           82.80             6888               12.02
    64500    Oil #2         Heath:Nursing Home           51.52             3124               16.49
    17600    Oil #2         Office                      115.28             6792               16.97
    31092    Oil #2         Heath:Hospital              158.49             7239               21.89
    27556    Oil #2         EducationrPrimary            78.43             2469               31.77
    86887    Oil #2         Heath:Hospital              193.23             5923               32.62

                                                    Average         Average         Average
                                                    Fuel Use         Heating        Fuel Use
                                                 (kBTU/sq ft/yr)   Degree Days (kBTU/sq ft/yr/HDD)
                                                          81.50           5244.3              15.71
                APPENDIX F

DATABASE DOCUMENTATION AND DATA DICTIONARY
 Sud Assoc. Trial Database
       for ASHRAE Energy Audit Form
Date printed: August 26,1994

This documentation describes the Sud & Assoc Trial Database.

Purpose: The database's purpose is to provide a database collecting the data from
ASHRAE energy audit forms, in order to allow researchers to have a convenient way to
access and analyze the data. The trial database is a menu-driven Paradox application. It is
intended to be very simple to use. The nature of this database is to collect information for
research, which means that familiarity with Paradox is essential simply because the
designers cannot forsee in advance every use to which this database will be put. At least
in the beginning, users of the database will have to go into Paradox and create their own
queries and reports.

Audience: This documentation is aimed at both the end user and the experienced Paradox
user. Thefirstsection describing the application interface to the database is aimed more at
thefirsttime user who needs to add data and perform routine tasks. The data dictionary
which follows describes in detail the design of the database, the modules involved, and the
table layouts. It will be useful to experienced Paradox users who want to use Paradox to
query the database, and to developers who need to modify the application.
                                                           Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 2


                            Installation Procedure
Installing the database is very simple, as long as you have a hard drive C: and have already
installed Paradox. The databasefilesget installed in the Paradox directory, so unless you
dont mind thesefilesbeing mixed up with the applicationfilesin your PDOX40 directory,
you should reinstall Paradox in a different directory, perhaps C:\PDOXASHR.

The install disk has a program called install.com that will install the database
automatically.

1. Reinstall Paradox in the PDOXASHR directory if you so choose.
2. Put the ASHRAE database install disk into thefloppydisk drive, and remember what
letter the drive is.
3. Go to DOS (or open a DOS window under Windows)
4. Run the install program:

       A:> install - this assumes that the diskette is in A;

You will need to answer questions about your source and destination drives, etc.

5. Watch the database unpack itself. (This may take a while, depending on how fast or
slow your computer is.)

6. To start the application, get to the Paradox directory where you installed the database
and type:

       paradox 0001

from the DOS prompt, or in Paradox's main mode you can type Alt-FlO, Play, Return,
select 0001fromthe list, and Return again.
                                                       Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 4


                               Main Application
The application interface to the database is menu-driven, and has complete help on-line (at
any of the menu selections, you may press Fl and receive context-specific help on the
selection: why it is there and typical uses for it). The application is meant to be used by
people inexperienced with Paradox to add new data to the database, and to run the
preinstalled reports. Since at the time the database was written it was not known what
kind of reports and queries users would want, going further and doing your own ad-hoc
queries requires that you go into the main Paradox desktop and do them yourself.
Experience with Paradox is required for this.

Each menu in the application represents a broad area of things that can be done with the
database (entering data, doing reports, and so on). Sub-menus handle specific functions
within those broad areas (or even have sub-menus of their own). The menus have been
organized into a logical progression — adding data, querying, reporting, etc. — and less
important things are farther to the right than more important things.

Several menus are present which do not currently do anything but tell you that they don't
do anything. These are provided for future growth, since their functionality is strongly
anticipated to be needed in the future. When the trial database is turned into the real
database, it is expected that these will be fully functional. For the time being, ignore
anything that doesn't seem to do anything useful.

A description of the menus and what they do follows. They are arranged as much as
possible "in order", so reading through this description will tell you how to use the
database.

Enter Data

The Enter Data menu allows you to input data you have on the ASHRAE energy audit
forms into the database.

       Add A New Building: This is the main selection for adding a new building to the
       database. It starts up a program which will guide you through the process. It
       automatically load up the correct data entry forms and runs the correct programs,
       so you will not have to worry about doing everything in therightorder. We've
       tried to make the data entry as close to the paper forms as possible, but it has not
       always been possible. There are a few differences between the paper forms and the
       order you enter things here. The order in which things must be input is: building
       data, special datafrom1-14, space function datafrom1-10, andfinallyenergy use
       and costfrom1-5. The guide program is described in detail below.

       Update Old Data: allows forms-based updates of data already entered.
                                                      Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 5
     Types: Allows addition/maintenance of exisitng types.

Guide Program

     When you choose "Add A New Building"fromthe data entry menu, the guide
     program is run. It is responsible for taking you step by step through the data entry
     process, running the right programs and data entry screens at the right times.

     First, you are asked to give a Building YD. This is the most important piece of
     information. It must uniquely identify the building.

     Step One: Data Entry Form

     After you input a Building ID, you then see the data entry form for the building.
     Input the information directly as you see it on the sheet. If you see something on
     the sheet that doesn't come up on the screen, it is either not supposed to be in the
     database or you will come back to it later.

     Warning: Years should be input as complete numbers! Use '1984' instead of'84'. If
     you put in an abbreviated year, it will be taken literally — 0084.

     Step Two: Special Information

     You may add as many special information items as you like. Because of this, a
     dialogue box will keep popping up asking for a description. When you've given all
     the descriptions you want to, press Enter without typing anything in the dialogue
     box, and it will go on to the next item.

     Warning: The "description"fieldis only 20 characters long. If your description
     exceeds that, make up a one or two word summary and use it as the description,
     and then type the full description into the provided memofield.Or just skip the
     rest — the description is only useful as a way to uniquely identify each different
     special information entry. The description must be unique.

     Step Three: Space Functions

     The space functions entry works the same way as the special information, you may
     add as many spaces as you like. Because of this, a dialogue box will keep popping
     up asking for a space. Spaces must be between A and Z. When youVe given all the
     spaces you want to, press Enter without typing anything in the dialogue box, and it
     will go on to the next item.

     Step Four: Energy Use and Cost
                                                       Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 6
       This is the most interesting part of the program. You have to specify the units for
       each type of energy, and because of that we made it so that pick lists would pop
       up. This is important because of consistency: people would type M**3, M cubed,
       meters cubed, m3, and so on. But, given our dialogue box, you have to pick it the
       way we want it to look.

Query Database

       Very unfinished. This menu was notfinishedbecause it could not be anticipated
       what querying people would want to do.

Reports

       The demonstration report availablefromthis menu generates a report that tells you
       the square footage, heating & cooling type, energy index, and cost index for a
       specific type of building that you supply. It also summarizes the range of high, low,
       and average values for that building type.

Import/Export

       Ship: takes your local database, and packs it up onto afloppydisk so you can
       ship it back to the master database.

       Unship: the opposite of ship — it takes a shipped database off afloppyand adds it
       into the existing database.

       Ship and unship require the programs 'zip.exe' and •unzdp.exe' to be present in the
       Paradox directory. They are installed there by the installation process. Do not
       move or delete these, or you won't be able to ship the database off.

       Import and Export: Nothing, this is here for future expansion. If people want to
       be able to import datafromanother data set, an ASCIIfile,or somewhere else,
       this menu will accomodate it. It will also handle saving data in other formats like
       QP.

Maintenance

       Nothing, this is here for future expansion. It is intended for functions that do not
       have anything to do with entering, retrieving, or viewing data in the database. It is
       instead for functions that do something to the database itself.

Exit

       Returns you to Paradox. No exit to DOS is availablerightnow — perhaps later this
       menu will give people a choice as to what they can exit to.
                                                         Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 7

Help

       For the totally clueless, a generic help screen is provided. It says basically to press
       Fl in specific menu selections for specific help. It is not designed to be a self-
       contained help system.
                                                         Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 8



                                 Design Notes
General Concerns

All Paradox conventions were adhered to. All default edit keys, default menu instructions,
etc. Even the color scheme was kept as the default, since it is very possible this application
will have to run on a wide variety of monitors.

At the same time, every attempt was made to go along with the exisiting paper-based
forms. In several cases, however, due to the natural structure of the tables and the
omission of parts of the forms, the data on the forms was compressed greatly and items
from several pages were put together into one form.

Units are vital and important to this project. Every attempt has been made to make sure
the user is entering the right units for the figures.

Paradox is a royal pain in the rear end to deal with. For example, you put brackets around
field names everywhere, except for the CMAX, CMIN, and CAVERAGE functions which
require quotes. (Why?) And Paradox has so many modes that the program has to deal
with. And Paradox does not support views the way dBASE does, so a lot of copying and
rearranging has to be done. There are no bigflawsin Paradox, just millions of small,
inconsistent and poorly designed annoyances. A lot of the stuff that was done in this
application is just to work around Paradox's limitations, and approaches sheer hackery.
Not through any negligent design on the programmer's part, just because it had to be
done. Tampering with this database is not recommended, since even to me it is a house of
cards that wouldn't take much to break. Hopefully this documentation will help a little.
Also, read the comments in the scripts.

Scripts

Several things are PAL programs because there was no alternative. Given a choice, the
design has strived to use the application generator and built-in forms, reports, screens, etc.
instead of PAL code. This way, the application is easier to modify later on. Modifying
application generator objects is a lot easier than modifying someone else's PAL code. But,
Paradox's limitations have been reached over and over, and more and more scripts were
written.

Mode notes: One of Paradox's most frustrating features are all of its different operating
modes. All of these scripts are designed to be calledfroman application workshop
application, and assume they're in the main desktop mode. They furthermore freely change
modes without a care, knowing that the application will reset itself into main desktop
mode after the scripts exit. If you call the scriptsfromother places, unpredictable results
will occur.
                                                         Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 9


GUIDE.SC: The guide program that guides the user through entering the information for
one building. This had to be done as a script because total control over Paradox was
needed. It freely calls other forms.

CONVERT. SC: Paradox won't allow a form to use pick lists. And this part of the
application is so sensitive to pick lists that a script had to be used. Also, tremendous
amounts of calculations must be done, so writing a script is a lot easier than the
alternatives.

Note: GUIDE communicates with CONVERT through a global variable. (There's
probably a better way to do it, but the programmer responsible for this hack was so tired
offightingParadox over every little detail he took the easy way out here.) If the variable
MYBUHJD is set to a non-blank value, CONVERT assumes it is the Building ID for
which the user wants to add energy use & cost information and does not prompt the user
for a Building ID. Otherwise, CONVERT prompts for a Building ID. This global variable
is blanked by GUIDE after GUIDE isfinishedrunning to minimalize confusion. You can
use, at your own risk, this calling convention to pass a Building ID to CONVERT. It is
not recommended.

DEMO.SC: This script generates the demo report. It uses a table called DEMOTMP to
store its intermediate values, and as something to reportfromusing a standard Paradox
report designer generated report (you have to attach these reports to a table!). This is a
program, because the calculations it does for the energy and cost indices are too big to fit
into a report's calculated fields. Since joining tables is necessary to generate the indices
(the square footage must be linked to the energy consumption), the fully qualified arrow
names (e.g. [Building->Gross Area] and [Enrguse->Electricity]) are too long tofitinto a
report's calculated field.

SHIP.SC: In order to pack up what is in the local database and ship it off to the master
database, a script was written. It prompts the user and sets things up, then calls
SHIP.BAT to do the actual work. Interactive prompting is much easier in Paradox than in
a batchfile(since we'd have to distribute something to do the prompting with the database
if we wanted to do it in a batchfile),so Paradox does the user interfacing and passes
parameters to the batchfile.The batchfilemust, of course, be present in order to do this.

UNSHIP.SC: Unpacks the shipped database and adds the records in it to the existing
database. It also is a user-interface driver that calls UNSHIP.BAT. It then users Paradox
code to add the recordsfromthe shipped database to the current database.

WARNING: The database'sfilesare renamed to begin with the letter X. This is done
because if we unshipped the database with the regular names, the act of unzipping the files
would clobber the exisiting database! That would not be a good idea, so instead the
databasefilesare renamed to an X name and then packed up. When they are unpacked the
records in the Xfilesare added to the regular database through Paradox code.
                                                         Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 10

WARNING: SHIP and UNSHIP assume that:

       1) the database willfiton afloppydisk (which it should, since no database other
       than the master database should grow that large) and

        2) there is enough room on the hard drive for a second copy of the database

If either of these assumptions is not valid, the ship/unship parts of the database will have
to be rewritten to use less resources. This is the quick & dirty approach!
                                                         Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 11



                       DATA DICTIONARY
The data dictionary is a list of allfieldsand tables in the database, along with any
important comments explaining why things were done the way they were. For the trial
database, it is important both for developers who need to know what is going on inside the
structure of the database and for end users. Since this database will be for research
purposes, crunching through data for ad hoc purposes, it is expected that a lot of time will
be spent on formulating ad-hoc queries and writing ad-hoc reports.

Naming Conventions: Most names are spelled out in complete words as they appear on
the forms. Only in extremely long cases are abbreviations used, and these are as standard
or intuitive as possible. Paradox forces table names to be eight characters, so the names of
tables get fairly creative to convey something meaningful in such a short space.

Table Organization: The database has three types of tables. The first is the building table,
the main table that has the main information about the building. Subordinate tables have
additional information about the building, but separated offinto things that stand more or
less by themselves. Lastly, lookup tables translate our made-up tag numbers into human
comprehensible descriptions.

Key: in all tables (except lookups), the building ID is the key. It must uniquely identify a
building.

Zero or nothing? The data set this database is designed to deal with has a lot of N/A data,
i.e. partial data sets where it is okay to omit somefields.This database takes the following
approach to dealing with this: blank data on the forms is entered into the database as blank
data. That way, the Paradox BLANK keyword can be used in searches.

Field descriptions are standard paradox pictures: Ax means an alphanumericfieldx
characters long, M is a memofield,N is a number, and $ is dollars.

Units (in parens) and other notes are listed after thefieldtype and width.

Paradox does not have a logical type like dBASE does. This database uses the convention
of y/n for all logicals.
                                                          Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 12
                                        BUILDING
                                       Building Table

The building table is the main table in the database. It contains physical characteristics
about the building and its spaces.

The design of this database has placed as many physical characteristics about the building
as possible into this one table, since users will be making queries that will use the
characteristics to limit searches to buildings with certain similarities. Then, the users will
make calculations like the indices based on the datafromthose buildings.

Building Table Concerns:

        1. Canadian addresses do not have zip codes. But, since 10 characters are included
        for the additional four numbers in US zip codes, there is more than enough room
        for the "ABC XYZ" style Canadian and British addresses.

        2. Latitude and Longitude are expressed in degrees. Hours and minutes are not
        allowed, since Paradox does not have any way to easily handle this kind of data
        and the database designers do not really care about latitude and longitude. (The
        latitude and longitudefieldscan befractions,so hours and minutes could be
        converted tofractionsof a degree.) It is assumed that the latitude and longitude
        are North America, since there is no provision in the database for any directions. If
        this assumption is not true, something will have to be modified.

No.
  i.    Field Name                             Pic Additional Info
    1   Building ID                            A20*
   2    Month                                  N
   3    Year                                   N
   4    City                                   A20
   5    State                                  A2
   6    Zip                                    A10        or Canadian
   7    Latitude                               A5         degrees
   8    Longitude                              A5         degrees
   9    Gross Area                             N          sq.ft.
   10   Total Gross Cond Area                  N          sq.ft.
   11   Gross Heated Only                      N          sq. ft.
   12   Gross Cooled Only                      N          sq. ft.
   13   Gross Heated And Cooled                N          sq. ft.
   14   Gross Exp Above Grade                  N          sq. ft.
   15   Gross Exp Above Percent                N          %
   16   Glazing Area                           N          %
                                       Trial Database for Sud Assoc page 13

17   Glazing Area Percent        N          %
18   Roof Area                   N          sq.ft.
19   Roof Area Percent           N          %
20   Outdoor Exposed Floor       N         sq.ft.
21   Outdoor Exposed Fl Perc     N          %
22   Above Grade Common          N          sq. ft.
23   Above Grade Common Perc     N          %
24   Cond Floors Above Grade     N
25   Cond Floors Below Grade     N
26   Heating Degree Days         N
27   Cooling Degree Days         N
28   Primary Year Constructed    N         year
29   Sec Year Constructed        N         year
30   Building Type               N         lookup in B
31   Average Hours Per Week      N
32   Average Weeks Per Year      N          0..52
33   Average No of Occupants     N
34   Summer Metered Demand       N
35   Winter Metered Demand       N
36   Total Water Use Per Yr      N          watts/sq. ft.
37   Total Water Cost Per Yr     N          $
38   Special Description         M20        (unused)
39   Peak Load KW                N          (unused)
39   Peak Load KW                N          (unused)
40   Peak Load MBH               N          (unused)
41   Equip Use Hours Per Week    N
42   Equip Use Weeks Per Year    N .
43   Centrifugal Chiller         Al         y/n
44   Reciprocating Chiller       Al         y/n
45   Absorption Chiller          Al         y/n
46   Hot Water Boiler            Al         y/n
47   Steam Boiler                Al         y/n
48   Hot Air Furnace             Al         y/n
49   Electric Resistance Coils   Al         y/n
50   Air Source Heat Pump        Al         y/n
51   Active Solar Equipment      Al         y/n
52   Energy Recovery Equipment   Al         y/n
53   Thermal Storage Systems     Al         y/n
54   Cogeneration Systems        Al         y/n
                                      Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 14

55   Packaged Heat Pumps         Al        (unused)
56   Air Flow Modulation Ctrl    Al        y/n
57   Lighting Controls           Al        y/n
58   Humidifiers Dehumidifiers   Al        y/n
59   Cooling Tower               Al        y/n
60   Comfort Control by Reheat   Al        y/n
61   Free Cooling                Al        y/n
62   Onsite Generation           Al        y/n
63   Direct Expansion            Al        (unused)
64   Packaged DX Cooling         Al        y/n
65   Split DX Cooling            Al        y/n
66   Evaporative Cooling         Al        y/n
67   Water Src Heat Pump         Al        y/n
68   Other                       Al        y/n
69   Heating Fuel Primary        N         lookup in ENRGTYPE
70   Heating Fuel Secondary      N         lookup in ENRGTYPE
71   Cooling Fuel Primary        N         lookup in ENRGTYPE
72   Cooling Fuel Secondary      N         lookup in ENRGTYPE
73   Domestic Hot Water Prim     N         lookup in ENRGTYPE
74   Domestic Hot water Sec      N         lookup in ENRGTYPE
75   Kitchen Equipment Prim      N         lookup in ENRGTYPE
76   Kitchen Equipment Sec       N         lookup in ENRGTYPE
77   Other Proc Equip Prim       N         lookup in ENRGTYPE
78   Other Proc Equip Sec        N         lookup in ENRGTYPE
                                                         Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 15

                                       ENRGCOST
                                       Energy Cost

The energy cost table stores the total annual cost of eachtypeof &el for the year the data
is being entered.

ASSUMPTION: if a category is not applicable, a $0.00 is stored for it.

This table does not allow entry of data for any building not in the building table already.

1 Building ID          A20*
2 Electricity                  $      (dollar amount) — all!
3 Natural Gas                  $
4 Steam                        $
5 Hot Water                    $
6 Chilled Water                $
7 Oil #2                       $
8 Oil #6                       $
9 Propane                      $
10 Coal                        $
                                                         Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 16


                                        ENRGUSE
                                        Energy Use

Thefieldsin this table are all in terms of 1000 BTUs. The data input program will allow
the user to input data in native units, and will convert the data to 1000 BTUs before
storing in this table. To output data in units other than 1000 BTUs, further conversions
will be necessary.

ASSUMPTION: 0 will be entered if the type of fuel is not used.

This table does not allow entry of data for any building not in the building table already.

1 Building IDA20*
2 Electricity          N       (1000 BTUs) -all!
3 Natural Gas          N
4 Steam                N
5 Hot Water            N
6 Chilled Water        N
7 Oil #2               N
8 Oil #6               N
9 Propane              N
10 Coal                N
                                                       Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 17
                                          SPACE

The Space table is for space functions.

This table has a multiplefieldkey in order to allow one building to have many different
spaces in the database. To uniquely identify a record, both a Building ID and a Space ID
must be provided. This design allows for many different spaces to be entered for one
building, and it allows searches to be conducted easily.

   1   Building ID            A20*
   2   Space ID               Al*     one letter, A-Z
   3   Function Type          N           > lookup in FUNTYPE table
   4   Conditioned Area       N       sq. ft.
   5   Usage Hours Per Week N
   6   Usage Weeks Per Year N
   7   Primary Lighting Type N        — > lookup in LITETYPE table
   8   Average Installed Load N       watts/sq. ft.
                                                       Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 18
                                        SPECIAL

The special table is for special equipment that makes a building's data abnormal compared
to other similar buildings.

Like the Space table, the Special table has a multiplefieldkey. To uniquely identify a
record, a Building ID and an Equipment Type must be specified. This allows one building
to have many different types of equipment listed in the database. It also allows for
searches based on other factors (like all buildings with equipment that uses more than
10,000 KWH at its peak) without regards to the key.

WARNING: A newfieldwas added, not on the form itself. The "Equipment Type"fieldis
for the description. Ordinarily, this would be a memofield,but: the problem was a memo
field can't be a key. The A20 Equipment Typefieldwas created to satisfy the requirements
for a key. A memofieldis provided for people who can'tfitthe description into 20
characters.

   1   Building ID                   A20*
   2   Equipment Type       A20*
   3   Complete Description          M20
   4   Equip Peak Load KWH           N
   5   Equip Peak Load MBH           N
   6   Equip Hours Per Week          N
   7   Equip Weeks Per Year          N
                                              Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 19
                                  LIGHT

1   Building ID                 A20*
2   Light Type                  N         lookup in LITETYPE table
3   Percent of Installed Load   N         %
4   Avg Installed Load          N         watts/sq. ft.
5   Switches Accessible         Al        y/n
6   Special Auto Controls       Al        y/n
                                                          Trial Database for Sud Assoc, page 20


                                            TAGS

The tag tables are meant to help consistency and user-frendliness.

1. Rule #1 of database design is to allow users to pick things out of a list if possible,
because it cuts down on errors.

2. The tags allow for maximum consistency, because it forces people to use our
previously-determined names for things. Otherwise, the result would be some people
writing KWH, others writing Kilowatt Hours, others writing K-Wh, others writing K, and
searching the database would not be easy.

BLDGTYPE: Building Type
1 Tag              N
2 Description     A20

ENRGTYPE: Energy Type
1 Tag             N
2 Description     A20

FUNTYPE: Space Function Type
1 Tag             N
2 Description     A20

LITETYPE: Lighting Type
1 Tag               N
2 Description       A20