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VIEWS: 16 PAGES: 63

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									Today’s Lecture:

The Governments of Antiquity and the Relevance of Majorities

Number:

3

Lecture Organization: • class announcements

• What I am Teaching You
• Governance in Rome • Governance in Athens • Discussion: Majorities • Forms of Government

Time

Class Announcements

Class Participation -- don’t forget to hand it in at the end of the class Attendance Sheet -- if your name isn’t on the sheet, write (and sign) it at the END. -- Don’t try to insert it in the middle where it would be alphabetized (You will have to do this every day.)

Class Announcements

course webpage -- slides are up, more stuff on the way today DocStock -- using this web service -- to download, you need to register

Questions?

Part I: Developmentalism

What I Am Teaching You
Two Basic Answers to What a Political Scientist “Knows:” “civics” Facts and Trivia about government, institutions, process for election, different kinds of systems, etc Question: Question: If you were asked what a Question: psychologist wasa political to What should supposed What do political know, would it be easier for you to scientist know about answer? Howscientistsgeologist or about a know? American government? an economist?

What I Am Teaching You
Two Basic Answers to What a Political Scientist “Knows:” “journalism for politics” Statistical or survey information about things in the political system we can’t readily “see.” e.g., “two party systems have lower turnout than multi-party systems” e.g., “voter turnout is greater in many European countries” -- news about government and politics

What I Am Teaching You
These options are unacceptable

“journalism for politics”

civics

-- Not going to teach a bunch of encyclopedic information

-- Not going to give you “political news” for its own sake (as though it were its own science, which it is not).

What I Am Teaching You
Part I: Historical and Philosophic focus -- “Developmentalism” is the use of history to develop a subject matter (other than history) -- To understand American government, you must understand its creation and development

Getting Perspective

Roman Government
Athenian Government

England

Getting Perspective

Roman Government
Athenian Government

England

Time

American Government

Part II: Republican Institutions, With Government By Social Sectors

Government in Rome
The Republic -- period of concern: 510 B.C. - 287 B.C. -- Before this, Rome had Kings -- Kings overthrown in 510 B.C. Res “Thing” Publica

Republic
“The Public’s”

-- The word “Senate” = “old folks” or “elders”
(people who had always been around to give advice to the King )

Roman Society
Patricians

Father of the Country. Their DUTY was to govern Parent-child relationship Laborers, Shopkeepers, Merchants, “Regular – 50 Statistics: 510 B.C. People” – roughly, (10% of Patrician Clans the middlefree population). the and lower class.

Plebeians

Slaves

“Julians,” “Claudians” Different from American slavery (explain)

1/18/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

14

Government in Rome
Rise of the Plebs Use of Strikes Obtain their own assembly (union hall) Access to the Senate Rights of Appeal

Government in Rome
Rise of Law WRITE DOWN the law (post it) • The Twelve Tables. (451 B.C.) • [Code of Hammurabi: (1700 B.C.)] • [Urukagina’s Code (2350 B.C.)] Lex Hortensia (287 B.C.) -- plebeians get the right to law-make Use of Strikes trying to end government by social sectors? explain the land reform incident

Government in Rome
Office of “Consul” -- 2 elected annually -- Could lead the Senatorial army in battle -- Symbolized the state in foreign relations (treaties, etc) -- Could appoint government offices “spoils, patronage”
Example:

Quistor

-- person in a military unit in charge of money --successful completion of the office showed that a man could be trusted

Government in Rome
Office of “Consul” -- Retired in the Senate -- Julius Caesar was a Consul -- Napoleon was called the “First Consul.”

Three-Sector, Two-Branch Government? Answer: Question: What happened to the Roman Julius Caesar disbanded it in 44 B.C.Republic?emperor; (Rule by

Senate becomes advisory)
SENATE

CONSUL

Assembly of the Plebeians

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(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

19

Part III: Government By Mobs

Government in Athens
Intro -- Date: 508 to 276 B.C. -- Athens was a city not a country. Greeks never attempted to unite all Greek speakers into one political union.
Language:

“polis” city-state politics politician metropolis

4/16/2009

Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.

21

Government in Athens
“Direct Democracy” -- What is different about Athens is that it attempted “democracy” without intermediaries. -- No politicians. No campaigns. No elections.

Question: Answer: Question: How can you have democracy How do they do it directly? The people do it without campaigns, elections Describe how it works? directly. or politicians
4/16/2009
Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007. 22

Government in Athens
“Direct Democracy”
The Assembly

-- If you lived in the country you had to get up at the crack of dawn in order to get to the meeting place, called the Assembly, which was a rocky hillside within the city gates. -- 10,000 men could be accommodated comfortably; 15,000 uncomfortably – wooden benches; most just stood

– met 40 times a year, each meeting lasted a couple of hours
4/16/2009
Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007. 23

Government in Athens
“Direct Democracy”
The Assembly

– 6,000 citizens constituted a quorum (imagine 20-50 % of your fellow citizens, squeezing into an open-air stadium, voting on proposals, electing magistrates, empanelling jurors).

4/16/2009

Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.

24

Government in Athens
“Direct Democracy”
Participation

-- any male citizens over 18 years of age and willing to attend the sessions (held about every 10 days). -- eligible to attend: about 45,000 male citizens

4/16/2009

Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.

25

Government in Athens
“Direct Democracy”
Drawing Lots for Service

-- almost all the administrative officials were chosen by lot for one year -- Usually they were selected in groups of 10 to carry out one specific function, such as policing the markets or caring for the streets.

4/16/2009

Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.

26

Government in Athens
“Direct Democracy”
Ostracism

-- once a year they decided whether to have an ostracism.
-- if yes, each wrote down the name of the person to leave. -- whoever received the most votes “won” (actually, lost). -- They would be banished for 10 years. Answer: Question: Why would they do this?

Eliminated would-be tyrants and nuisances
27

4/16/2009

Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.

Government in Athens
“Direct Democracy”
Courts

–- 201-501 citizens served as jurors and judges. –- The courts of law were really committees of the people.

-- Each year a panel of 6000 jurors over 30 years of age was drawn up from those who volunteered to serve.
-- For each trial a jury of 201 or more was drawn by a very complicated system of lots so that bribery and influence could be limited.
4/16/2009
Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007. 28

Government in Athens
“Direct Democracy”
Courts

-- Each of the two parties in a lawsuit had to speak and act for himself, though he could hire a professional speech writer to compose his speech. -- Undoubtedly one had to be very careful as to how one appealed to the elders of the community who sat on the jury and determined by majority vote their verdict. (Socrates).

4/16/2009

Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.

29

Government in Athens
“Direct Democracy”
Courts

-- There could be no appeal from this committee of the people in its judicial capacity. -- In verdicts of capital punishment one was sometimes allowed to commit suicide by drinking poison, except those who were found guilty of murder (and the like). These unfortunate culprits were attached to a vertical plank on which they hung until they died.

4/16/2009

Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007.

30

Government in Athens
“Direct Democracy”
The Big Picture

-- mob rule? Mob “justice.” Question: Question: Question: Is Athens good or bad? What might be the flaw Might it be good to have That is, what is better: a in the Athenian model? some aristocratic (elitist) republic or direct structures democracy? in government? (courts, non-elective offices, etc.)
4/16/2009
Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007. 31

Part IV: Considering Majorities

“Democracy”

Question: Should the majority rule? Question: Why?

“Democracy” Question: Question: Why don’t we let the people decide whobetter Which of these is gets inducted into the hall of (which would you rather fame? Would it why? win), and be better if we did it that way Academy Awards Hall of Fame People’s Choice All Star Game cheapening effect

Pro Bowl

“Democracy”

Question:
Is it of higher quality Question: music than, say, Jazz, Is top alternative, or Classical, 40 music good? even all the other nontop-40 music?

Academy Awards Hall of Fame

People’s Choice All Star Game

Pro Bowl

“Democracy” Question: What should a society elect? Kings? Judges? Generals?

Teachers Employees (e.g., steel mill)

“Democracy”

specialized elections

Judges? Generals?

What if only lawyers elected? What if only soldiers elected? What if only parents/students elected?

Teachers Employees (e.g., steel mill)

“Democracy”

consequences Corporations? -- Can be especially consequential • closing plants, moving the company Question: Question: -- take Enron, for example Why doesn’t everyone vote Before a plant closes down for leaders of corporations? • it affected more than just its moves to Mexico, should or Why just the shareholders? shareholders the state vote on it?

“Democracy”

stakeholder logic abortion?

Question:
Should men be allowed to vote on the issue of abortion? They don’t bear the kids, make the choice or undergo the procedure. Why are not men disqualified from voting on that?

“Democracy”

stakeholder logic

secondary effect? Purely abstract – just on the television stakeholder

“Democracy” Question: Question: Why should those in the What if we gave each yellow receive a vote on stakeholder 3 votes; each this issue? Why not exclude secondary effect 2; and them? each in the yellow only 1?

stakeholder logic

secondary effect? Purely abstract – just on the television stakeholder

voting

Question: Question: Should 17 year-old honor Why not give to students have the right college professors 2 votes and the vote? rest of the country just 1?

“Democracy”

stakeholder logic Reverse logic? • maybe stakeholders should be deemed least valuable because they are too interested (biased)? seniors Should they be allowed to vote on social security issues? Should they be allowed to vote on medical malpractice issues? Should they be allowed to vote on abortion issues?

Lawyers and doctors

women

“Democracy” Question: When is it bad to follow the majority? Question: Should a president be removed from office if his poll numbers fall below a given threshold? Question: majority rules

Question:
Can you have a democracy without the right to free speech? Question: Can you have a democracy without the right to vote?

Why can’t a majority of people amend the constitution?

Part V: Forms of Government

Forms of Government
Intro -- there are various vocabulary words that people use to describe the kinds of government and “political society” that they have -- the terms basically concern four basic realms: extent of participation constraint upon regimes style of the rule

social structure

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46

extent of participation

autocracy Rule by a single person Example: monarchy or dictatorship

extent of participation

autocracy

oligarchy Rule by a few example: senate in Rome for a while

extent of participation

autocracy

oligarchy

“democracy” Rule by “the many”

• exactly “how many” is an issue that is side-stepped (explain)

extent of participation

adjective uses seem more helpful

autocracy Autocratic

oligarchy

“democracy”

Ultimate authority tends to be concentrated in a single person

extent of participation

adjective uses seem more helpful

autocracy Autocratic

oligarchy Oligarchic

“democracy”

authority tends to be found in an elitist group

extent of participation

adjective uses seem more helpful

autocracy Autocratic

oligarchy Oligarchic

“democracy” Democratic

Enough “regular” people have a say

style of the rule

monarchy Hereditary succession

style of the rule

monarchy Hereditary succession dictatorship Rule by the strongest (usually, military head)

style of the rule

monarchy Hereditary succession dictatorship Rule by the strongest (usually, military head)

republic Democracy through agents or representatives “direct democracy” No (political) intermediary

by constraint upon the rule

constitutional The regime is limited by the “rule of law” (e.g., constitution)

by constraint upon the rule

constitutional

authoritarian • The regime is not significantly limited by limited by legality; • but has competition by other authoritarian (lawless?) forces that it cannot control, and hence, has to live with and compromise. • (example: an autonomous territory)

(imagine two tribes)

by constraint upon the rule

constitutional

authoritarian

totalitarian

• the regime is not significantly limited by limited by legality; • and conquers or is otherwise unencumbered by competition with other authoritarian forces in the society • dominates al spheres of political, economic and social life

by type of society

tribal Organized by clans or relations

by type of society

tribal

patriarchal The “father figure” has considerable prerogative (or domain) over others.

by type of society

tribal

patriarchal

aristocratic • Every person in the society has a rank determined by birth and primogeniture • Order: monarchs, nobility, gentry, peasants/serfs, then city dwellers • Land ownership is largely a function of birth

by type of society

tribal

patriarchal

aristocratic

“democratic” • no artificial castigation • in theory, each according to his or her abilities • no subjugation to an artificial track

Forms of Government
One Other Term -- there is another term that is extremely important “classical liberalism” -- people sometimes also say “western” -- it means having some significant blend of: 1. “democracy” 2. capitalism

3.
4/16/2009

individual rights
Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007. 63


								
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