Strategies for implementing successful IL action plans by yal18555


									Strategies for implementing
successful IL action plans

      Barbie E. Keiser
      UNESCO IL TTT Workshop
      Wuhan University
      October 2008
What we’ll cover during this
   Strategic planning for IL
       Environmental scanning
       SWOT/TOWS analysis
       Critical Success Factors (CSFs)
       The team
   Needs assessment
       Methods for conducting

And what we won’t
   Organizational structure and programmes within
       Education
       Communication & information (IFAP)
       Bangkok (
   Differentiating among education, training, and

   ACRL Information Literacy IQ (Institutional
    Quotient) Test
What do we know about
strategic planning?
   Concerns the relationship        Iterative, ongoing effort
    of an organization to its        Proactive; seek
    environment                       opportunities
   Involves wide-range              Bottom-up decision
    scanning of external and          process
    environmental factors            Environment considered
   Flexible, dynamic and             ever-changing and dynamic
    continually reworked plans       Integrated focus
    maximize results
   Participative                    Requires creativity to deal
                                      with new opportunities and
   Shorter and longer-range          choices
    plans are interwoven into a      Incentives given for overall
    continuous strategy               performance of the
   Forward-looking; future-          organization
Key planning issues

   Review past performance
       Understand reasons for past failures
   Identify opportunities
   Determine client/customer and learner
   Understand the impact of IL training on
    existing operations and staff function
   Marketing
Potential planning pitfalls
   Inability to get management and/or
    staff involved
   Lack of clear objectives
   Not relating IL goals and objectives
    directly to those of our organization/
   Other?

        What strategies can we use to assure
        that we do not fall into these traps?
   Establish strong partnerships                    Demonstrate the need
    (Jamaica)                                        Place IL skills in context
        Early, strong, consistent, and              Identify where IL skills are
                                                      already being taught/in use
        Be careful in selecting your
         champion (Quebec)
        Listen                                      An added bonus: A focus for
             Be responsive                           our advocacy efforts
             Learn how to say “no”                        “New” product(s) to “market”
   Appreciate the art of persuasion                       Reinvented service
        Tell stories (Quebec)                             A case for proactivity in a
            Storytelling trumps statistics
                                                            way we haven’t seen before
                                                                Opportunity to market
        Demonstrate value to all stakeholder
         groups (WIIFM and ROI)
        Share the information expertise of
         your staff with other knowledge
            Added benefits?
        Employ the vocabularies of target
         stakeholder groups (i.e., no library
            Changing the message and the focus                                            7
                                                          Sources: Caroline Stern
    Where are we in the strategic
    planning process for IL?
   Perform an environmental scan
   Conduct a SWOT/TOWS analysis
   Initial assumptions (and their bases in fact)
       Never assume!
       Extant data (collected and reviewed)
   Identify Critical Success Factors (CSFs)
       Indicators                     Measures
   Develop vision, mission, and values statements
           Envisioning your IL programme
Environmental scanning
   Detects trends and events important to the project
    (IL training programmes)
   Provides early warning of changing external
   Defines potential threats, opportunities, changes
    implied by trends and events
   Promotes a future orientation in the thinking of
   Enables decision-makers to understand current
    (and potential) changes to determine organizational
   What are the triggers in your institutions/
    organizations/communities (i.e., indicators that IL
    training is needed that will resonate with your
    community)?                                         9
Performing a comprehensive
environmental scan

   IL models and standards
       Methods? (MyBookmarks)
   Your institution/organization/community
       Methods?
   Previous IL (and other training) efforts
       Understanding reasons for success/failure
       What kind of extant data do you collect (and

    IL models and standards
                                          Big6 Information Problem-Solving Process
   Country models                              Task definition
      National Information Literacy            Information seeking strategies
       Framework (Scotland)                     Location and access
                                                Use of information
      Information Literacy                     Synthesis
       Framework for Schools                    Evaluation
       (Hong Kong)                        AASL
      Australian and New Zealand          mationpower/InformationLiteracyStandards_fin
       IL Framework: Principles,           al.pdf) and CASL
       Standards, and Practice             (
       (ANZIL)                            ACRL (higher education) guidelines
                                           (competencies) -
      US School Library Media   
       Center Questionnaire                ardsguidelines.cfm, toolkit
                                           infolitstandards/standardstoolkit.cfm and
                                                Five standards
                                                Performance indicators (and outcomes for each)
                                          Seven Pillars
                                          Information Inquiry, Problem-Solving and 11
                                           Research Process
    Conducting a SWOT analysis
   Useful when you need to understand your own
    competitive advantages
   Provides information helpful in matching your
    organization’s resources and capabilities to the
    environment in which it operates
   Scan of the internal and external environment,
    beginning externally
   Environmental factors internal to the
    institution/organization/library/community = Strengths
    or Weaknesses
   Environmental factors external to the
    institution/organization/library/community =
    Opportunities or Threats
   Sometimes can be too inward
SWOT Analysis
Strengths       Weaknesses
               

Opportunities   Threats
               

   An extension of the SWOT analysis
   Analyze the external environment (threats and
    opportunities) and your internal environment
    (weaknesses and strengths) to help you think about
    the strategy of your organization
       Useful for marketing campaigns
   Threats and opportunities
       External environmental factors over which you do not have
        control (changing demographics)
   Weaknesses and strengths
       Internal factors (poor location; bad reputation)

   TOWS Strategic Alternatives
                          External Opportunities (O)      External Threats (T)
                          1.                              1.
                          2.                              2.
                          3.                              3.
                          4.                              4.
Internal Strengths (S)    SO “Maxi-Maxi” Strategy         ST “Maxi-Mini”
1.                        Strategies that use strengths   Strategy
2.                        to maximize opportunities       Strategies that use
3.                                                        strengths to minimize
4.                                                        threats

Internal Weaknesses (W)   WO “Mini-Maxi” Strategy         WT “Mini-Mini”
1.                        Strategies that minimize        Strategy
2.                        weaknesses by taking            Strategies that
3.                        advantage of opportunities      minimize weaknesses
4.                                                        and avoid threats
  Balanced Business Scorecard

         Perspectives                          Goals
      Financial/                              Measures
      Customer/service
      Internal/process
      Innovation/learning

Source: Dr. Sheila Corrall, University of Sheffield
What are the CSFs for your IL
training programme?

    Key questions
     Is your community ready?         What do you want learners
         What to do if it is not       to be able to do?
     Is your institution/             What do learners need to
      organization’s culture a          know in order to do this well?
      barrier?                         What type of instruction will
         How to deal with that         best enable the learning?
     Where did the idea for IL        How will the student
      training originate?               demonstrate the learning?
         You or others                How will you know that the
                                        learner has learned?

    Source: Ruth Pagell, SMU

Scope of your IL training
   Comprehensive or narrow(er)?
       Pilot project approach
           One subject, that can then be extended to others
           One tool, that can then be extended to similar tools
       Our responsibility is to help learners make those
   Focus on what the learner needs to know,
    teaching them how to ask the right question
    (if they want to get the right answer)
   Begin by asking what the learner already
    knows about the subject, and then….
Questions for the learner
(Framework for IL – Scotland)
   What’s the most likely place you will find the
    answer?: Was this choice “the best”?
   What words can you use to search effectively to
    improve on your existing knowledge?: Was the
    strategy “the best”?
   How do you know when you’re finished?: Did
    learner assess correctly?
   Have you learned something new?
   Who else should know this (and how should this be
    shared - ethically)?
   How will you apply this now?
   What have you learned from this experience that
    you can apply elsewhere?
Overview of the process

   Goals and objectives
       Strategies and tactics
   Target population
   Type of training
       Alternatives
   Project planning

Team approach
   Who should be included on the team?
   Who is responsible?
   When is it due?
   Consider what’s needed to gain
    institutional commitment and
    stakeholder “buy-in”

Needs assessment: Knowing
your “market”
   Definition: a planned,        Diverse set of learners,
    systematic approach            each with distinct set of
    to determining the             needs
    information needs of          Understand your targets
    each distinct customer            Why they need to
    group                              improve their IL skills
   Purpose: Help you                  (direct impact)
    develop training                  What would persuade
                                       them that IL is important
    targeted specifically to           to their success
    each group and need
                                  Identify groups with
                                   related needs

   At-the-elbow                    Questions
       Usability-lite testing      Analysis
   Easter egg hunt
   Interviews
   Surveys
   Focus Groups

Questions to pose concerning

   Why should I believe it?
   Does the claim need evidence to
    support it?
   If there is evidence provided, how
    good is the evidence?
   Other plausible interpretations?
   What reasonable alternative
    conclusions are possible?
What we’ll cover during this

   Moving from goals and objectives to who will
    do what (and when)
   Plus a bit on….
       How the training should be delivered
           Options available
       Monitoring performance and measuring success
       Student assessments
       Overall programme, including cost/benefit (ROI)
        and value analysis
The overall goal is information fluency
and developing the lifelong learner
                         Establish specific
                       objectives for your IL     General/Basic,
                                                  stand-alone           Integrated,
                        training program                                subject-
     IMPROVE!                                                           specific

         4               BI, ITC, and more                      2
Evaluate IL training                                   Develop IL training
 accomplishments                                           strategies
                                         One-time or
                       Required or
                                                                    Grade level;
                                                         Classroom/ undergrad/grad/
                                  3                      Online     researcher/
                         Implement IL training                      worker
                            programme(s)                Credit/other         34
The Plan

   Context          Key message(s)
   Goals            Target audiences
   Objectives       Strategies
   Positioning      Evaluation
    statement         measures

    1a. Establish objectives
   What (specific)                     What gaps must be
    competencies must your               addressed?
    “audience” possess?                     Identify required and desired
       Focus on the ends, not the           proficiencies
        means                               Identify deficiencies (and their
       From four perspectives               causes)
           Audience(s)/learners
                                            Identify non-training (e.g.,
           Competence
                                             availability equipment) and
           Condition under which
            performance will be              training (e.g., skills of trainers)
            observed                         issues
           Criteria for success                What innovative approaches
                                                 can be used?
                                                Benefits of blended learning
                                                     Social networks for viral
                                                      spreading knowledge gained
                                                     Web 2.0 to reinforce over
Worksheet 1

Competencies   Deficiencies
sought         identified

    The Plan

   Positioning               Key message(s):
    statement: How do          What is the most
    you want the project       important message
    to be perceived?           that you wish to

    Creating priorities within
    competencies sought (ISD)
   Based on the importance of knowing what your target
    learners need to DO
       How frequently is the task performed?
       How critical is the task to performance?
       How difficult or complex is the task?
           If a subset of collective tasks, what is the relationship among
       To what extent will training for this task be encountered
        elsewhere? Ability to apply knowledge
       What prerequisite skills, knowledge, and abilities are required
        to perform the task?
       What is the current/desired criteria for acceptable
       What behaviors distinguish good performers from poor?
       What behaviors are critical to the performance of the task?
  Non-training and training
Types of causes                        Questions to ask
                                        Will learners have adequate access to
Environmental factors                  tools/technology, resources, or
acknowledge that training alone is     information to achieve these goals?
unlikely to resolve performance gaps    What are the standards or expectations
                                       beyond the academic?
                                        Do “rules” facilitate or impede goal
                                        Are there mechanisms in place to
Motivational factors align             measure performance and provide
incentives/remove disincentives        feedback to performers? Trainers?
                                        How do achievers receive recognition?
                                       What are the consequences of not
                                       attaining IL goals?
                                        What resistance exists?

                                        Have all library staff (faculty) been
Knowledge/skills                       trained to facilitate IL learning?        40
People learn differently!

   Doers            Seeing is believing
   Thinkers          vs. auditory
   Feelers           (Wharton study)
                     Importance of
                     Storyboarding,
                      scenario building,
1b. Establish objectives
   How does each contribute to the overall
    strategic goal for information fluency?
   What approach(es) will you take?
       What has been successful for you in the past (and
   What specific results (outcomes) must be
    accomplished so that you can get closer to
    your goal of information fluency?
       How those results will be achieved is explained in
        Step 2
   How will you “market” this effort?
    Worksheet 2
Objective             Rationale     Result/     Assess-
                                   Outcome       ment
For each                          For each
objective, there is               activity or
an activity or task               task there
                                  is a result
Expressed as a                    Expressed
Verb                              as a Noun

2a. Develop IL training strategies

   What training (content) could address
    IL competence gaps?
   What format should that training take?
       How do you make those decisions?
           Staff competencies and time available
           Generate alternative training strategies for
            addressing (specific) IL gaps
           List all trainings considered/selected (and
               What innovative approaches can be used?

Is “classroom” training

              Tool: MS Visio   45
Training worksheet

Types of training   Why use/discarded

2b. Develop IL training strategies

   What are the projected (life-cycle) costs
    for (developing and implementing) each
    type of training to be offered?
       Specific benefits anticipated, both tangible
        and non-tangible?
   What are the consequences to the
    organization and library strategic goals
    of not offering IL training?
3. Implement IL training
   Write your IL training goals and make them
       Collaboration, teamwork, marketing/pr
   Identify performance measures and
    indicators (outcomes and impact)
       How will you benchmark performance prior to
        taking the training (e.g., pre-testing)?
           Mechanisms for assessing IL post-training
               Immediate and longer-term
           Continuous improvement process
           Measuring self-sufficiency achievements
           Understanding Top Box scores
   Develop an action plan
Action plans

   Strategy
   Tactics
   Evaluation and control
   Results

Develop an action plan
   What will be done?
       Key tactics to support the strategies
       Identify specific tasks to be completed
   By whom?
       For whom?
   By when?
       Timelines for each objective
   What resources are required (including financial)?
   Who should know/be involved?
       Collaborators and stakeholders
   How will you “market” the effort?
         Worksheet 3
Action step         Requirements    Training      Personnel (Lead)   Timetable
(initiative/task)   (Resources/$)   Opportunity

What                                              Who                When

               Sample Gantt chart presentation
Task       Description                     Months       1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12    13   14

       1   Development of Methodology

   1.1     Workshop on user needs

   1.2     Draft of methodology

   1.3     Evaluation of methodology

       2   Specification of Integrated System

   2.1     Inventory of resources in selected regions

   2.2     Review of existing facilities

   2.3     Specify technical developments required

   2.4     Impact analysis of different scenarios
4. Evaluate IL training goal
accomplishments (ISD)

   Did you achieve the training goal?
   How much did it cost?
   Did accomplishing your IL training goal
    help the organization/institution
    achieve larger goals?
   What modifications should be made to
    the plan, based on the evaluation
Training costs
   Development costs (personnel and equipment)
   Direct implementation costs (e.g., training materials,
    instructor travel/per diem, facilities)
   Indirect implementation costs (overhead, G&A)
   Compensation for participants
   Lost productivity or costs of “backfilling” positions
    during training
       Developer
       Instructor
       Faculty

Training benefits

   Time/resource savings
   Improved quality
   Error reduction
   Allow the learner to do something not
    possible before

Your business case
   Are the projected benefits (to the individual,
    library, faculty, school, organization,
    community) consistent with strategic
    performance goals?
   What are the consequences if IL training did
    not occur (or did not occur here)?
   Do the potential benefits outweigh the
   What is the value added from closing IL
    competency gaps?

Best practices for implementing
training programmes

   Demonstrate results: Performance
    measures should tell each target group how
    well it’s achieved its goals (individual,
    faculty, library, school)
   Limited to the vital few: Measures should
    cover key performance dimensions – Too
    much data may obscure rather than clarify
   Link to departments: Performance
    measures should be linked directly to offices
    responsible for making training work (library
    and faculty)
How can we assess learning and
training goal achievement?

   Pre- and post-testing
       Delayed post-tests
       Anonymity
   Interviews (in-person, phone)
   Survey
   Work samples/co-grading reports
   Existing monitoring and reporting
    mechanisms (extant data)
   Each data collecting method has
    advantages and disadvantages
  Moving from teacher-centered to
  learning and learner-centered training

        Learning           Learning       Learning
          Goal            Objective(s)   Outcome(s)

Source: Cox and Lindsay                               59
    Measuring targeted learning

     Targeted         Not          Low         Proficient
     behaviors        proficient   proficiency

Source: Cox and Lindsay
    Worksheet 4
Objective   Rationale     Result/   Assessment
                         Outcome    (method and
Verb                    Noun

Types and quality of assessments
            Types                           Quality
   Formal                          Collaborative
   Informal                        Multi-dimensional
   Traditional (test)
                                    Holistic
   Authentic (real life task)
   Integrated                      Assess the thinking
   Knowledge/Content-based          process
   Formative                       Include critical thinking
   Summative                        elements
   Self-Assessment (pre-and        Managed
   Peer
   Portfolio
Creating your assessments
   Create a list of KSAs: What should learners
    know and be able to do?
   Identify standards that the learners need to
   Design some tasks that will illustrate
    whether learners have grasped concepts
   Determine what signifies “good”
   Develop rubrics to be used in grading and
    course redesign

Assessment models and
   TRAILS: Tool for Real-time Assessment of
    Information Literacy Skills (
   iSkills from ETS
   Additional assessment resources

Monitoring your performance
as well

   Establish a tracking system to monitor
    both plan execution and impact
   For each scheduled milestone,
    compare the actual performance with
    the anticipated, and report results
   For all variances in scheduled

 Ask the following:
1.       How does the reported performance compare with
         the previous performance?
          Benchmark the starting line
2.       Is the performance/schedule variance likely to
         prevent goal achievement?
          Particularly when the “stepped approach” has been used
3.       Are external factors affecting performance? Which?
4.       Is the variance due to unrealistic expectations (from
         planning stage)? What adjustments should be
5.       What modifications should be made to the action
6.       What performance information should be collected
Establishing the worth

   Of training
   Subjective method for establishing the
    worth of improved performance (as a
    result of IL training)
   Comparing costs and benefits by
    calculating total Return on Investment
   Assessing results
A more detailed illustration of
the process

What you should have at the
end of this session

   Model worksheets for creating action
   Ideas to use as the starting points for
    your IL training efforts
   Resources to consult
       My bookmarks
       How you can share yours

Comments? Questions?

Thank you!

Barbie E. Keiser


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