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                                          Chapter 4
                             Engine &

Author’s note. Although the first section of    removing the engine from the vehicle, since
this chapter largely covers working on the      access to a 2CV’s engine while it’s in the
engine in the car, you’ll note that there are   car is extraordinarily good. The way this
several pictures showing work being carried     chapter is divided up, therefore, is just so
out with the engine out of the car. There       the work involved can be presented in a
are no hard and fast rules about when to        clear and logical fashion.
work on an engine when it’s in the car and
when removed. Indeed, you could carry            SECTION 1. EXHAUST SYSTEM
out a partial engine stripdown without          See the accompanying pictures.

                                                                                                    4-1-2. Not normally visible with the
                                                                                               bodywork in place, this picture shows how
                                                                                                the front pipes and front box are clamped
                                                                                                   to the exhaust manifolds and tailpipe
                                                                                                  (arrowed). The exhaust system is also
                                                                                                 bolted to the gearbox (together with the
                   4-1-1. This is the layout of a typical exhaust system.                       cooling shrouds if disc brakes are fitted).

    SECTION 2. ‘UNWINDING’ A                    jammed solid, or has left just reverse gear    a suitable recovery vehicle with the 2CV’s
                GEARBOX                         available when the gearstick is in what was    front wheels lifted off the ground. The good
‘Gearbox unwinding’ is a term that seems        previously the neutral position. It usually    news, however, is that the problem can
to be used exclusively by 2CV folk. It refers   happens after a period of sharp reversing,     almost always be rectified, and the even
to dealing with a gearbox which has either      and the car might need to be recovered by      better news is that it can be prevented.
                                                                                                     The following sequence of pictures
                                                                                               shows 2CV Club member, and well-known
                                                                                               repair specialist, Rick Pembro, as he sets
                                                                                               about unwinding a 2CV gearbox.
                                                                                                     This particular type of malfunction is
                                                                                               a sure sign of wear, so the repairs we’re
                                                                                               going to outline here to a worn gearbox can
                                                                                               only be regarded as a temporary fix.
                                                                                                     It appears that it’s only the later
                                                                                               gearboxes, that is, those from the 1980s,
                                                                                               which are prone to this unwinding, and
                                                                                               it appears to be due to a deterioration in
                                                                                               steel quality. However, if you’ve got a
                                                                                               low-mileage gearbox that’s in excellent
                                                                                               condition, or an early gearbox, it’s well
                                                                                               worth doing this job as a preventative

                              5-2-1. The gearbox components.

                                                                                                5-2-4. This internal ring has three dogs on
                                                                                                it which slide in three slots on the second
                                                                                               and third synchro hub. The dogs can come
                                                                                               free of the slots, and the ring on which they
                                                                                                 are located can turn so that the dogs no
                                                                                               longer line up with the slots. You then have
                                                                                               the job of realigning the dogs with the slots
                                                                                                  before you can get the ring back on the
                                                                                                 synchro hub. (In other words, before you
                                                                                                 can push the first gear synchro hub onto
                                                                                                 the second and third gear synchro hub.)

   5-2-2. The ring for the second and third
   gear selector fork was staked onto the
 synchro hub when the gearbox was built
  (inset, arrowed). The problem is that the
three stakings may not hold, especially on
              the later gearboxes.
    The ring is threaded with a right-hand
  thread onto the synchro hub and, when
   it unscrews, the synchro hub will slide
 forward, into the third gear, which makes
        the gearbox engage third gear.
   The symptoms of the problem are that
     you can engage reverse okay, if you
    put the lever in what was neutral, but
   if you can then find any other gear, the
     vehicle will be in both first and third,
    and will be immovable. Don’t struggle        5-2-3. This ring is inside the synchro hub
     with the gearstick - you’ll only cause     first gear, at the opposite end of the hub to    5-2-5. This picture shows one of the dogs
                more problems.                          the ring that unscrews itself.                  located correctly in its slot.

                                        BRAKES, REAR WHEEL BEARINGS & OIL SEALS

                                                                                                 6-2-33. Lee fits the seal to the bore first,
                                                                                                   and then pushes the brake pipe into
                                                                                                  the seal and the bore so that it locates
                                                 6-2-32. The positions of the seal and the       as shown in picture 6-2-32. Finally, Lee
                                               pipe in the bore are critical. The very end of         screws the retaining nut home.
6-2-31. Before fitting the ends of the brake    the pipe must be fed into the narrower part
 pipe to either the wheel cylinders or the       of the bore (b), and the seal (a) must be         SECTION 3. DRUM BRAKES -
   three-way connector, make sure that          located in the pipe in the position shown.                     FRONT
  new seals are used on the ends of the                                                         See the accompanying pictures.
                brake pipes.

                                               6-2-35. You can buy a complete new kit of
  6-2-34. Make sure that the brake pipe         brake hoses for any 2CV derivative with
 is clipped correctly in position on the        narrow-bore pipes from Armacune. The
  suspension trailing arms and on the             Cupro-Nickel kit comes complete with
chassis. A rubber protective sleeve must         fresh LHM brake fluid, all clips, screws
be used between the brake pipe and the         and fittings. Unlike steel, Cupro-Nickel will
          clip in each location.                             never corrode.                     6-3-1. These are the new components fitted
                                                                                                 to my 1959 vehicle when it was restored:
                                                                                                     top left - two new wheel cylinders;
                                                                                                  centre-right - new brake shoes; bottom
                                                                                                             - handbrake cables.

                                                                                                6-3-3. Where appropriate, the order of work
                                                                                                described in the Citroën manual is adhered
                                                                                                 to, even though it may not precisely align
                                                                                                  with the order in which the photographs
                                                                                                were taken when Graeme Seed carried out
                                                                                                                    the work.
                                                                                                   It is difficult to remove the brake drum
                                                                                                 without first disconnecting the driveshaft
                                                                                                 (see the relevant section of this manual).
  6-3-2. Although there are several different designs - for example, this brake drum has        This picture shows Graeme Seed removing
lateral fins, whereas very early ones have longitudinal fins - this is the basic layout of the        the four nuts which hold the drum to
                front brake shoes, handbrake cable clips and steady pins.                                            the hub.

                                                   SUSPENSION, STEERING, WHEELS & TYRES

                                             Chapter 7
    steering, wheels
        & tyres
 SECTION 1. FRONT SUSPENSION                       of the side of the vehicle. The other way is   • Disconnect the steering column from the
             AXLE AND ARMS                         to remove the gearbox and to lift the axle     steering rack and move it upwards, just far
It’s unlikely that you’ll need to remove or        and arms out of the vehicle. If you want to    enough to free the rack.
replace suspension arms or axle bearings.          proceed by removing the axle, follow the       • Disconnect the driveshafts.
For those rare occasions, however, here            relevant part of this manual.                  • Disconnect the steering rods.
is how it’s done. There are two ways of                  Before you can begin, you must carry     • Disconnect the front ends of the
removing the axle with everything still in         out the following preparatory work:            suspension tie-rods.
situ (i.e. with the body still on, etc.). One is   • Disconnect the battery, remove the spare     • Although picture 7-1-1 shows the hub
to remove one of the arms and then slide           wheel (as appropriate), remove the bonnet,     removed from the end of the axle arm, it’s
the axle and the other arm (still fitted) out      side panels and front wings.                   not necessary to do so.

                                                                                                        Suspension arm removal
                                                                                                  See the accompanying pictures.

                                                                                                  7-1-2. Remove the cover, take out the three
                                                                                                    bolts, and remove the end plate from the
 7-1-1. These are the components of the front axle and axle arm. Note that the slotted nut                       suspension arm.
  (8) has an internal thread, and screws onto the threaded outer end of the axle tube (a):        If the vehicle is fitted with friction dampers,
 2. Suspension arm. 3. Axle. 5. Stop. 6. Packing piece/lock plate. 7. High tensile steel bolt.     see the relevant section of this chapter for
                          8. Slotted ring nut. 9. Seals. 12. Bearings.                                    information on their removal.


                                                                                                  9-6-4. There are lots of minor trim pieces,
 9-6-3. If all of the trim has been removed from the vehicle, in order to respray the shell,      all of which will need to be identified and
for example, you’ll need to identify each part, and scrub it all clean before refitting. Take      refitted. This piece is being sprayed with
   great care not to soak the cardboard or hardboard trim backing, though, because it                      Wurth spray adhesive ...
                                       may disintegrate.

                                                                                                  9-6-7. The spray adhesive, which is much
9-6-5. ... before being refitted on the inside                                                     quicker to apply, was applied to the rear of
                of the A-panel.                    9-6-6. This is the trim panel that goes on                       the trim.
   So you can adjust the trim before the         the dashboard on these early models. Here,
  adhesive sets, it’s best if you either use       I’m using a brush to apply the adhesive
contact adhesive with a built in ‘shuffling-      because the trim that goes on the bulkhead
time’, or fit the trim while the adhesive still       has already been fitted and spray-on
           has a bit of moisture in it.           adhesive would go where it wasn’t wanted.

                                                                                                      9-6-10. Old 2CVs are trimmed in cloth
                                                   9-6-9. Panel wipe is useful for wiping off     which is glued directly onto the panelwork.
                                                  excess adhesive, but be sure to do so as            Replacement panels were purchased
                                                  soon as possible because the longer you          from ECAS, but needed a lot of trimming.
                                                    leave it, the harder it will be to get off.     I used plain paper to make a pattern for
9-6-8. It can be quite tricky to manoeuvre           Don’t use cellulose thinners or other         each panel. The paper was stuck on with
  trim into its original position without        solvents which can dissolve or damage the           masking tape, marked carefully with a
 getting adhesive on surrounding parts.                     surface of the material.                 pencil, and then cut out with scissors.


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