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					                                                                                     Native
                                                                                    American
                                                                                     Records
           Abenaki Acoma Algonquin Anishinaabe Apache
         Arapaho Assiniboine Athabascan Aztec Blackfee
            Blackfoot Caddo Cayuga Cheraw Cherokee
          Cheyenne Chickasaw Chicora Chinook Chippewa
                  Choctaw Chumash Coeur d'Alene



                                      Native
        Comanche Costanoan Cree Creek (Muskogee) Crow
          Dakota Delaware Dene Edisto Euchee Flathead
           Gros Ventre Gwitchan Haida Haudenosaunee
                   Havasupai Hidatsa Ho-Chunk
              Hopi Huron Iowa Iroquois Kaw Kawaiisu



                                     American
                         Kickapoo Kiowa
       Lakota Lenape Lumbee Maliseet Mandan Mattaponi
           Maya Menominee Metis MicMac Mojave Mohawk
        Mohegan Mohican Monacan Muscogee Nanticokes
                  Narragansett Navajo Nez Perce



                                      Records
            Nipmuc Odawa Ohlone Ojibwe Omaha Oneida
         Onondaga Osage Paiute Pima Ponca Potawatomi
           Powhatan Pueblo Quapaw Sac Salish Seminole
               Seneca Shawnee Shinnecock Shoshone
                          Sioux Tsalagi
         Tuscarora Ute Wea Wichita Winnebago Wyandot
                        Yavapai Yokut Zuni



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                                                                                                          Native
 CONTENTS                                                                                                American
                                                                                                          Records

                                          Page       Page                                         Page        Page

  Introduction                                        3                       1880 Census         44
                 MAPS                     8
                                                                              1896 Census         45
  About Records                                       7
             Terminolgy                   18                                  Armstrong Rolls     46

                 Notes on Daily Culture   21                                  1924 Baker Roll     47

                 Types of Records         23                                  Kern Clifton Roll   48

                 Key Resources            25                                  Old Settlers Roll   49

                 National Archives        27                                  Wallace Roll        50

                 Contacts                 28                     The Western Tribes                           51

  Quick Start                                         31         Change Log                                   53

  The “Five Civilized” Tribes                         35

                 Dawes Rolls              39

                 Guion Miller Rolls       41




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                                                                                     Native
                                                                                    American
                                                                                     Records


                                     Introduction
           Abenaki Acoma Algonquin Anishinaabe Apache
         Arapaho Assiniboine Athabascan Aztec Blackfeet
            Blackfoot Caddo Cayuga Cheraw Cherokee
          Cheyenne Chickasaw Chicora Chinook Chippewa
                  Choctaw Chumash Coeur d'Alene
        Comanche Costanoan Cree Creek (Muskogee) Crow
          Dakota Delaware Dene Edisto Euchee Flathead
           Gros Ventre Gwitchan Haida Haudenosaunee
                   Havasupai Hidatsa Ho-Chunk
              Hopi Huron Iowa Iroquois Kaw Kawaiisu
                         Kickapoo Kiowa
       Lakota Lenape Lumbee Maliseet Mandan Mattaponi
           Maya Menominee Metis MicMac Mojave Mohawk
        Mohegan Mohican Monacan Muscogee Nanticokes
                  Narragansett Navajo Nez Perce
            Nipmuc Odawa Ohlone Ojibwe Omaha Oneida
         Onondaga Osage Paiute Pima Ponca Potawatomi
           Powhatan Pueblo Quapaw Sac Salish Seminole
               Seneca Shawnee Shinnecock Shoshone
                          Sioux Tsalagi
         Tuscarora Ute Wea Wichita Winnebago Wyandot
                        Yavapai Yokut Zuni


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                                                                                               Native
Introduction (cont’d)                                                                         American
                                                                                               Records


  Many families have traditions of Indian ancestry. Some have supporting evidence which validates
  their traditions. Others, unfortunately, are unfounded. The following steps will help you be more
  effective in your search:
        •Identify a specific time period and locality for your ancestor. Use the other records described
        throughout this outline, particularly the 1900, 1910, and 1920 U.S. censuses.

        •Identify the tribe. THIS IS A MUST, WITHOUT THE TRIBE, YOU WILL NOT BE ABLE TO FIND
        YOUR KINDRED. Once you know the general area where an ancestor lived, you can usually
        identify the tribe he belonged to. Two handbooks that describe where the tribes resided are:

             Swanton, John R. The Indian Tribes of North America, 1952, reprint. Washington, D.C.:
             Smithsonian Institution Press, 1974. (FHL book 970.1 Sm69b No. 145; computer number
             68353.)
             Waldman, Carl. Atlas of the North American Indian. New York: Facts on File Publications,
             1985. (FHL book 970.1 W146a; computer number 451994.)
             Local and statewide histories may also be helpful in identifying tribes in the area.

        •Study the history of the tribe. You will need some background information about the tribe,
        such as migration patterns , marriage and naming customs , and affiliations with government
        agencies or churches. Because some tribes moved several times, records about them may be
        in many locations. Most large libraries have some state or tribal histories of American Indians.

          •Determine what records were created for that tribe, and where they are available. There are
          many records that are unique to American Indians. However, they vary by tribe, time period,
          locality, and governing agencies. The majority of these records were created by the federal
          government or one of their agents. Two excellent guides for locating and describing federal
          records are:
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                                                                                                Native
 Introduction (cont’d)                                                                         American
                                                                                                Records
               American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. 1984 ed.
               Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995. (FHL book 970.1
               Un3a; fiche 6125472)
               Hill, Edward E. Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to
               American Indians. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1981. (FHL book
               970.1 H551g)
               Many of these records and others created by local agencies are listed in the Family History
               Catalog:
                      •Look in the SUBJECT Search under the name of the tribe, such as CHEROKEE, or
                      under INDIANS OF NORTH AMERICA - [STATE].

                      •Look in the KEYWORD Search using “CHEROKEE INDIAN” or “CREEK INDIAN”.


                      •Look in the PLACE Search under UNITED STATES - NATIVE RACES or [STATE] -
                      NATIVE RACES.

                      •If in Oklahoma, do a PLACE Search for OKLAHOMA, then scroll down to NATIVE
                      RACES. There are many sub-catagories here for the tribes that went to Oklahoma.




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                                                                                                            Native
 Introduction (cont’d)                                                                                     American
                                                                                                            Records
         Traditional Native American Values and Behaviors
               The following paragraphs draw contrast between selected and widely shared Native American core
               cultural values and non-Native American values and associated behaviors and attitudes.
               Personal differences. Native Americans traditionally have respected the unique individual differences
               among people. Common Native American expressions of this value include staying out of others’
               affairs and verbalizing personal thoughts or opinions only when asked. Returning this courtesy is
               expected by many Native Americans as an expression of mutual respect.
               Quietness. Quietness or silence is a value that serves many purposes in Indian life. Historically the
               cultivation of this value contributed to survival. In social situations, when they are angry or
               uncomfortable, many Native Americans remain silent. Sometimes this trait is viewed as indifference,
               when in reality, it is a very deeply embedded form of interpersonal etiquette.
               Patience. In Native American life, the virtue of patience is based on the belief that all things unfold in
               time. Like silence, patience was a survival virtue in earlier times. In social situations, patience is
               needed to demonstrate respect for individuals, reach group consensus, and allow time for “the second
               thought.” Overt pressure to make quick decisions or responses without deliberation should be
               avoided in most situations.
               Open work ethic. In traditional Native American life, work is always directed to a distinct purpose
               and is done when it needs to be done. The non-materialistic orientation is one outcome of this value.
               Only that which is actually needed is accumulated through work.
               Mutualism. As a value, attitude, and behavior, mutualism permeates everything in the traditional
               social fabric. Mutualism promotes a sense of belonging and solidarity with group members
               cooperating to gain group security and consensus.
               Personal Contact. They may not look you in the eye. Eye contact is swift and infrequent. To look one
               in the eye is to invade that persons soul. Also, a handshake will be light and quick.
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                                                                                                             Native
 Introduction (cont’d)                                                                                      American
                                                                                                             Records

          Traditional Native American Values and Behaviors (cont’d)
                 Nonverbal orientation. Traditionally most Native Americans have tended to prefer listening rather
                 than speaking. Talking for talking’s sake is rarely practiced. Talk, just as work, must have a
                 purpose. Small talk and light conversation are not especially valued except among very close
                 acquaintances. In Native American thought, words have a primordial power so that when there is a
                 reason for their expression, it is generally done carefully. In social interaction, the emphasis is on
                 affective rather than verbal communication.
                 Seeing and listening. In earlier times, hearing, observing, and memorizing were important skills
                 since practically all aspects of Native American culture were transferred orally or through example.
                 Storytelling, oratory, and experiential and observational learning were all highly developed in
                 Native American cultures. The use of lectures and demonstrations, modified case studies,
                 storytelling, and experiential activities can all be highly effective.
                 Time orientation. In the Native American world, things happen when they are ready to happen.
                 Time is relatively flexible and generally not structured into compartments as it is in modern society.
                 Allow for scheduling flexibility within practical limits.
                 Practicality. Native Americans tend to be practical minded. Many have less difficulty
                 comprehending materials and approaches that are concrete or experiential rather than abstract
                 and theoretical. Given this characteristic, learning and teaching should begin with numerous
                 concrete examples and activities to be followed by discussion of the abstraction.
                 Caution. The tendency toward caution in unfamiliar personal encounters and situations has given
                 rise to the stereotypical portrayal of the stoic Native American. This characteristic is closely related
                 to the placidity and quiet behavior of many. In many cases, such caution results from a basic fear
                 regarding how their thoughts and behavior will be accepted by others with whom they are
                 unfamiliar or in a new situation with which they have no experience.

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                                                                                    Native
 Introduction (cont’d)                                                             American
                                                                                    Records


  Major
  Tribes




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                                                                                    Native
 Introduction (cont’d)                                                             American
                                                                                    Records


    Indian
  Territories
     1768




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                                                                                    Native
 Introduction (cont’d)                                                             American
                                                                                    Records

   Five
  Tribes
1800-1840




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                                                                                    Native
 Introduction (cont’d)                                                             American
                                                                                    Records




    Indian
   Removal
      Act
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                                                                                    Native
 Introduction (cont’d)                                                             American
                                                                                    Records


   Indian
  Territory
    1885




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                                                                                    Native
 Introduction (cont’d)                                                             American
                                                                                    Records


   Indian
  Territory
    1889




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                                                                                    Native
 Introduction (cont’d)                                                             American
                                                                                    Records




  Oklahoma
    1890
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                                                                                    Native
 Introduction (cont’d)                                                             American
                                                                                    Records




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                                                                                    Native
 Introduction (cont’d)                                                             American
                                                                                    Records


  Shrinking
  Cherokee
   Nation




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                                                                                    Native
                                                                                   American
                                                                                    Records
           Abenaki Acoma Algonquin Anishinaabe Apache
         Arapaho Assiniboine Athabascan Aztec Blackfee
            Blackfoot Caddo Cayuga Cheraw Cherokee
          Cheyenne Chickasaw Chicora Chinook Chippewa
                  Choctaw Chumash Coeur d'Alene
        Comanche Costanoan Cree Creek (Muskogee) Crow
          Dakota Delaware Dene Edisto Euchee Flathead
           Gros Ventre Gwitchan Haida Haudenosaunee


                        About Native
                   Havasupai Hidatsa Ho-Chunk
              Hopi Huron Iowa Iroquois Kaw Kawaiisu
                         Kickapoo Kiowa
       Lakota Lenape Lumbee Maliseet Mandan Mattaponi

                       American Records
           Maya Menominee Metis MicMac Mojave Mohawk
        Mohegan Mohican Monacan Muscogee Nanticokes
                  Narragansett Navajo Nez Perce
            Nipmuc Odawa Ohlone Ojibwe Omaha Oneida
         Onondaga Osage Paiute Pima Ponca Potawatomi
           Powhatan Pueblo Quapaw Sac Salish Seminole
               Seneca Shawnee Shinnecock Shoshone
                          Sioux Tsalagi
         Tuscarora Ute Wea Wichita Winnebago Wyandot
                        Yavapai Yokut Zuni



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                                                                                                           Native
 About Native American Records (cont’d)                                                                   American
                                                                                                           Records
          Needed information to find the desired person
              • Name
              • Tribe/nation
              • Time Period
              • Place
          Terminology:
                 Dawes Final Rolls: this is the roll of Indians that was created by Congress for each of the Five
                 Civilized Tribes, which are: Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek and Seminole. This roll was
                 closed in 1907 with 101,000 names on it. However, Congress added 312 names in 1914. If you are a
                 descendant of one of these tribes you have to prove direct descent from someone on the role to attain
                 citizenship.

                 Henderson Rolls: This is a Census Roll of Cherokee Indians East of the Mississippi for 1835. This
                 information is also published in the book “Those Who Cried” (call number 970.3 C424tj) by James
                 W. Tyner.

                 Guion Miller Rolls: This roll was completed in 1910 and lists those who were Eastern Cherokee
                 during the Treaties of 1835-36 and 1845 or their descendants.
                 Agency Rolls: Various reservation agents throughout the country created membership rolls for the
                 tribes in their areas. It was up to the agent to decide when the rolls were taken and what questions
                 were asked.
                 Intruder: In Native American records this usually refers to a white man
                 Freedman: In Native American records this usually refers to a black man
                 Paper Indian: One accepting anything from the government, annuities and allotments generally.
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                                                                                                          Native
 About Native American Records (cont’d)                                                                  American
                                                                                                          Records

          Terminology (cont’d)
                 U.S. Federal Census: The Census Records for 1790-1880 did not include a category for “Indians”.
                 For an “Indian” to be listed during those years they had to have been living in a white or black
                 settlement and even then they would have been listed as white or black or most frequently as
                 “mulatto”. In 1860 Indians were included in the Census but only if they paid taxes. In 1870 non-tax
                 paying Indians were added but it wasn't until 1890 that anyone living on a reservation was added to
                 the Census. Unfortunately, the entire 1890 Census was destroyed by fire so 1900 is the first real
                 Census to include Indians both on and off the reservation. There are differences in the forms used
                 for 1900, 1910, 1920, and 1930. The page is divided with 15 lines on the upper half and 15 lines on
                 the lower half. If a person is found on the upper half, you can go to the appropriate line in the
                 bottom half and find: the Indian name. tribe, quantum of Indian blood quantum for father, and
                 quantum of Indian Blood for mother. They received citizenship in 1924.
                 Non Paper Indian: One who did not accept anything from the government. There are no records for
                 them. They usually moved into the white or black communities.
                 Sanitary Records: Health records, such as birth, injuries, sickness and death. These were records
                 when they were treated by the Indian Agency. If they were not treated by the Agency, then there
                 were no records. These records begin in 1866 are are accessed through the BIA.
                 BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs): They hold land records, patents, and leases. These records are
                 usually kept by the Agency at the reservation. When writing them, it may take several months to
                 complete a search and for them to respond. They will answer all inquiries.
                 Claims Records: When an Indian sued the government in the US Court of Claims, payment was
                 made to the descendants who could prove their relationship to the known Indian on the rolls. These
                 are excellent records. They are held by the BIA.

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                                                                                                          Native
 About Native American Records (cont’d)                                                                  American
                                                                                                          Records

          Terminology (cont’d)
                 Wills: Wills were made only with the permission of the Indian Commission in Washington DC.
                 Indian Agents had copies of the wills. Check the agencies nearest the person’s residence. Also, check
                 the National Archives in Washington DC.
                 Tribal Headquarters: Each recognized tribe has a Headquarters and many records are kept there.
                 These records are only accessible by members of the tribe.

                 Allotment: In 1887 some Indians were allotted a piece of land. But the Federal Government held the
                 patent until the person could prove that he could management his own affairs. When he died, the
                 land was divided among his relatives.

                 Reservationists: Those who between 1817 and 1828 indicated they would accept a reservation, or a
                 grant of land in the west.
                 Note: Land ownership was a foreign idea. To the Indians the Land belonged to heavenly Father, and
                 it was held under Him by the Tribe. Anyone could use a piece of land not already being used by
                 someone else. Because of this, the records may not show all land owners.

                 Five Civilized Tribes: Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole.

                 Brother, Sister: In the Cherokee Clan structure all members of the clan thought of one another as
                 immediate family and called each other brother and sister. When two men are called brothers, it
                 does not necessarily mean that they have the same parents.




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                                                                                                         Native
 About Native American Records (cont’d)                                                                 American
                                                                                                         Records

          Terminology (cont’d)
                 Roll or Roll Numbers: There are many rolls for each tribe taken at different times. The same people
                 will appear on different rolls with different roll numbers. If someone says they have a roll number
                 for an individual, it is important to know which roll the number applies to.

                 Census: Indian census were not taken every ten years. They were taken at the discretion of the
                 Agent to each tribe. The Census was labeled by the name of the agent. Thus the 1835 census of the
                 Cherokee is known as the Henderson Roll.

                 Royalty: There was no royalty among the Indians. Terms like “Indian Princess”, “Indian King”,
                 “Cherokee Princess” are all terms of “White Fiction”. Some of the eastern tribes did have a father
                 to son descent of leadership at times, but chiefs were normally elected.

          Notes on Daily Culture:
                 • Land – Before the Dawes Rolls, Indians did not own land. To the Indians, God owned the land and
                 the tribe held it under Him for their use as needed. Individuals could use any piece of land not
                 already in use. They used the land they worked as long as needed.

                 • Homes – In the early days, the woman owned the home and ran it. Often, it was the woman who
                 built the home.

                 •Matriarchal Society – Indians usually had a Matriarchal social order. A man chose a wife from a
                 clan other than his mother’s. His duty to the children was to feed and love them. The Mother’s
                 brothers taught and disciplined the children. The man and the family all lived with the wife’s
                 people. The women were very influential. The was a “Beloved Woman” who was head of the
                 “Women’s Council”. She represented their views in the tribal council.
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                                                                                                            Native
 About Native American Records (cont’d)                                                                    American
                                                                                                            Records
          Comprehensive outlines for doing research in state and country records are available. These outlines
          introduce strategies and records that can help you learn more about your ancestors.
                 •They may be purchased at the MRFHC or through LDS Church Distribution (Item# 34118000)
                 •The contents may be found free on the Family Search website (www.familysearch.org) in the
                 SEARCH section under “Research Helps”.
          The outlines referenced below all have a section titled, “Native Race”. This section offers direction in doing
          research for each area.
              State/Country            Item#                              State/Country            Item#
              Arizona                  31039                              Ohio                     31072
              Canada                   34545                              Oklahoma                 31073
              Idaho                    31049                              Oregon                   31074
              Illinois                 31050                              Pennsylvania             31075
              Indiana                  31051                              Quebec                   31088
              Iowa                     31052                              South Carolina           31077
              Kentucky                 31054                              South Dakota             31078
              Maryland                 31057                              Tennessee                31079
              Mexico                   36342                              United States            30972
              Minnesota                31060                              Utah                     31081
              Montana                  31063                              Vermont                  31082
              Nevada                   31065                              Washington31084
              New York                 31069                              Wisconsin                31086
              North Carolina           31070                              Wyoming                  31087
              North Dakota             31071



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                                                                                                            Native
 About Native American Records (cont’d)                                                                    American
                                                                                                            Records

          Types of Native American Records That May Be Available
                       US Census Records – Especially 1900,1910, 1920, 1930. Native Americans living on
                            Reservations were recorded on a special form showing normal census information at
                            the top and additional information at the bottom on tribe, Indian name and quantum of
                            Indian blood. Note: for 1900 in Oklahoma, check both the Indian Territory and
                            Oklahoma Territory. Oklahoma became a state in 1907.

                       Indian Census Rolls – 1880 and later. English and/or Indian names, roll number, age or date of
                             birth, and relationship to head of household. Available at the National Archives, BIA,
                             some have been filmed, some from the tribe, and some indexes are on the Internet.
                             These are mainly for western tribes – primarily 1880 to 1940. The census were taken
                             every 3 to 4 years. These are available from the Salt Lake Family History Center. Look
                             for the tribe in the Family History Library Catalog using a KEYWORD Search with
                             the tribe name.

                       Sanitary Records – Especially 1886 – 1910. Medical records of persons treated by the agency.
                             Shows name, sex, illness, births, deaths, etc. Available at the National Archives, BIA,
                             and some from the tribe.

                       Register of Families – Especially 1890 – 1900. English and Indian names, marital status,
                             parents if living, extended family if living, number of children, etc. Available at the
                             National Archives, BIA, some from the tribe, and some are on the Internet. Many of
                             these register are in tribal museums. There are many ongoing projects.

                       Annuity Rolls – English and/or Indian name, age, sex, quantum of Indian Blood, relationship
                            to head of family, date and amount of payment. Available at the National Archives, &
                            BIA.

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                                                                                                            Native
 About Native American Records (cont’d)                                                                    American
                                                                                                            Records
         Types of Native American Records That May Be Available (cont’d)
                Probate Records and Heirship Papers –1907 to present. Head of family, parents and grandparents,
                ages, birth dates, marital status, tribal affiliation, and land allotment information. Available at the
                National Archives, BIA, some have been filmed
                Wills – Especially 1906 – 1921. Name of testator, residence, heirs, relationships, property description,
                allotment numbers, signature, witnesses date of BIA approval. Available at the National Archives.
                Military Service Records – Normal search for military service (Note that some Indians used more
                than one name and may be enlisted under an alternate name.)
                Tribal Histories - Books, libraries, National Archives, BIA, some have been filmed, some from      the
                tribe, and many good histories are on the Internet.
                Tribal Enrollment Records – 1827 to present – Name, extended family, ages, birth date, marital status,
                etc. Available at the National Archives, BIA, some from the tribe, and some are on the Internet.
                Church Records – 1500 to present – Baptism, marriage, death, etc. Some have been filmed, some
                from the tribe, and some are on the Internet. Remember, they were usually given a new name at
                baptism. This makes them hard to identify.
                School Census – 1910 to 1919 – Names of children, extended family, sex. Tribe, quantum of blood,
                etc. Available at the National Archives, BIA, some from the tribe, and some are on the Internet.
                Oral Histories - Some available at the BIA, some from the tribe, some from living individuals,     and
                some are on the Internet.
                Cherokee Nation Court Records – 739 Volumes of early Cherokee Nation court records (land,
                probate, marriage, etc.). NO INDEX Found on old DOS Version of FHCL


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                                                                                         Native
 About Native American Records (cont’d)                                                 American
                                                                                         Records
  Key Resources:

         • Cherokee by Blood (call# 970.3 C424j, volumes 1-9) by Jerry Jordan
         • National Archives – http://www.archives.gov/research/native-americans/
         • Family Search – www.familysearch.org
         • Department of the Interior for ancestry - http://www.doi.gov/ancestry.html
         • Ancestry - www.ancestry.com
         • State Archives - www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/
         • SEARCH ENGINES
                • www.google.com
                • www.searchengines.com
         • Public Libraries
         • Tribal governments and organizations
         • Some helpful web sites:
                •http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/
                •http://www.angelfire.com/tx/carolynegenealogy/
                •http://members.aol.com/bbbenge/front.html
                •http://www.hanksville.org/NAresources/indices/NAgenealogy.html
                •http://www.cyndislist.com/native.htm
                •http://www.indians.org/Resource/FedTribes99/fedtribes99.html
                •http://www.genealogybranches.com/nativeamericans.html
                •http://www.nativeweb.org/resources/genealogy_tracing_roots_/
                •http://www.kindredtrails.com/native.html
                •http://www.nanations.com/apache/
                •http://www.archives.gov/research/arc/topics/native-americans.html
                •http://www.genealogybranches.com/nativeamericans.html
                •http://www.rootsweb.com/~usgwnar/
         • SEARCH          THE INTERNET FOR TRIBES & RECORDS
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                                                                                                        Native
                                                                                                       American
                                                                                                        Records
         Key Resources (cont’d):
               Indian Territory has long been the center of research for information on Native American ancestors.
               But, surrounding states also provide information available both online and through interlibrary loans.
               Here are a few more sources:
                      •The Oklahoma Historical Society 2100 N. Lincoln Oklahoma City, OK 73105,
                      •Chief, Archives Branch Federal Archives and Records Center P. O. Box 6216 Fort Worth, TX
                      76115
                      •Heart of America Indian Center 1340 E. Admiral Boulevard Kansas City MO, 64124 (816) 421-
                      7608, fax (816) 421-6493
                      •American Indian Center 4115 Connecticut Street St. Louis, MO 63116 (314) 773-3316
                      •Northern Cherokee Nation of the Old Louisiana Territory 1012 Business Highway 63 North
                      Columbia, MO 65201 (573) 443-8424
                      •Southwest Missouri Indian Center 2422 W. Division Springfield, MO 65802 (417) 869-9550, fax
                      (417) 869-0922
                      •Saponi Nation of Missouri Mahenips Band c/o 3445 CR 4990 Willow Springs, MO, 65793 (417)
                      469-2547
                      •Cherokee National Historical Society and Cherokee Registration Office P. O. Box 515
                      Tahlequah, OK 74464-0515 (918) 456-6007
                      •For Delaware, Osage, Shawnee and Kaw tribes: Kansas State Historical Society 120 West
                      Tenth Topeka, KS 66612-1291
                      •Newberry Library 60 West Walton Street Chicago, IL 60610-3394

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                                                                                                          Native
 About Native American Records (cont’d)                                                                  American
                                                                                                          Records
   National Archives (NARA)
                            To access records in the National Archives
                                http://www.archives.gov/research/native-americans/

   Most of the main tribal records are physically stored at the National Archives Southwest Region in Fort Worth,
   Texas. The NARA has begun to digitalize these records and place many of them on line for use by researchers,
   historians and genealogists. The records include the following:

          •Final Rolls of the Citizens and Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes in Indian Territory

          •Index to the Final Rolls of the Citizens and Freedmen of the Fibe Civilized Tribes in Indian Territory

          •Wallace Roll of Cherokee Fredmen in Indian Territory, 1890

          •Kern Clifton Roll of Cherokee Freedmen, January 16, 1867

          •1896 Citizenship Applications

          •Dawes Commission rolls include 64,177 applications that have been digitized into 10,8874 pdf files, each
          with multiple names and references. All 634 pages of the Final Rolls have been digitized as well as the 343
          pages of the index to the Guion Miller Rolls. There is also complete documentation on the Wallace and
          Kern-Clifton rolls.




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                                                                                                       Native
 About Native American Records (cont’d)                                                               American
                                                                                                       Records




                            To contact the BIA
                                http://www.doi.gov/bureau-indian-affairs.html

                                     The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) responsibility is the administration
                                     and management of 55.7 million acres of land held in trust by the
                                     United States for American Indians, Indian tribes, and Alaska Natives.
                                     There are 562 federal recognized tribal governments in the United
                                     States.




                            To contact Tribal Leaders and BIA representatives
                                http://www.doi.gov/leaders.pdf




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 About Native American Records (cont’d)
                                                                                                    Native
                                                                                                   American
                                                                                                    Records
    To access the Department of the Interior for ancestry
       http://www.doi.gov/ancestry.html




     Resources links to trace Indian ancestry are provided below.

     Ancestry - General statement on tracing your American Indian ancestry for purposes of enrolling in a
     federally recognized American Indian tribe. Genealogical Research - Provides general information as to
     where individuals can look in order to find the appropriate information they need to support their effort.
     Enrollment Process - Provides a general description on what the Enrollment Process to a federally
     recognized tribe involves.
     Benefits & Services Provided to American Indians and Alaska Natives - Provides a general description on
     what benefits and services are available to American Indians and Alaska Natives.
     Cherokee Indian Ancestry - There are three federally recognized Cherokee Tribes that have different
     requirements for enrollment in their tribes.
     Information on the Dawes Rolls -The Dawes Commission was organized in 1893 to accept applications for
     tribal enrollment between 1893-1907 from American Indians of the Five Civilized Tribes who resided in
     Indian Territory, which later became the eastern portion of Oklahoma.
     Contacting a Tribal Entity - Link to the BIA Tribal Leaders Directory that lists the name, address and
     phone number of all the Federally Recognized Tribes. Dated July, 2005

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 About Native American Records (cont’d)
                                                                                                 Native
                                                                                                American
                                                                                                 Records

          Searching The Internet
                More records become accessible each month on the INTERNET. As an example, the
                ACCESSGENEOLOGY site has an excellent collection. It is found at:

                http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/index.htm




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                                                                                             Native
Quick Start                                                                                 American
                                                                                             Records




         The Native American Quick Start is designed to help the user get started in researching
         their ancestors.


         The format is that of a worksheet. The user goes through each suggested step and records
         what he/she has learned. The final step is to set up a go-forward plan. Based on what has
         been learned, the user can now set up the next steps to continue the research as needed.


                NOTE: AS THE USER GOES THROUGH EACH STEP, THIS ACTIVITY SHOULD
                   BE RECORDED IN THE RESEARCH LOG FOR THIS ANCESTOR




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                                                                                    Native
Quick Start (cont’d)                                                               American
                                                                                    Records




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                                                                                    Native
Quick Start (cont’d)                                                               American
                                                                                    Records




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                                                                                    Native
Quick Start (cont’d)                                                               American
                                                                                    Records




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                                                                                                           Native
                                                                                                          American
                                                                                                           Records



    The “Five Civilized Tribes”      The Five Civilized Tribes was a loose confederation, formed in 1859, of North
                                     American Indians in what was then INDIAN TERRITORY (in present-day
                                     Oklahoma). The group comprised the Iroquoian-speaking CHEROKEE and
                                     the Muskogean-speaking CHICKASAW, CHOCTAW, CREEK, and
                                     SEMINOLE. They were described as "civilized" because of their early adoption
                                     of many of the white man's ways. Under the Indian Removal Act of 1830, the
                                     Five Tribes were deported from their traditional homelands east of the
                                     Mississippi and forced to settle in Indian Territory. Each organized an
                                     autonomous state modeled after the U.S. federal government, established courts
                                     and a formalized code of laws, constructed schools and Christian churches, and
                                     developed a writing system patterned on the one earlier devised by the
                                     Cherokee.

                                     Members of the Five Tribes absorbed many cultural features of their white
                                     neighbors, including plow agriculture and animal husbandry, European-style
                                     houses and dress, and even the ownership of black slaves. Some tribesmen
                                     joined the Confederate forces during the Civil War. Many slaves ran away to
                                     the Indians. They sold slaves, but they rarely bought them.
                                     Thereafter the United States instituted a policy of detribalization and gradually
                                     curtailed Indian control of tribal lands. The tribal nations remained
                                     independent until 1907, when statehood was granted to Oklahoma and the
                                     federal government opened Indian Territory to white settlement. Today, a great
                                     many descendants of the Five Tribes live on reservations in Oklahoma.

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                                                                                                         Native
 The “Five Civilized Tribes” (cont’d)                                                                   American
                                                                                                         Records


                 Creek
                        A confederacy forming the largest division of the Muskhogean family. They received their
                       name form the English on account of the numerous streams in their country. During early
                       historic times the Creek occupied the greater portion of Alabama and Georgia, residing chiefly
                       on Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers, the two largest tributaries of the Alabama river and on the
                       Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers. They claimed the territory on the east from the Savannah to
                       St. Johns river and all the islands, thence to Apalachee Bay, and from this line northward to
                       the mountains. The south portion of this territory was held by dispossession of the earlier
                       Florida tribes.

                 Cherokee
                       A powerful detached tribe of the Iroquoian family, formerly holding the whole mountain
                       region of the south Alleghenies, in southwest Virginia, western North Carolina and South
                       Carolina, north Georgia, east Tennessee, and northeast Alabama, and claiming even to the
                       Ohio River.
                        The tribal name is a corruption of Tsálăgĭ or Tsárăgĭ, the name by which they commonly
                       called themselves, and which may be derived from the Choctaw chiluk-ki 'cave people', in
                       allusion to the numerous caves in their mountain country. They sometimes also call
                       themselves Ani'-Yûñ'-wiyd', 'real people,' or Anĭ'-Kitu'hwagĭ, 'people of Kituhwa’, one of
                       their most important ancient settlements. Their northern kinsmen, the Iroquois, called them
                       Oyata’ge'ronoñ', 'inhabitants of the cave country' (Hewitt), and the Delawares and
                       connected tribes called them Kittuwa, from the settlement already noted. They seem to be
                       identical with the Rickohockans, who invaded central Virginia in 1658, and with the ancient
                       Talligewi, of Delaware tradition, who were represented to have been driven southward from
                       the upper Ohio River region by the combined forces of the Iroquois and Delawares.
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                                                                                                           Native
 The “Five Civilized Tribes” (cont’d)                                                                     American
                                                                                                           Records

                 Seminole
                       Creek: Sim-a-no'-le, or Isti simanóle, 'separatist', 'runaway' . A Muskhogean tribe of Florida,
                       originally made up of immigrants from the Lower Creek towns on Chattahoochee river, who
                       moved down into Florida following the destruction of the Apalachee (q. v.) and other native
                       tribes. They were at first classed with the Lower Creeks, but began to be known under their
                       present name about 1775. Those still residing in Florida call themselves Ikaniúksalgi,
                       peninsula people' (Gatschet).
                       The Seminole, before the removal of the main body to Indian Territory, consisted chiefly of
                       descendants of Muscogee (Creeks) and Hitchiti from the Lower Creek towns, with a
                       considerable number of refugees from the Upper Creeks after the Creek war, together with
                       remnants of Yamasee and other conquered tribes, Yuchi, and a large Negro element from
                       runaway slaves. When Hawkins wrote, in 1799, they had 7 towns, which increased to 20 or
                       more as they overran the peninsula.


                 Chickasaw
                       An important Muskhogean tribe, closely related to the Choctaw in language and customs,
                       although the two tribes were mutually hostile. Aside from tradition, the earliest habitat
                       traceable for the Chickasaw is north Mississippi. Their villages in the 18th century centered
                       about Pontotoc and Union counties, where the headwaters of the Tombigbee meet those of
                       Yazoo river and its affluent, the Tallahatchie, about where the De Soto narratives place them
                       in 1540, under the name Chicaza. Their main landing place on the Mississippi was at
                       Chickasaw Bluffs, now the site of Memphis, Tenn., whence a trail more than 160 miles long
                       led to their villages. They had two other landing places farther up the Mississippi.



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                                                                                                             Native
 The “Five Civilized Tribes” (cont’d)                                                                       American
                                                                                                             Records


                 Choctaw
                       Possibly a corruption of the Spanish chcdu, 'flat' or 'flattened,' alluding to the custom of these
                       Indians of flattening the head. An important tribe of the Muskhogean stock, formerly
                       occupying middle and south Mississippi, their territory extending, in their most flourishing
                       days, for some distance east of Tombigbee River, probably as far as Dallas County, Ga.
                       Ethnically they belong to the Choctaw branch of the Muskhogean family, which included the
                       Choctaw, Chickasaw, Hunt and their allies, and some small tribes which formerly lived along
                       Yazoo River. The dialects of the members of this branch are so closely related that they nay be
                       considered as practically identical (Gatschet, Creek Migr. Leg.,1,53,1884).




          Dawes Final Rolls of the Five Civilized Tribes
                 Dawes is a list of those members of the Five Civilized Tribes who removed to Indian Territory
                 (Oklahoma) during the 1800's and were living there during the above dates.
                 IF YOUR ANCESTOR WAS NOT LIVING IN INDIAN TERRITORY DURING 1898-1914 THEY
                 WILL NOT BE LISTED ON DAWES!!
                 Only those Indians who RECEIVED LAND under the provisions of the Dawes Act are listed. It also
                 lists those Freedmen who received land allotments as provided for in the Dawes Act. These pages
                 can be searched to discover the enrollee's name, age, sex, blood degree, type, census card number
                 and roll number.



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                                                                                                          Native
 The “Five Civilized Tribes” (cont’d)                                                                    American
                                                                                                          Records

         Dawes Final Rolls of the Five Civilized Tribes (cont’d)

                 The Dawes Rolls may also be searched at the Mesa Family History Center as follows:
                         1.    Obtain the Roll Number for the person
                               1.    Look in the book Final Roll of the Dawes Index (call# 970.1 Un3c Book 1) for the
                                     persons name. You must look in all sections: “Cherokee by Blood”, “Minor
                                     Cherokee by Blood”, “Delaware Cherokee”, “Intermarried White”, “Cherokee
                                     Freedmen”, and “Minor Cherokee Freedmen”.
                               2.    When you find the name, note the section you found it in and the roll number listed
                                     to the right of the name.
                         2.    Obtain the Census Card number
                               1.    Now look in book 2 of the Index (call# 970.1 Un3c Book 2) for the Roll #. Make
                                     sure you are in the same section you used in Book 1 (“Cherokee by Blood”, “Minor
                                     Cherokee by Blood”, “Delaware Cherokee”, “Intermarried White”, “Cherokee
                                     Freedmen”, and “Minor Cherokee Freedmen”)
                               2.    Note the Census Card #
                         3.    Obtain the Film
                               1.    Now look in the book, Dawes Film Number, Civilized Tribes (call# 970.3 A3).
                                     Locate the film # corresponding to the Census Card Number under the tribe and
                                     section heading where the name was found.
                               2.    Pull the microfilm and review the information.
                         Notes:
                               1.    Book 1 of the Index for all tribes is on film #962366
                               2.    Book 2 of the Index is on film #830228 (Choctaw & Chickasaw), film #830229
                                     (Cherokee), film #830230 (Seminole & Creek)
                               3.    If the name was found under other than “Cherokee by Blood” use the film instead
                                     of the Book 2. Book 2 in the printed form is incomplete.
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                                                                                                          Native
 The “Five Civilized Tribes” (cont’d)                                                                    American
                                                                                                          Records

          Guion Miller Rolls Index

                 The index does not include the names of all persons applying for compensation arising from the
                 judgment of the United States Court of Claims on May 28, 1906, for the Eastern Cherokee tribe.
                 While numerous individuals applied, not all the claims were allowed. The information included on
                 the index is the application number, the name of the applicant, and the State or Territory in which
                 the individual resided at the time the application was filed.

                 Rejected individuals may be found on CD #158

                 Send case file number to the National Archives for a copy of the file or application.

                 The Guion Miller Rolls pertain to the Eastern Band of Cherokee. These are packages of information
                 relating to the Eastern Cherokee enrollment records 1908 to 1910. They are found in the Family
                 History Library Catalog (FHLC) under:

                 UNITED STATES, COURT OF CLAIMS/EASTERN CHEROKEE APPLICATIONS,
                 August 29, 1906-May 26, 1909 Transcription taken from the Guion Miller Reports




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                                                                                                             Native
 The “Five Civilized Tribes” (cont’d)                                                                       American
                                                                                                             Records

          Guion Miller Rolls Index (cont’d)
                 There are 3 ways to access these rolls:

                       1.      Using the Book Cherokee by Blood (call# 970.3 C424j, Volumes 1-9) by Jerry Jordan
                              (This is the easiest way, but it is incomplete. When completed this collection will have 22
                              volumes.)
                              1.    Look in the back of each volume for the persons name. If the name is found, note
                                    the Application #.
                              2.    Go to the front part of the same volume and find the information under the
                                    Application #.

                              NOTE: Only the first 9 volumes of the 22 actual volumes are in print.
                              Volume 1               Applications 1 – 1550
                              Volume 2               Applications 1551 – 4200
                              Volume 3               Applications 4201 – 7250
                              Volume 4               Applications 7251 – 10170
                              Volume 5               Applications 10171 – 13260
                              Volume 6               Applications 13261 – 16745
                              Volume 7               Applications 16746 – 20100
                              Volume 8               Applications 20101 – 23800
                              Volume 9               Applications 23801 – 27800

                       2.     COURT OF CLAIMS EASTERN CHEROKEE APPLICATIONS
                              1.  Search the Applications Index on Film #830434 (A-Z Index) for the persons name.
                                  Note the application number(s) of the records that pertain to the person.
                              2.  Review the information on the appropriate film below for the application
                                  number:
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                                                                                         Native
 The “Five Civilized Tribes” (cont’d)                                                   American
                                                                                         Records

          Guion Miller Rolls Index (cont’d)
                              Applications                         Film#
                              Index A-Z vol. 1-2                   830434
                              1 – 6000 vol. 1-2                    830435
                              6001 – 16000 vol. 3-4                830436
                              16001 – 31000 vol. 5-7               830437
                              31001 – 45857 vol. 8-10              830438

                       Other related documents:

                              Document                                         Film#
                              Report of Exceptions                             830439
                              Miscellaneous Testimony vol. 1-2                 830440
                              Miscellaneous Testimony vol. 3-4                 830441
                              Miscellaneous Testimony vol. 5-6                 830442
                              Miscellaneous Testimony vol. 7-8                 830443
                              Miscellaneous Testimony vol. 9                   830444
                              Sizemore Testimonies vol. 10                     830444
                              Poindexter & Creek vol.10                        830444
                              Index of Eastern Cherokee Rolls A-Z 1851         830445
                              Chapman Roll 1851                                830445
                              Drennen Roll 1851                                830445
                              Cherokees added to Siler Roll 1854               830445
                              Index to Ols Settlers Roll 1851                  830445
                              Index to Hester Roll 1851                        830445
                              Hester Roll 1884                                 830445
                              Misc. notes and drafts 1851                      830445
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                                                                                                              Native
 The “Five Civilized Tribes” (cont’d)                                                                        American
                                                                                                              Records

         Guion Miller Rolls Index (cont’d)
               3.     ORIGINAL ROLLS – U S COURT OF CLAIMS (348 Reels of microfilm organized by
                          application number.)

                      The General Index is on FHL film # 378594

                      The film numbers are found on the old DOS version of the FHLC. There are 369 listings of
                      Native American Records. This is listing #352.

               4.     THE INTERNET
                      The Index to the Guion Rolls is on several internet sites, but the actual rolls are not there.
                      Example sites are:

                             http://www.archives.gov/research/arc/native-americans-guion-miller.html

                             http://www.archives.gov/research/arc/topics/native-americans.html#guion

                             http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/guion.php

               5.     The Index is also on CD# 130 found on computers CD1, CD2 and CD4

               6.      Guidance for ordering any desired information is found at:

                             http://www.archives.gov/research/order/



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                                                                                                          Native
 The “Five Civilized Tribes” (cont’d)                                                                    American
                                                                                                          Records

          1880 Cherokee Census
                 The census of 1880 was authorized by an act of the Cherokee National Council Senate Bill No. 33 on
                 December 1, 1879.
                 This is a transcription of the index for Schedule One and includes all nine districts. This index can
                 be found on microfilm through the LDS organization on microfilm #989204. National Archives also
                 has a microfilm index for this census. It is found on Roll # 7RA07
                 NOTE: The transcription presently has data for only the following districts: Canadian,
                 Cooweescoowee, Flint, Illinois and Saline. We are still presently transcribing Delaware, Goingsnake,
                 Sequoyah, and Tahlequah Districts.

                 Go to   http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/cherokeecensus.php




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                                                                                                       Native
 The “Five Civilized Tribes” (cont’d)                                                                 American
                                                                                                       Records

          1896 Census Applications
                 Applications from the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Muskogee Area Office, Relating to the Enrollment of
                 the Five Civilized Tribes under the Act of 1896
                 This is the index of Cherokees, Choctaw, Chickasaw and Creek found on microfilm M1650 obtained
                 from the National Archives in Fort Worth, Texas. If your ancestor was on the 1896 Cherokee Census
                 they probably will NOT be on this index. This is NOT the 1896 CENSUS. It is an index of people
                 who were NOT recognized by the Cherokee Tribe and subsequently made application to be
                 considered for citizenship.
                 Go to   http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/commission.php




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                                                                                                     Native
 The “Five Civilized Tribes” (cont’d)                                                               American
                                                                                                     Records

        The Armstrong Rolls

               The location of Reservations under The Choctaw Treaty of the 27th of September, 1830.
               Communicated To The Senate April 11, 1834. The three districts surveyed are Nitachacha,
               Mushulatubbe and Laflore .

               Go to http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/armstrong.php




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                                                                                                             Native
 The “Five Civilized Tribes” (cont’d)                                                                       American
                                                                                                             Records

          1924 Baker Roll
                 The final roll of the Eastern Cherokee, prepared by United States Agent Fred A. Baker, pursuant to
                 an act of the 68th Congress, (43 stat., 376), June 4, 1924. Before preparation of this roll, the Act
                 required that all land, money, and other property of the Tribe be transferred to the United States
                 for final disposition. Termination of the Tribe as a government and political entity was the ultimate
                 goal. After termination efforts failed, the Tribe continued to use the 1924 Baker Roll as its base roll.
                 Descendants of those persons of the original Baker Roll are enrolled on the Baker Revised Roll,
                 providing they meet the membership requirements of the Tribe.

                 Go to http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/baker.php




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                                                                                                       Native
 The “Five Civilized Tribes” (cont’d)                                                                 American
                                                                                                       Records
        Kern Clifton Rolls
               In 1896-1897 the Kern-Clifton Roll was created to fill in the omissions of the Wallace Roll.
               Genealogists not finding their Cherokee ancestor in the Kern-Clifton Roll, should search the Wallace
               Roll to insure that this ancestor was not one of those originally identified by the John Wallace.
               CENSUS of the Freedmen and their descendants of the Cherokee Nation taken by the Commission
               appointed in the case of Moses Whitmire, Trustee of the Freedmen of the Cherokee Nation vs. The
               Cherokee Nation and the United States in the Court of Claims at Washington, D. C., the said
               Commission being composed of William Clifton, William Thompson and Robert H. Kern, the same
               being made from the testimony taken before said Commission in the Cherokee Nation between May
               4th and August 10th, 1896.

               Go to    http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/kern.php




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                                                                                                           Native
 The “Five Civilized Tribes” (cont’d)                                                                     American
                                                                                                           Records
        Old Settlers Roll

               A listing of Cherokee still living in 1851 who were all ready residing in Oklahoma when the main body
               of the cherokee arrived in the winter of 1839, as a result of the Treaty of New Echota (1835).
               Approximately one third of the Cherokee people were Old Settlers and two thirds new arrivals. The
               1851 payroll lists Old Settlers (Cherokees who moved to Indian Territory prior to December 1835)
               entitled to participate in a per capita payment. There were 3,273 persons enumerated on this roll
               which is arranged by Cherokee district and grouped by family. Some persons who did not reside in
               the Cherokee Nation are listed as "Non-residents." Three thousand, two hundred and seventy three
               Cherokees were enrolled and received two hundred, seventy dollars and ninety five cents. The "Old
               Settlers" filed a protest against the sum. The Supreme Court decided that the original "Old Settlers"
               or their heirs would receive an additional one hundred, fifty nine dollars and ten cents per share in the
               1896 "Old Settler" payment..

               See Call# 970.3 C424hc for both 1851 and 1896. Note: Does not cover all descendants of “Old
               Settlers”, only those who applied for annuity.
               Go to http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/settlers.php




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                                                                                                      Native
 The “Five Civilized Tribes” (cont’d)                                                                American
                                                                                                      Records
        Wallace Roll

               The Wallace Roll of Cherokee Freedmen in Indian Territory was created due to the citizenship of
               many ex-slaves (freedmen) being disputed by the Cherokee Tribe. To the freedmen, the ability to
               establish their status was important, not only for the sharing of the Cherokee lands, but also the
               payments and annuities the Cherokee Tribe was to receive in the future. A series of investigations
               were conducted. These investigations resulted in the Cherokee Freedmen Rolls known as the Wallace
               Roll, and the Kern-Clifton Roll.

               Go to http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/wallace.php




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                                                                                    Native
                                                                                   American
                                                                                    Records




                                         The
                                        Western
                                        Tribes


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 Western Tribes (cont’d)
                                                                                                       Native
                                                                                                      American
                                                                                                       Records
        1954 Proposed Ute Roll

               The following database contains 2 rolls, the Full Blood Roll and the Mixed Blood Roll of the Ute
               Tribe of Uintah and Ouray Reservation in Utah. These are the PROPOSED rolls, and do not signify
               that the individuals listed upon it actually received any distribution under Title 25, Chapter 14,
               Subchapter 28, U.S. Code.

               Go to    http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/ute.php?utePage=1




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                                                                                        Native
 Change Log                                                                            American
                                                                                        Records
   Date                       Revision   Changes
   21 November 2005           Original   None




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