Cold War Powerpoint - The Cold W by fjwuxn

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									The Cold War 1945-
       1991 By Ms. Joseph
                      Cold War
• Competition and tension between the
  US and USSR for power and influence
  in the world without any direct fighting
• Competitions:
   Politics – Democracy vs. Communism (Totalitarianism)
   Economics – Capitalism vs. Communism or Mixed
    Economy vs. Command Economy
   Technology
      Arms Race (weapons & military)
      Space Race
   Influence among 3rd World Nations
   Military Alliances – NATO vs. Warsaw Pact
  “Weapons” of the Cold War

• Threat of Nuclear
• Propaganda
• Sending Economic
  and Military Aid to
  Weaker Nations
          Different Values
         USA                USSR
•   Democracy       •   Totalitarianism
•   Freedom         •   Equality
•   Capitalism      •   Socialism
•   Individualism   •   Collectivism
         USA                 We are the
        rules,             Best, better than
        USSR                  The West
           Roots of the Cold War
    Russia gets out early, US entry helps win the war
• Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    Russians lose 1/3 of their territory
• Russian Revolution
    U.S. doesn’t recognize Russian govt. until 1933
    West aids White Army
• Treaty of Versailles
    Russia not invited
    Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia granted independence
      Stalin signs Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
      Stalin pleas for help on eastern front denied
      Russian losses at 29M, US only 400,000
      US refuses to give Russia nuclear technology
      US drops bomb to avoid giving Russia more territory
      WWII Agreements – Yalta and Potsdam
YALTA (in the USSR)
   Date: Feb 1945
 Present: Churchill,
 Roosevelt and Stalin
• Creation of United Nations
• Division of Germany
• Russian agree to help defeat Japan in
  exchange for land
• Stalin agrees to free elections in
  occupied territories
POTSDAM (Germany)
   Date: July 1945
 Present: Churchill,
  Truman and Stalin
• Stalin has refused free
  elections, instead
  installed communist
  governments in
  occupied territories.
• US has the A-bomb
  and are anxious to
  restrict Russia
• Finalize agreement to
  divide Germany and
    Cold War Foreign Policies
          US                   USSR
•   Truman Doctrine   •   Soviet Satellites
•   Containment           – Iron Curtain
•   Marshall Plan     •   Molotov Plan
•   NATO              •   Warsaw Pact
•   United Nations    •   United Nations
Truman Doctrine
   •   CAUSE - Greece and Turkey threatened with
       communist takeovers

   •   1947 Truman promised that the USA “would
       support free peoples who are resisting
       subjugation by armed minorities or by
       outside pressures”.

   •   US Foreign Policy - provide money and
       military aid to nations resisting communist

   •   Greece and Turkey, received $400M first
       and successfully defeated communism

   •   Italy received $$ to secure upcoming
       elections. France received aid to prevent the
       advance of Communist trade unions

   •   It signalled the end of “isolationst” policies.
• Containment – US Foreign Policy to keep
  communism within its existing borders
• Places were Containment Policy was used:

  –   Greece
  –   Turkey
  –   South Korea
  –   Berlin
  –   Vietnam
               Marshall Plan
• Marshall Plan - money to
  help rebuild European
  economies after WWII
• Purpose – Prevent spread of
  communism by eliminating
  the conditions that
  encourage communism
• Catch -$ had to be spent on
  products made in the US
• USSR - rejected the
  Marshall Plan thinking it was
  a plan to boost the US
  economy and make countries
  dependent on US
                   United Nations
• Purpose - International Organization established
   after WWII to maintain international peace
• Organization – 6 main groups
    Security Council
      o resolves disputes, maintains peace and security
      o 15 members, 5 permanent
           Russia, China, US, France, Great Britain
    General Assembly
      o Representatives from all member nations
      o Makes policies
    Secretariat – executive and administrative duties
    Economic and Social Council – provides economic assistance and
     programs to 3rd world nations
    International Council – oversees transition to colonial rule
    World Court – resolves international disputes, war crimes
               United Nations
Problems - Between 1945-1949 US and USSR vetoed each
other initiatives. Many were concerned that the UN might
become another LON

1950 – USSR boycotted UN over failure to recognize
Communist China
       enabled the US to take action in Korea
       UN resolution to sends troops to aid South Korea
      against a North Korean invasion ensured that the UN
      could send troops to resolve international disputes
                  Iron Curtain
• “From Stettin in the
  Baltic to Trieste in the
  Adriatic an iron curtain
  has descended across
  the continent”
          -Winton Churchill
• Soviet Satellites -
  Soviet controlled
  countries in Eastern
  Europe (aka countries
  behind the iron curtain)
• Purpose – protect
  USSR from invasion
  from the West
             Molotov Plan

• USSRs plan to
  counter the
  Marshall Plan a.k.a
• Eastern European
  countries under
  Soviet influence
  received some aid
  Soviet Union Tests Bomb
• 1949 Soviets Test first
  Atomic Bomb
• US and West react
  with fear and despair
• Arms Race Begins
      NATO and Warsaw Pact
        NATO                  Warsaw Pact
• Military Alliance       • Military Alliance
  between the US and        between the USSR
  western Europe            and Eastern Europe
• An attack against one   • Pledge to defend one
  nation would be           another in the event of
  considered an attack      an attack
  against all
                 Cold War Events
                Tension and Conflict
• Berlin
    – Airlift
    – Wall
•   U2 Spy Plane
•   Cuba
•   Korea
•   Vietnam
                Divided Germany
• Germany had been divided
  into 4 sectors after WWII
 Allies remain in these
  territories and implement their
  own economies/political
• Allies had different goals for
    USSR - prevent Germany
     from becoming too strong
    Western Allies - make
     Germany economically strong
     to avoid Communism
Iron Curtain –
A term used by
Winston Churchill
to describe the
separating of
Those communist
lands of East
Europe from the
   Improve your knowledge
• The Russians took very high casualties to
  capture Berlin in May 1945. They spent the
  early occupation trying to take over all
  zones of the city but were stopped by
  German democrats such as Willy Brandt
  and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the
  Russians had to admit the Americans,
  French and British to their respective
                Berlin Blockade
   – Western Allies attempt to unite the Western Sectors of
     Germany and Berlin and form an independent West Germany
     with a common currency
   – Stalin responds with attempt to take over all of Berlin

• Berlin Blockade – 1948 Stalin tries to starve the city to
  force the west out of West Berlin

   – USSR cut off all ground access to Berlin, leaving 2M West
     Berliners without food, electricity and fuel
        Berlin Blockade
• You are President Truman…What
  would you have done to save West

• What are the pros and cons to each
         Truman’s Choices
  • Use military force to gain ground
    access to West Berlin
  • Give up West Berlin to Soviets
  • Is there another?

Airlift Food and Supplies
                  Berlin Airlift
• Purpose – to prevent
  the takeover of
  West Berlin by the

• US sent 2M tons of
  supplies to West
  Berlin on Cargo

• Plans landed
  24hrs/day to keep
  west Berliners from
     Operation “Little Vittles”
• US pilots drop
  candy to the
  children of West
  Berlin using
  parachutes made
  of handkerchiefs
       Extended Thinking
What did the Berlin Airlift do for the
 relationship between the U.S. and German

What did the Berlin Airlift do for Stalin?

In what ways did President Truman’s airlift
  support the policy of containment?

As you view the film, make note of the end
 result of the airlift? What happened to
 the west and east sectors of Germany?
Berlin Airlift
    Effects of Berlin Blockade
• Success for Containment
• Germany became 2 countries – East and
  West Germany
• Berlin became permanently divided
• US – appeared as friend rather than foe to
  West German’s
• USSR/Stalin - appeared oppressive and
           U2 Spy Plane Incident
•   May 1, 1960
•   US U-2 spy plane shot down over the Soviet Union.
•   Khrushchev demanded an apology - Eisenhower refused.
•   Pilot Gary Powers - Convicted of espionage and sentenced
    to 3 years imprisonment and 7 years of hard labor.
    – Served 1 year 9 months and 9 days before being traded for the
      Soviet spy Colonel Rudolph Ivanovich Abel.
• Effect- Created further mistrust between US and USSR
Berlin Wall
                  Berlin Wall
• Constructed in 1961
• Purpose - keep East
  Berliners from defecting to
  West Berlin
• Effects – East Berliners
  separated from families
  and jobs, exodus ended
• Cuban Revolution – 1956
  – Castro overthrows President
  – Establishes Communist
    Government in Cuba
  – Nationalizes all industries
     • Many owned by U.S. citizens
 US Response to Cuban Revolution
• Bay of Pigs Invasion
  –   CIA plan to Overthrow Castro
  –   Sent Cuban Exiles to invade Cuba
  –   Kennedy cancelled US air support
  –   Invasion Failed

• Operation Mongoose
  – CIA plan to assassinate Castro and interrupt
    Cuban Trade
Cuban Missile Crisis
           Cuban reaction to US
            attempts to overthrow
           Turn to USSR for Help
           Soviets begin building
            nuclear weapon sites in
           October 1962 – US U2
            Spy Plane Photographs
            Missile launch sites
            under construction in
               Missile Range
 • Missiles could reach

 Missiles could reach
every major city in US
(except Seattle) within
minutes of launch
        Cuban Missile Crisis
         Oct 16-28, 1962
• Causes
   Reaction to US attempts to invade Cuba
   and overthrow Fidel Castro
  Reaction to US missiles placed in Turkey

Khrushchev                        Kennedy
  Kennedy Speech
Cuban Missile Crisis
       Cuban Missile Crisis
•   Potential Options Discussed by
    ExComm (Sec. of State, Sec. of Defense,
    Joint Chiefs of Staff, National Security
    Advisor, CIA Director, Vice President, UN
      1. Ignore the Missiles
      2. Airstrikes to take out Missiles
      3. Airstrikes followed by US invasion
      4. Diplomacy
      5. Naval Blockade of Cuba
        Cuban Missile Crisis
• Naval Blockade – option chosen by Kennedy
  – Demonstrated US willingness to take action
  – Gave Khrushchev time to consider the gravity of the
• US Response
  – Americans left population centers
  – US military on full alert
• Soviet Response
  – Send ships toward Cuba
  – Eventually honor the blockade
     CMC Final Agreement
• Public:
  – USSR agrees to withdraw Missiles
  – US wont invade Cuba

• Private
  – Kennedy agreed to remove Missiles in
    Soviet Leadership - Cold War
• Stalin (1922-1953)

• Khrushchev (1953 – 1964)

• Brezhnev (1964 – 1982)
• Stalin (1922-1953)
  – Great Purge (1936-1938)
     • Political Rivals sent to gulags or purged
  – 5 year Plan (1928)
     • focus on heavy industrial products
     • Few consumer goods made
     • Focus on quantity vs. quality
  – Collectivization(1928)
     • Peasants forced to work on group farms
  – Military spending high – 1st A-bomb
    (1949), 1st H-bomb (1952)
• Khrushchev (1953 – 1964)
   – De-Stalinization (1953)
      • Denounced Stalin’s brutal policies
         – Improved standard of living
         – More freedoms

   – Continued Collectivization and 5 year plans

   – U2 Spy Plane incident 1960

   – Peaceful Co-existence with West (1961)

   – Continued Massive Military Buildup
       • Sputnik – 1st Satellite in space = ICBMs capable
         of reaching US (1957)

   – Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) + Weakened
     Economy = Removed from Office (1964)
•1964 – 1982
   •Reversed Khrushchev’s de-Stalinization
   policies (1964)

   Brezhnev Doctrine – no country
     could leave the Warsaw Pact (1968)

   •Détente (1972) – policy to “relax”
   relations with the US
             SALT (1972)– limited the
             number of nuclear warheads and
             missiles that each country could
   •Invasion of Afghanistan (1979) ended
      •Drained national treasury, unpopular
         Soviet Satellites
• Only large eastern European
  Communist state to resist Soviet
• Josip Tito – leader of Yugoslavia
  – insisted on own national policies
  – Developed his own form of Communism
  – Stalin expelled Yugoslavia from the
    international communist organization
         Soviet Satellites
     Invasion of Hungary 1956
• Hungarians demand freedoms from
  communist government
• Imre Nagy announced withdraw from
  Warsaw Pact - Threatens to return to
• Khrushchev sends Soviet Army into
• Leaders and protesters rounded up and
• Hungary returns to Communism
       Soviet Satellites
   Invasion of Czechoslovakia
• Czechs attempt to loosen
  Soviet Control
• Czech leader Alexander Dubcek
  restores some freedoms
• Soviets send in Warsaw Pact
• Czechoslovakia returns to
  Soviet Communism
           Soviet Satellites
• Resented Soviet control
• Gomulka – freed political prisoners and ended
  collectivization, eased relations with the
  Catholic Church
• 1970s workers demand economic reforms
• 1976 Growing underground movement to
  resist Soviets aided by Catholic Church
          Cold War in Asia

      Communism in China
• 2000 years of Dynastic Rule
• 1911 Republic of China established
• Nationalist Leader - Sun Yat-sen
  – Promised land reform and end to political
          Communism in China
• 1920 – Chinese Communist Party formed
• 1920/30’s Nationalist Party in Control
• – Chiang Kai-Shek leads Nationalist Party (1927)
   – Millions of peasants starve
   – Unequal land distribution
   – Govt. policies favor wealthy landlords

• 1927 Civil War begins
   – Nationalist vs. Communists

• 1934 – Long March
   – 90K Communist March 2,000 miles in Protest against
   – Nationalist kill 6K Communists
   – Mao Zedong survives
          Communism in China
 – Communist – Mao Zedong
   • gain strength in countryside by giving
     peasants land
   • arm peasants with weapons
   • Communist movement grows
 – Nationalist- Chiang Kai-shek
   • save best troops to fight Communists, NOT
   • Troops are crushed by Japanese
   • Nationalist movement weakens
   • Continues to ignore problems
      – Land reform, Corruption
         Chinese Civil War

•   Civil War Resumes after WWII
•   US sends 3B in Aid to help Nationalists
•   Why?_______________________
•   As you watch the video, answer the
    following question:
    – What were the results of the Chinese Civil
Chinese Civil War
             Chinese Civil War
• Results:
  – Chiang Kai-shek flees to
    Formosa establishes the
    Republic of China
    • Allies with US
  – Mao Zedong established the
    Peoples Republic of China
    • Allies with USSR
         Communism in China
• 1949 Communist Revolution
   – Mao Zedong becomes leader (1949-1976)
• 1952-1957 Soviet Socialism
   – 5 year Plan and Collectivization
• 1956 Break from Soviet Influence
       • Move toward true communism
• 1956-1961 Great Leap Forward
   – Modernize economy, while equally sharing
   – Large scale industrial programs
   – Communes
• 1966-1969 Cultural Revolution
   – Plan to rid China of the 4 Olds: ideas,
     culture, customs and habits
   – Red Guard helped to enforce Communist
• 1976 Mao dies, Jiang Qing (wife) takes over –
  struggle in Communist Party begins
             Chinese Modernization
• 1979-1997 Deng Xioping
   –     The Four Modernizations
         • improve agricultural
         • update and expand
         • modernize its army                               Deng Xiaoping 1904-
         • Import foreign science                                  1997
           and technology

 •1997-2003 Jiang Zemin
       •Modernization of industry
           •Environmental destruction
           •Widening Gap between rich and poor
       •Three Represents
           •Changes to Communist Ideology
           •Included “representing interests of majority”
                                                            Zemin improved Chinese relations
                •Movement to include business interests     Between the US and USSR
                 in party politics
                Modern China
•Chinese Global Influence continues to Grow
  •Environmental Controls
  •Gaps between rich and poor
  •Continued economic improvement
  •Foreign Investment in economy

•Personal, but not Political Freedoms   President Hu Jintao moves
   •Media and Political Control         China toward capitalism

•Human Rights Violations – Tibet

•Committed to Chinese Reunification - Taiwan
Korean War
• 1905 Sino-Japanese War
   Korea controlled by Japanese
• 1945 Post WWII
   North Korea occupied by USSR
   South Korea occupied by US
   Plan to create an independent, unified Korea
• 1948
     US holds free elections in S. Korea
     USSR refuses free elections
     Syngman Rhee – President of S. Korea
     Kim Il Sung – USSR installed Leader Communist
                   Korean Invasion
• Jan 1950 Secretary of State
  Dean Achseson Speech
   – South Korea not included as nation of
     vital interest to US

• US uncertainty about South Korea
  leads Stalin to believe an invasion
  would be successful

• US/USSR misread intentions
   – Stalin believed US wouldn’t risk
     another war
   – Truman believed USSR wouldn’t
     risk full-scale invasion
                Korean War
                   •North and South Korea Divided
                       at the 38 Parallel

                   •June 1950
                      •90,000 N. Korea Troops
                         Invade S.Korea

                   •June 1950
                      •Truman orders Naval & Air
                      Force to Korea without formal
                      declaration of war
                      •UN Security Council approves
 North Korea
                       military aid to South Korea
 South Korea
                 Korean War
                         •UN Troops Cornered at Pusan

                         •MacArthur lands UN forces
                           Enemy lines at Inchon
                           Drives North Korean Troops
                           To 38 Parallel

North Korea
South Korea/UN Troops
   Cornered at Pusan
               Korean War

                  •MacArthur pins troops against
                   the Chinese border

                  •Ignores warnings from Mao to back

                  •Against Truman’s orders, MacArthur
                    bombs bridges crossing into China

                  •China sends troops across border
North Korea pined at
Chinese Border
South Korea/UN Troops
                   Korean War
                           • Chinese/N. Korean troops drive
                             UN troops back across 38

                           • MacArthur wants victory –
                             expand war into China & use of
                             nuclear weapons

                           • Truman wants “Limited War” –
                             Containing the war within its
                             borders & using conventional

                           • April 1951 Truman Fires
North Korea/Chinese         MacArthur for publically
Troops cross 38 Parallel     criticizing his policy of “Limited
South Korea/UN Troops
               Korean War
                         • What were
                           the results of
                           the Korean

North Korea
South Korea/UN Troops
Korean War
            Korean War Results
• South Korea remained Free
  –   US Contained Communism
  –   Became a Democracy
  –   US Troops Remain at 38th Parallel
  –   South Korea became an economic        Lee Myung Bak
                                            President, S.Korea
      “Tiger” – high economic growth
• North Korea – Communist
  –   Leader - Kim Jong Il
  –   Economy has stagnated
  –   People are starving
  –   Focus on developing nuclear weapons   Kim Jong Il
                                            President, N. Korea
Korean War Deaths
                Casualties in the Korean War
           70,000                         NK & Chinese soldiers
                                          and civilians
                                          SK civilians

                                          SK soldiers
                                          USA soldiers

                                          Other UN soldiers
          History of Vietnam

• Once a Colony of
  France – want rubber,
  tin & rice
• Part of French
   – Cambodia
   – Laos
   – Vietnam
• Japanese capture
  during WWII
• Communist leader Ho
  Chi Min
• declares Vietnamese
  independence in 1945
  – Goals:
     • Independent Vietnam
     • Unified Vietnam
     • Land Reform

• French return to
  reclaim Vietnam
      Vietminh Strategy
• Tire the French

• Guerrilla Warfare -
  avoid major battles,
  hit and run tactics

• Build support with
           Truman Years
• US Policy – 1950-1956
  – Containment and Truman

• Provide military aid to
  French to defeat the
  Communist Vietminh

• French Lose
   What were the results of the
      Geneva Peace Talks?
• Vietnam divided at 17th

• North – Communist
   – Leader Ho Chi Min
   – Gained Popularity through land

• South – Non-Communist
   – Leader - Ngo Dinh Diem
   – Refuses Land Reform

• Unification pending free
         Eisenhower Years
• Policy of
• Domino Theory
  – Fall of Vietnam would lead
     Other countries in SE Asia
        to fall
• U.S. sends $ to aid
  South Vietnam in
  resisting Communism
     Why is Diem Unpopular?
• Cancels elections with
  support of US

• Refuses to make land

•    Brutal Policies – kills
    off opposition

• Communist groups form
  in South Vietnam
  Who are the Viet Cong?
• Communist Group in
  South Vietnam
• Aided by North
  Vietnam and USSR
• Civil War breaks out
  in South Vietnam
        The Kennedy Years
• Sends military
  advisors and $ to
  South Vietnam

• US proposes
  military coup
• Diem
            Johnson Years
• Escalates War in
• Golf of Tonkin
  Incident – US boats
  torpedoed by N.
• Golf of Tonkin
  Resolution – Congress
  gives Johnson
  authority to send
  – 1965 – 165,000
  – 1968 – 500,00
What major difficulties do US
     troops encounter?
3 Major Difficulties
1. Guerilla Warfare
  •   No clearly defined battle
  •   Hit and Run Tactics
  •   Unfamiliar Jungle
2. Unpopularity of S.
   Vietnamese Govt.
3. War becomes
   unpopular at home
              Nixon Years
Vietnamization –
  increase South
  Vietnamese troop’s
  combat role while US
  gradually pulls out

• Massive bombings -
  put pressure on N.
  Vietnamese to end the
      How does the war end?
• Vietminh agree to
• 1973 - Last US troops
• 1975 – N. Vietnamese
  invade S. Vietnam
• S. Vietnam Surrenders
 Vietnam becomes a unified
  communist country
         Costs of Vietnam War

• 57,000 US
  Soldiers Dead
• 2 Million
  Vietnamese Dead
• 150B Financial Cost
• US loses First War
• Reluctance to
  commit US troops
  over seas
           Vietnam Today
• Remains a
  Communist Country

• Unified – no longer
  North and South

• US ended trade
  embargo in 1994

• US established
  diplomatic relations
  in 1995
Compare Korean War to
    Vietnam War
• Occupation of Japan led by
  MacArthur – 6 years

• Demilitarization
  – Japanese armed services
  – Japan agrees to protection
    from US

• Democracy
  – 2 House Parliament called
  – Emperor becomes symbolic
• Economic Miracle
   – US Investment
   – Government
   – Cooperation of
     suppliers, distributors
     and banks

• Focus on Technology

• Business Management
   – Lifetime employment
   – Seniority-Based wages
   – Group Effort
   – Quality Control

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