Administrative Sciences _0277_ short answer questions _1_

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					Administrative Sciences (0277) short answer questions (1)
5, short answers:
¡ù 1, outlined the characteristics of public administration?
A: The most important feature of public administration (1) of its public
nature; (2) the political nature of public administration; (3) has a
strict legal system of public administration; (4) the democratic nature
of public administration; (5) Public administration fairness; (6) the
efficiency of public administration.
2, outlined the role of public administration?
Answer: (1) Public administration is the country's governance; (2) Public
administration is the implementation of the will of the people and the
realization of the need to ensure the public interest; (3) Public
administration is the development of the socialist market economy
guarantees; (4) Public administration is accelerate China's socialist
construction needs and ensure participation in international competition;
(5) Public administration is a high-quality education and training, will
manage the needs of the national civil service.
3, outlined the historical conditions of public administration?
Answer: (1) Public Administration is the largest industrial and social
development of natural product science. (2) the emergence of public
administration is required to enhance the rapid development of industrial
society, the inevitable result of the administration. (3) the generation
of public administration is management, political science, law, economics
and related disciplines inevitable result. (4) public administration and
political science in the development of production is directly linked.
¡ù 4, summarized the characteristics of public administration?
Answer: (1) Public Administration is a cross-cutting disciplines and
interdisciplinary; (2) Public Administration is the application of
discipline; (3) Public Administration is a strong political subject; (4)
Public Administration extensive research; (5) the development of public
administration.
5, summarized the study of public administration?
Answer: (1) of the Government to control what public administration. (2)
The Public Administration of the Government should control what. (3)
study of public administration who control the government management. (4)
how government management of public administration management. (5) Why
did the government management of public administration management, which
is the purpose of management.
6, outlined the research methods of public administration?
Answer: (1) public administration research orientation. (2) the
combination of theory and practice methods. (3) philosophy of research
methods. (4) interdisciplinary research methods. (5) empirical research
methods. (6) Comparative research methods.
¡ù 7, outlined the characteristics of administrative environment?
Answer: (1) complexity; (2) binding; (3) specificity; (4) instability.
¡ù 8, outlined the characteristics of organizational culture?
A: (!) Members of the identity level; (2) team building; (3) the extent
of the person concerned; (4) the degree of integration of the
organization; (5) risk tolerance; (6) the degree of democracy; (7)
compensation standards; (8) emphasis on results; (9) the degree of
control.
¡ù 9, public administration, environment, mainly in what specialty?
A: The first in a variety of public administration on the differences
between the environment. Secondly, the performance of the different
regions in a country differences in public administration environment.
10, outlined the role of public administration environment?
Answer: (1) Public administration environmental decisions, limitations
and constraints in public administration; (2) Public administration must
adapt to the environment of public administration; (3) Public
administration must be development and changes in the environment lead to
the development and changes in public administration; (4) public
administration public administration environment are concerned.
¡ù 11, outlined the three Riggs public administration and its main
characteristics?
A: Rodriguez will be divided into three modes of public administration:
The first fusion of public administration model, the social model of
public administration in agriculture, its main feature is the public
administration is based on economic self-sufficiency based on patriarchal
and submissive However, the pro, the implementation of hierarchical duke
Shilu system; Second, diffraction-based model of public administration,
public administration model of industrial society, its main feature is
built on the basis of large-scale industrial production of the democratic
administration, the appointment of officials to a stage beyond ,
according to law; third prism Model of Public Administration, is from an
agricultural society to industrial society model of public
administration, it has both an agricultural society some of the
characteristics of public administration, public administration,
industrial societies have certain characteristics, the two who mixture.
12, Smith outlined three types of classified government functions?
Answer: (1) defend the country and social security, so that other
independent society free from aggression and atrocities. (2) protection
of citizens, so that every citizen from the rest of society of oppression
and bullying. (3) the establishment and maintenance of certain public
authorities and public works.
¡ù 13, outlined the characteristics of government functions?
Answer: (1) the universal character of government functions; (2) a
mandatory feature of government functions; (3) The functions of the
systemic features; (4) The functions of the irreplaceable features; (5)
The functions service features.
¡ù 14, market failure, mainly in what areas?
A (1) externalities; (2) market dictate prices; (3) the provision of
public goods; (4) ignorance and irrational; (5) inequality.
¡ù 15, which should follow the principle of government intervention?
Answer: (1) the functions of both the government and the market is quite
different, they can not replace each other; (2) Government intervention
in the economy make up only define the scope and the prevention of market
failures; (3) government intervention must also be cost-benefits ; (4)
developing countries, intervention in the general market much broader
than in developed countries, it is very normal.
16, Samuelson that the government's economic What are the main functions?
Answer: (1) improve economic efficiency; (2) improving income
distribution; (3) to stabilize the economy through macroeconomic policy;
(4) the implementation of international economic policy.
¡ù 17, China's market economy, the government's economic What are the
main functions?
Answer: (1) specification and stability of the market order, to ensure
that the functions of free competition; (2) of the macro economy, ensure
the balanced development of the functions of the national economy; (3)
direct the production and delivery of public goods, to make up for lack
of market functions ; (4) management functions of state-owned assets.
¡ù 18, outlined the main contents of the functions of government culture?
Answer: (1) ideology functions; (2) the development of science and
technology and education functions; (3) the development of literature and
art and sports health functions; (4) to strengthen the functions of the
socialist moral construction; (5) clear that not only have no social
value and the functions of harmful cultural products.
19, the Government What are the main social functions?
Answer: (1) to maintain social order and ensure personal safety and
private property functions. (2) to ensure equitable distribution of
social functions. (3) environmental protection functions. (4) social
security functions.
20, brief change of government functions, government needs to change the
management philosophy?
Answer: (1) reform of government institutions must be incorporated into
legal track; (2) To go from a round the Government to change the concept
of limited government; (3) to change from authoritarianism to democracy,
the Chief Executive of the change; (4) in the management from the rule on
the way to achieve the transformation of management; (5) from a
government-centered to people-to a complete change.
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¡ù 21, outlined the characteristics of the administrative system?
Answer: (1) distinctive political; (2) strong stability; (3) strictly
systematic; (4) relative to the lag; (5) The historical inheritance.
22, how to understand the political administrative system of distinctive
features?
Answer: (1) it must reflect the requirements of the political and the
political system is to achieve political domination goal of strengthening
the legitimate function of government institutions and mandatory tool.
(2) The will of the state and public interests must be achieved through
the implementation of the administrative system. (3) the administrative
system is based on various types of administrative organizations at all
levels, effective management of public affairs for the value.
23, how to understand the stability characteristics of a strong
administrative system?
Answer: (1) it is determined the stability of the political system. (2)
an administrative system, once formed, will not change frequently.
24, outlined the role of the executive system?
Answer: (1) scientific administrative system to enhance government
productivity, improve administrative efficiency. (2) Science of the
administrative system can significantly fully promote social development
and improving national competitiveness. (3) Science of the administrative
system to create a large number of outstanding national levels across the
board. (4) Science of the administrative system to ensure the
democratization of public administration. (5) Science of the
administrative system to ensure that the rights and lives of citizens and
property.
25, summarized the characteristics of a cabinet system?
Answer: (1) the implementation of cabinet system based on national
parliaments to the highest authority. (2) prime minister or prime
minister is the country's real power. (3) The cabinet is the country's
decision-making center. (4) the Government or the Cabinet responsible not
to the head of state, but must be responsible to the Parliament, Council
to answer questions, explain the Government's policies and decisions.
26, summarized the characteristics of the presidential system?
Answer: (1) president directly elected by the voters in the country
without parliamentary approval. (2) The President is a national center of
power and decision-making center. (3) organization and leadership by the
President of the cabinet ministers in the cabinet. (4) the president has
not the power to introduce bills to Parliament, but Parliament passed the
bill with the signing of right and power of veto.
27, summarized the characteristics of semi-presidential system?
Answer: (1) The referendum is the head of state elected President, but
wield executive power, the Prime Minister is the nominal head of
government. (2) The President is the real center of power, he does not
charge any authority, but he has a lot of power. (3) Parliament condemned
the case of no-confidence vote that the government case Kuang rejected
the Government's policy, the prime minister must resign to the President
General.
28, summarized the characteristics of the Council of Ministers structure?
Answer: (1) Council of Ministers by the country's top election authority
is the highest executive organ of power. (2) The Council of Ministers by
the Council of Ministers President, First Vice-Chairman, Vice-Ministers,
the National Chairman of the Committee and other relevant personnel. (3)
Council of Ministers of the Bureau is its permanent body, the Council of
Ministers Chairman, First Vice-Chairman and Vice-Chairmen, smaller.
29, summarized the characteristics of China's State Council system?
Answer: (1) The People's Republic of China State Council, China's highest
executive body of the National People's Congress at each first meeting of
produce, is the highest authority of the legislature, the executive body.
(2) the State Council members including the Prime Minister, Vice-
premiers, state councilors, ministers in charge of commissions, the
Auditor General, Secretary-General. (3) the State Council, the Premier,
State Council, Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister and State
Councillors assist the work. (4) the State Council ministries and
commissions of the ministerial, director of accountability.
30, summarized the characteristics of self-government body of the local
government system?
Answer: (1) local self-government has a "unity of power"
feature, the executive and legislative powers more vague, not a very
strong set of local administrative heads. (2) The local government is
elected by the Members of the local council for the center, local
councils and the committees. (3) The local government has independent
status and legal status, such status is normally granted by the
Legislative Council or the law conferred. (4) the central government and
local government law is a partnership, but in reality the central
government has legislative oversight of local government, administrative
oversight and financial supervision.
31, summarized the characteristics of the executive body of local
government system?
Answer: (1) Germany under the Local Government to implement the
principles of public administration, is based on "dependent region
as a whole," the foundation. (2) the federal government is
responsible for system policies, laws and regulations, but most
responsible for the implementation by the state government. (3) higher
levels of government to fulfill only those lower levels of government is
unable to perform the functions of social management. (4) federal, state
and local governments by the relevant laws to ensure that their legal
status, legally and in theory they are an equal relationship is a
complementary relationship.
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¡ù 32, outlined the characteristics of democratic centralism and the
local government system?
Answer: (1) China Central People's Government of the lower local
government executive bodies, lower levels of government are higher levels
of government the executive body. (2) local governments by the people's
congresses at all levels of elected people's congresses at all levels of
the executive organ. (3) provinces and municipalities have a certain
autonomy, autonomous regions have autonomy, Hong Kong and Macao Special
Administrative Region has a high degree of autonomy. (4) local
governments must accept a higher level and at the same level of the
Chinese Communist Party Committee's leadership, the Party's Standing
Committee and the Committee made the decisions and policies. Leading
members of the Government of the Party Standing Committee member.
¡ù 33, Administrative Division should follow the principle of what?
Answer: (1) political principles; (2) the principle of respect for
history and tradition; (3) is conducive to development; (4) the principle
of effective management; (5) autonomous principles.
34, briefly three implications of public organizations?
Answer: (1) public organizations is the static organizational entity,
that is, government agencies, including from the highest organs of state
administration at the grassroots level and all levels of government and
its various government departments at different levels within the set of
administrative institutions. (2) the performance of public organizations,
organizations for the dynamic behavior of the various levels of
government and non-governmental sectors in the dynamic among all the
time, orderly and effective management behavior is a dynamic organization
of the government to realize the social and public management of the
normal state of things . (3) The administrative staff of public
organizations means organizations aggregation state of mind, the
administrative staff of public organizations in terms of not only the
combination of composition, but also the human spirit and will, knowledge
and skills of composition and aggregation.
35, summarized the characteristics of public organizations?
Answer: (1) political; (2) social; (3) service; (4) authoritative; (5)
Legal nature; (6) systemic.
36, outlined the role of public organizations?
Answer: (1) the national organizers of the various public affairs and
management. (2) The Government is the protector of people's lives and
property, defenders of social order. (3) The Government of national
sovereignty and territorial integrity of defenders. (4) The Government is
of national economic development policy makers and the coordinator. (5)
The Government is a provider of social equity.
37, outlined the advantages of centralized system of public organizations
and shortcomings?
A: The advantages: (1) decree unified, easy to unified leadership,
unified command. (2) because the concentration of power, the Chief
Executive reflects the flexibility and timely decision-making, more
efficient. (3) has coordinated with the overall concept. (4) unity of
will, unity of action, there is a collective concept, and enhance group
cohesion, strong mobilization, organizational skills and adaptability.
Deficiencies: (1) relatively rigid structure, the lower the lack of the
necessary autonomy, so the lack of initiative and enthusiasm to work and
can not give full play to lower the intelligence, negative mood, so the
lack of organized activities and creativity. (2) higher levels of
decision-making power rests in the hands of bureaucracy prone,
subjective, resulting in poor decisions, but also vulnerable to a sea of
Wenshan, travel documents, a waste of time and resources. (3) The level
of excess, slow transmission of information, slow response to the
external environment is not conducive to dealing with emergencies. (4)
centralized system is easy to highly centralized, highly centralized
system of easy-to parents, or one-man, even autocratic or authoritarian.
38, outlined the advantages and shortcomings of decentralization?
A: The advantages: (1) independent, can be combined with the department,
the local conditions, local conditions determine the administrative
goals, decision-making and management. (2) hierarchical authority,
hierarchical management, arousing the enthusiasm and initiative of
subordinates. (3) responsive, do not ask for instructions at every level
reporting, messaging faster, faster responses to the external
environment, it is appropriate to handle emergencies near point of
decision-making, more efficient. (4) The functions of the division of
labor and professional management help. Deficiencies: (1) the separation
of powers would result in decentralization, not easy to form a unity of
will, not easy to unified leadership and unified command. (2) the
separation of powers is not easy to concentrate resources, co-ordinating
overall development. (3) over the separation of powers easily lead to
fragmentation, the formation of localism and parochialism.
¡ù 39, outlined the advantages and shortcomings of a complete system?
A: The complete system advantages: (1) conducive to a public organization
or a public sector unified leadership, unified command. (2) governmental
unity, the concentration of power. (3) a high degree of autonomy,
independent decision-making power, help to mobilize the region or the
sector initiative. (4) administrative objectives can be adapted to local
conditions, policy and agile. Deficiencies: (1) limited resources, should
not be doing big things; superior can not co-ordinate arrangements. (2) a
high degree of autonomy, prone to fragmentation. (3) lack an overall view
of imitation, only local interests.
¡ù 40, outlined the advantages and shortcomings of the separation?
A: The separation system advantages: (1) benefit the entire public
administration system of resource integration, unity, balanced. (2)
benefit the entire public administration system of unified leadership and
unified command. (3) is conducive to professional management, stressed
that the Department functions. (4) took part in a joint, focused on the
advantages of centralization and decentralization. Deficiencies: (1)
multiple lower-level leadership may cause confusion. (2) separation of
people and things is not conducive to the leadership of the civil service
and use. (3) difficult to reconcile, Wenshan be prone to sea.
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41, briefly head of the advantages and shortcomings of the system?
A: The advantages: (1) the concentration of power, accountability, buck-
passing can be avoided to reduce the conflicts and contradictions,
efficient. (2) The Chief Executive alone grasp the decision-making power,
decision-making flexible and fast, fast response to external environment.
(3) the unified leadership, unified command is conducive to mobilizing
and concentrating power. Deficiencies: (1) The Chief Executive's
knowledge, wisdom, the limited nature of the decision of the Chief
Executive in policy-making may be mistakes, so it will cause damage. (2)
The Chief Executive monopoly of power, lack of democratic participation,
is not conducive to mobilizing the enthusiasm of subordinates. (3) the
lack of checks and balances, head of the system easily be turned into a
patriarchal system of power there without supervision.
42, the Commission outlined the advantages and shortcomings of the
system?
A: The advantages: (1) brainstorming Masuhiro, democratic decision-
making. (2) both the division and co-operate, this can reduce the burden
on professional management help. (3) mutual supervision, checks and
balances, to prevent arbitrary lone parents What system and private
business fraud. Deficiencies: (1) decentralized, difficult to
centralized. (2) decision-making costly, inefficient, prone to discuss
without decisions, and decisions without procrastination and buck-passing
line instead of fruit and other phenomena. (3) passing the buck to
clearly define responsibilities.
¡ù 43, outlined the advantages and shortcomings of the system level?
A: The advantages of hierarchy: (1) level control, a control level, power
relations clearly conducive to leadership and command, help improve
efficiency. (2) accountability, and help supervise. (3) administrative
goals, help the performance appraisal of civil servants. (4) is conducive
to the implementation of decision-making. Deficiencies: (1) If the level
of excess or distortion of information transfer is slow, resulting in
poor decisions. (2) strict control is not conducive to mobilizing the
enthusiasm of subordinates. (3) vulnerable to the patriarchal system and
the dependence of superior-subordinate relationship.
44, outlined the advantages and shortcomings of the system function?
A: The advantages: You can expand the management functions of public
organizations; specialized division of labor, is conducive to
professional management, improve efficiency; decentralization, arousing
the enthusiasm of the work of professionals. Disadvantages: too many
functions of differentiation will lead to excessive government agencies,
which would result in too many social and economic intervention, not
conducive to the development of the consequences of a market economy;
division too small, will cause power to cross, the consequences of
administrative efficiency.
¡ù 45, summarized the public sector in the standards organizations?
A: Generally divided into the following three standard public sector
organizations: (1) are based on management functions and functions of the
target divided by the executive branch. (2) is a geographical
administrative departments. (3) by different segments of the public
administration division of public administration.
¡ù 46, non-profit organization What are the main features?
Answer: (1) organization; (2) non-governmental; (3) non-profit; (4)
autonomy; (5) voluntary.
¡ù 47, non-profit organizations in the role of providing public services
mainly in what areas?
Answer: (1) have advocated the role of institutional development; (2)
monitoring the market; (3) intermediary role; (4) to maintain a good
social value; (5) monitoring the government.
48, brief non-profit organization of public administration?
Answer: (1) non-profit organizations and expansion of extension of public
administration, it can make up for insufficient management (2) non-profit
organizations to focus on public value, particularly equity, democracy,
efficiency, integrity and public interest, and other public values. (3)
It is more emphasis on the public service, rather than the traditional
emphasis on management and control of public organizations. (4) its
organization more democratic, more open. (5) the establishment of
participatory mechanisms.
¡ù 49, outlined the role of government non-profit organizations?
Answer: (1) subsidies; (2) reduce taxes; (3) commissioned public affairs;
(4) legal control; (5) counseling supervision.
50, learning organization with the main features of what?
Answer: (1) the primary objective of the learning organization is to
foster learning, so that members are open to new ideas. (2) members have
a common vision. (3) good at learning. (4) self-management. (5)
organizational boundaries will be redefined.
51, outlined five core learning organization practice?
Answer: (1) self-transcendence. (2) improving mental models. (3) the
establishment of public vision. (4) group learning. (5) systems thinking.
52, summarized the characteristics of innovative organizations?
Answer: (1) organizational learning to organizational innovation,
learning is not an end in itself, innovation is the learning objective.
(2) organizational learning and organizational processes throughout the
entire organization. (3) Organizational learning should play a jazz jam
effect, for independent innovation. (4) From the "box" to
"line" organic thinking.
53, outlined the six core creative organization practice?
Answer: (1) activation study. (2) re-self-transcendence. (3) mode. (4)
free. (5) innovation. (6) the concept of innovation.
54, to understand the meaning of leadership, need to grasp the main
points of that?
Answer: (1) leadership can only be produced in certain organizations, but
also serve some organizations, no organization will be leaderless. (2) is
a leading governing the behavior of the leadership and guidance the
process was.
55, summarized the difference between leadership and leaders?
Answer: (1) leadership is a management behavior and management process.
(2) leadership is the leader of the leadership of the practice. (3)
leadership is the essence of human relationships. (4) leadership is a
leader in targeted management activities.
56, brief administrative leadership characteristics?
Answer: (1) The Chief of leadership is the "executive"
leadership. (2) from the administrative leadership of the way it features
speaking, the implementation of administrative leadership, is its
distinctive features. (3) activities from the administrative leadership
of the social attributes of view, it has a distinct political character.
57, outlined the role of executive leadership?
Answer: (1) administrative leadership is the implementation of political
leadership. (2) administrative leadership to ensure harmonization of
public administration. (3) administrative leadership throughout the
entire process of public administration. (4) administrative leadership
play a decisive role on the administrative efficiency.
58, brief administrative leaders in created a common way?
Answer: (1) selection system. (2) the appointment system. (3) The test of
any system. (4) appointment.
59, leading authority on the concept, which views can be summed up?
Answer: (1) leadership is the decision-making power. (2) is a leading
power capacity. (3) leadership is a relationship of power. (4), power is
a dominant force.
60, the power of influence, including what factors?
Answer: (1) Job factor. (2) qualification factors. (3) the traditional
concept of factors.
61, non-power influence of factors, including what?
Answer: (1) character factor. (2) Capacity factor. (3) professional
factors. (4) emotion.
¡ù 62, the executive leadership of the main sources of power are there?
Answer: (1) legal authority; (2) reward power; (3) the right expertise,
also known as expert power; (4) the right of attribution, also known as
the power relations.
¡ù 63, outlined the type of executive leadership?
Answer: (1) political responsibility; (2) legal liability; (3)
administrative responsibility; (4) moral responsibility.
¡ù 64, outlined the main contents of the executive leadership?
Answer: (1) is responsible for the implementation of laws, regulations
and authority, the higher of the executive; (2) over the development of
the region, the department's work plan; (3) responsible for the
development of public administration decision-making, decided to work in
public administration major issues; (4) correctly select, use of
personnel; (5) is responsible for lower levels of the department and the
work of the executive authorities to implement supervision and
inspection; (6) co-ordinate.
65, the main leadership contingency theory are there?
Answer: (1) leadership behavior continuum model. (2) Fiedler's
Contingency Model. (3) pathway of a target model. (4), a participation
model. (5) immature a success theory. (6) life cycle theory of
leadership.
¡ù 66, the executive leadership qualities constituted mainly by what?
Answer: (1) political quality; (2) cultural quality; (3) moral quality;
(4) psychological; (5) fitness.
67, administrative leadership and political qualities include?
Answer: (1) conviction, loyalty to country, loyal to the party. (2) loyal
to the government, loyal to people, devotion to duty.
68, brief administrative leadership and cultural professional quality?
Answer: (1) general knowledge. (2) expertise. (3) management of
knowledge.
69, the executive leadership of the moral quality of what main?
Answer: (1) impartiality, austerity and personal. (2) realistic. (3)
self-discipline. (4) personal attributes.
70, brief administrative leadership of the psychological quality content?
Answer: (1) daring decision makings. (2) Competition open character. (3)
The indomitable will.
71, administrative leaders should have the ability to have?
Answer: (1) abstract thinking ability and determination. (2) human
relations ability. (3) technical capacity.
72, brief administrative leadership ability of abstract thinking and the
main content of decisions?
Answer: (1) analyzing and solving problems. (2) decision-making capacity.
(3) command, coordination and oversight capacity. (4) adaptability.
73, the executive leader of the interpersonal skills include what?
Answer: (1) ability to motivate people. (2) the ability of interpersonal
relationship.
74, need to briefly understand the meaning of Personnel Administration to
grasp the main points.
Answer: (1) the functions of personnel administration for the
implementation of public administration, to complete a variety of
organizations and social objectives provided an important safeguard. (2)
personnel administration in the management of the main organs of the
state personnel administration. (3) personnel administration is the
legalization and institutionalization of personnel management. (4)
personnel administration of the managed object is administrative staff.
¡ù 75, outlined the characteristics of personnel administration?
Answer: (1) rule of law; (2) specialization; (3) professionalism; (4)
modernization.
76, how to understand the characteristics of personnel administration of
the rule of law?
Answer: (1) legal status. (2) the legal relationship. (3) according to
law. (4) the statutory procedure. (5) liability.
¡ù 77, personnel administration and professional mainly include?
Answer: (1) professionalization of public servants; (2) theory of
professional personnel administration; (3) organization specialized
personnel administration; (4) personnel management professional.
78, outlined the basic content of professional personnel administration.
Answer: (1) Upon appointment to the State Civil Service to obtain legal
status, legal protection by the state, in addition to my volunteer jobs,
that is a lifetime occupation; (2) national civil servants and
dereliction of duty by reason of law through legal procedures, not to be
dismissed or without pay, even be considered wrong, I also have the right
to appeal and the reasons; (3) national civil service status has been
confirmed that all the rights enjoyed by law, and by the proceedings, any
organ or individual may deprive their rights.
79, personnel administration modernization mainly include?
Answer: (1) the concept of modernization. (2) modernization of
management. (3) modernization of technical means.
¡ù 80, outlined the basic principles of personnel administration should
be followed.
Answer: (1) both integrity and principle; (2) Use of Personnel
principles; (3) the principle of fair competition; (4) merit principle;
(5) according to management principles.
81, the Human Resources Management personnel administration compared with
the traditional characteristics.
Answer: (1) people-oriented. (2) the development and utilization of human
resources as can be, can bring more value as the value. (3) to put the
first human resources development. (4) Human Resources Management was
raised to a high degree of organizational strategies to deal with.
¡ù 82, What are the main characteristics of human resources?
Answer: (1) the timeliness of human resources; (2) human resources of the
times; (3) human resources initiative; (4) regeneration of human
resources; (5) value of human resources.
¡ù 83, summarized the public sector human resource management role.
Answer: (1) public sector human resource management is the country's
long, important guarantee for social stability and unity. Personnel
system has always been the core of the construction of state power; (2)
public sector human resource management is to promote economic and social
development of the necessary conditions; (3) public sector human resource
management is to continuously develop and train human resources in the
public sector, is creating a Supporting Civil Service of the important
ways.
84, briefly state civil service system in western countries have in
common.
Answer: (1) Public rigorous examinations. (2) strict appraisal, merit
promotion. (3) political neutrality, the permanent position. (4)
personnel classification, according to law.
85, outlined the types of civil service training in China.
Answer: (1) novice training. (2) office training. (3) business training.
(4) update the knowledge of training.
86, summarized the characteristics of China's civil service training
system.
Answer: (1) training system into law. (2) specialized training
institutions. (3) of the national civil service training for life. (4)
training, role, and promotion of the harmonization.
87, summarized in the form of promotion in China.
Answer: (1) merit promotion system. (2) promotion examination system. (3)
years of the promotion system. (4) leapfrog promotion system. (5)
integrated promotion system.
¡ù 88, brief administrative decision-making characteristics.
Answer: (1) the particularity of the main policy-making; (2) the object
of extensive administrative decision-making; (3) non-profit
administrative decision-making purposes; (4) the legality of
administrative decisions; (5) the effectiveness of executive decision-
making area universality; (6) the implementation of the mandatory
administrative decisions.
89, brief administrative decision-making role.
Answer: (1) Administrative decision-making process in the administration
has a decisive role, at the core. (2) the administration of executive
decision-making dominated the whole process. (3) administrative decision-
making is the administration of the determinants of success and failure.
(4) administrative decision-making is to carry out the national will and
the necessary means of strengthening government legitimacy.
¡ù 90, brief administrative decision-making must follow the basic
principles.
Answer: (1) the principles of scientific forecasting; (2) Information
principles; (3) the feasibility of principle; (4) the principle of
satisfaction; (5) cost-effective; (6) fair and democratic principles; (7)
the principle of legality; ( 8) to achieve the public interest.
¡ù 91, outlined the modern system of administrative decision-making
contains.
Answer: (1) leadership decision-making system; (2) citizen consultation
and participation systems; (3) expert consultation system; (4)
information support systems.
92, citizen consultation and participation in the system, including the
content of what?
Answer: (1) establishment of a social feedback system. (2) the
establishment of government and social organizations and community groups
consultation system. (3) evaluation and monitoring the establishment of
civil government systems.
93, information support system composed mainly of the mechanism?
Answer: (1) the establishment of a collecting society of information and
government information networks. (2), collation, analysis and processing
of social information and government information.
94, Simon's decision-making process outlined four stages.
Answer: (1) intelligence activities stage, the main task is to gather
information, identify gaps, define problems, identify decision-making
goals. (2) program design activity phase, whose main task is to propose
options for a variety of decision-making. (3) options stage, that is,
decision-making stage. (4) Review of the presidency stage of review and
evaluation of the implementation of the program.
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¡ù 95, administrative decision-making process should include what steps?
Answer: (a) Recognizing the problem, defining problems, identifying gaps;
(b) determine the policy objectives; (c) determine the decision criteria,
to determine the weight of each standard; (d) develop decision-making
program; (5) analysis program; ( vi) options; (7) implementation of the
decision-making programs, improve decision-making; (8) assessment of
decision-making
¡ù 96, production of government policy objectives there?
Answer: (1) the legislature established policy objectives; (2) guidelines
developed by the Chinese Communist Party, line and policies; (3) higher
levels of government or higher-level decision issued specific targets;
(4) higher levels of government or higher authorities handed down a rough
target; (5) for the organization's own development goals set by the
decision-making.
97, which assess the decision-making can be divided into several steps?
Answer: (1) assess the need to realistically assess the actual effect of
policy implementation, it must be objective and real, not fraud. (2)
making the actual implementation of the objectives and decision criteria
and decision-making compared to identify gaps. (3) analyze the causes and
take management measures to achieve decision-making by making the
standard content.
98, assessment of decision-making, what should be evaluated?
Answer: (1) should be evaluated in the decision-making process of
implementation, really implement the Party's principles and policies and
regulations are in accordance with the implementation of decisions,
whether to implement the instructions of his superiors and command. (2)
should conduct a comprehensive assessment of the quality of decision-
making. (3) should measure and check the cost-effectiveness of decision-
making and implementation activities to assess this. (4) to assess the
implementation of the policy-making governing bodies and executive bodies
of work is highly effective, strong and powerful. (5) to take measures to
improve decision-making.
¡ù 99, the Chief Executive to understand the meaning of what elements
should grasp?




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