Administrative Sciences (0277) short answer questions (1) 5, short answers: ¡ù 1, outlined the characteristics of public administration? A: The most important feature of public administration (1) of its public nature; (2) the political nature of public administration; (3) has a strict legal system of public administration; (4) the democratic nature of public administration; (5) Public administration fairness; (6) the efficiency of public administration. 2, outlined the role of public administration? Answer: (1) Public administration is the country's governance; (2) Public administration is the implementation of the will of the people and the realization of the need to ensure the public interest; (3) Public administration is the development of the socialist market economy guarantees; (4) Public administration is accelerate China's socialist construction needs and ensure participation in international competition; (5) Public administration is a high-quality education and training, will manage the needs of the national civil service. 3, outlined the historical conditions of public administration? Answer: (1) Public Administration is the largest industrial and social development of natural product science. (2) the emergence of public administration is required to enhance the rapid development of industrial society, the inevitable result of the administration. (3) the generation of public administration is management, political science, law, economics and related disciplines inevitable result. (4) public administration and political science in the development of production is directly linked. ¡ù 4, summarized the characteristics of public administration? Answer: (1) Public Administration is a cross-cutting disciplines and interdisciplinary; (2) Public Administration is the application of discipline; (3) Public Administration is a strong political subject; (4) Public Administration extensive research; (5) the development of public administration. 5, summarized the study of public administration? Answer: (1) of the Government to control what public administration. (2) The Public Administration of the Government should control what. (3) study of public administration who control the government management. (4) how government management of public administration management. (5) Why did the government management of public administration management, which is the purpose of management. 6, outlined the research methods of public administration? Answer: (1) public administration research orientation. (2) the combination of theory and practice methods. (3) philosophy of research methods. (4) interdisciplinary research methods. (5) empirical research methods. (6) Comparative research methods. ¡ù 7, outlined the characteristics of administrative environment? Answer: (1) complexity; (2) binding; (3) specificity; (4) instability. ¡ù 8, outlined the characteristics of organizational culture? A: (!) Members of the identity level; (2) team building; (3) the extent of the person concerned; (4) the degree of integration of the organization; (5) risk tolerance; (6) the degree of democracy; (7) compensation standards; (8) emphasis on results; (9) the degree of control. ¡ù 9, public administration, environment, mainly in what specialty? A: The first in a variety of public administration on the differences between the environment. Secondly, the performance of the different regions in a country differences in public administration environment. 10, outlined the role of public administration environment? Answer: (1) Public administration environmental decisions, limitations and constraints in public administration; (2) Public administration must adapt to the environment of public administration; (3) Public administration must be development and changes in the environment lead to the development and changes in public administration; (4) public administration public administration environment are concerned. ¡ù 11, outlined the three Riggs public administration and its main characteristics? A: Rodriguez will be divided into three modes of public administration: The first fusion of public administration model, the social model of public administration in agriculture, its main feature is the public administration is based on economic self-sufficiency based on patriarchal and submissive However, the pro, the implementation of hierarchical duke Shilu system; Second, diffraction-based model of public administration, public administration model of industrial society, its main feature is built on the basis of large-scale industrial production of the democratic administration, the appointment of officials to a stage beyond , according to law; third prism Model of Public Administration, is from an agricultural society to industrial society model of public administration, it has both an agricultural society some of the characteristics of public administration, public administration, industrial societies have certain characteristics, the two who mixture. 12, Smith outlined three types of classified government functions? Answer: (1) defend the country and social security, so that other independent society free from aggression and atrocities. (2) protection of citizens, so that every citizen from the rest of society of oppression and bullying. (3) the establishment and maintenance of certain public authorities and public works. ¡ù 13, outlined the characteristics of government functions? Answer: (1) the universal character of government functions; (2) a mandatory feature of government functions; (3) The functions of the systemic features; (4) The functions of the irreplaceable features; (5) The functions service features. ¡ù 14, market failure, mainly in what areas? A (1) externalities; (2) market dictate prices; (3) the provision of public goods; (4) ignorance and irrational; (5) inequality. ¡ù 15, which should follow the principle of government intervention? Answer: (1) the functions of both the government and the market is quite different, they can not replace each other; (2) Government intervention in the economy make up only define the scope and the prevention of market failures; (3) government intervention must also be cost-benefits ; (4) developing countries, intervention in the general market much broader than in developed countries, it is very normal. 16, Samuelson that the government's economic What are the main functions? Answer: (1) improve economic efficiency; (2) improving income distribution; (3) to stabilize the economy through macroeconomic policy; (4) the implementation of international economic policy. ¡ù 17, China's market economy, the government's economic What are the main functions? Answer: (1) specification and stability of the market order, to ensure that the functions of free competition; (2) of the macro economy, ensure the balanced development of the functions of the national economy; (3) direct the production and delivery of public goods, to make up for lack of market functions ; (4) management functions of state-owned assets. ¡ù 18, outlined the main contents of the functions of government culture? Answer: (1) ideology functions; (2) the development of science and technology and education functions; (3) the development of literature and art and sports health functions; (4) to strengthen the functions of the socialist moral construction; (5) clear that not only have no social value and the functions of harmful cultural products. 19, the Government What are the main social functions? Answer: (1) to maintain social order and ensure personal safety and private property functions. (2) to ensure equitable distribution of social functions. (3) environmental protection functions. (4) social security functions. 20, brief change of government functions, government needs to change the management philosophy? Answer: (1) reform of government institutions must be incorporated into legal track; (2) To go from a round the Government to change the concept of limited government; (3) to change from authoritarianism to democracy, the Chief Executive of the change; (4) in the management from the rule on the way to achieve the transformation of management; (5) from a government-centered to people-to a complete change. ? ? ¡ù 21, outlined the characteristics of the administrative system? Answer: (1) distinctive political; (2) strong stability; (3) strictly systematic; (4) relative to the lag; (5) The historical inheritance. 22, how to understand the political administrative system of distinctive features? Answer: (1) it must reflect the requirements of the political and the political system is to achieve political domination goal of strengthening the legitimate function of government institutions and mandatory tool. (2) The will of the state and public interests must be achieved through the implementation of the administrative system. (3) the administrative system is based on various types of administrative organizations at all levels, effective management of public affairs for the value. 23, how to understand the stability characteristics of a strong administrative system? Answer: (1) it is determined the stability of the political system. (2) an administrative system, once formed, will not change frequently. 24, outlined the role of the executive system? Answer: (1) scientific administrative system to enhance government productivity, improve administrative efficiency. (2) Science of the administrative system can significantly fully promote social development and improving national competitiveness. (3) Science of the administrative system to create a large number of outstanding national levels across the board. (4) Science of the administrative system to ensure the democratization of public administration. (5) Science of the administrative system to ensure that the rights and lives of citizens and property. 25, summarized the characteristics of a cabinet system? Answer: (1) the implementation of cabinet system based on national parliaments to the highest authority. (2) prime minister or prime minister is the country's real power. (3) The cabinet is the country's decision-making center. (4) the Government or the Cabinet responsible not to the head of state, but must be responsible to the Parliament, Council to answer questions, explain the Government's policies and decisions. 26, summarized the characteristics of the presidential system? Answer: (1) president directly elected by the voters in the country without parliamentary approval. (2) The President is a national center of power and decision-making center. (3) organization and leadership by the President of the cabinet ministers in the cabinet. (4) the president has not the power to introduce bills to Parliament, but Parliament passed the bill with the signing of right and power of veto. 27, summarized the characteristics of semi-presidential system? Answer: (1) The referendum is the head of state elected President, but wield executive power, the Prime Minister is the nominal head of government. (2) The President is the real center of power, he does not charge any authority, but he has a lot of power. (3) Parliament condemned the case of no-confidence vote that the government case Kuang rejected the Government's policy, the prime minister must resign to the President General. 28, summarized the characteristics of the Council of Ministers structure? Answer: (1) Council of Ministers by the country's top election authority is the highest executive organ of power. (2) The Council of Ministers by the Council of Ministers President, First Vice-Chairman, Vice-Ministers, the National Chairman of the Committee and other relevant personnel. (3) Council of Ministers of the Bureau is its permanent body, the Council of Ministers Chairman, First Vice-Chairman and Vice-Chairmen, smaller. 29, summarized the characteristics of China's State Council system? Answer: (1) The People's Republic of China State Council, China's highest executive body of the National People's Congress at each first meeting of produce, is the highest authority of the legislature, the executive body. (2) the State Council members including the Prime Minister, Vice- premiers, state councilors, ministers in charge of commissions, the Auditor General, Secretary-General. (3) the State Council, the Premier, State Council, Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister and State Councillors assist the work. (4) the State Council ministries and commissions of the ministerial, director of accountability. 30, summarized the characteristics of self-government body of the local government system? Answer: (1) local self-government has a "unity of power" feature, the executive and legislative powers more vague, not a very strong set of local administrative heads. (2) The local government is elected by the Members of the local council for the center, local councils and the committees. (3) The local government has independent status and legal status, such status is normally granted by the Legislative Council or the law conferred. (4) the central government and local government law is a partnership, but in reality the central government has legislative oversight of local government, administrative oversight and financial supervision. 31, summarized the characteristics of the executive body of local government system? Answer: (1) Germany under the Local Government to implement the principles of public administration, is based on "dependent region as a whole," the foundation. (2) the federal government is responsible for system policies, laws and regulations, but most responsible for the implementation by the state government. (3) higher levels of government to fulfill only those lower levels of government is unable to perform the functions of social management. (4) federal, state and local governments by the relevant laws to ensure that their legal status, legally and in theory they are an equal relationship is a complementary relationship. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ¡ù 32, outlined the characteristics of democratic centralism and the local government system? Answer: (1) China Central People's Government of the lower local government executive bodies, lower levels of government are higher levels of government the executive body. (2) local governments by the people's congresses at all levels of elected people's congresses at all levels of the executive organ. (3) provinces and municipalities have a certain autonomy, autonomous regions have autonomy, Hong Kong and Macao Special Administrative Region has a high degree of autonomy. (4) local governments must accept a higher level and at the same level of the Chinese Communist Party Committee's leadership, the Party's Standing Committee and the Committee made the decisions and policies. Leading members of the Government of the Party Standing Committee member. ¡ù 33, Administrative Division should follow the principle of what? Answer: (1) political principles; (2) the principle of respect for history and tradition; (3) is conducive to development; (4) the principle of effective management; (5) autonomous principles. 34, briefly three implications of public organizations? Answer: (1) public organizations is the static organizational entity, that is, government agencies, including from the highest organs of state administration at the grassroots level and all levels of government and its various government departments at different levels within the set of administrative institutions. (2) the performance of public organizations, organizations for the dynamic behavior of the various levels of government and non-governmental sectors in the dynamic among all the time, orderly and effective management behavior is a dynamic organization of the government to realize the social and public management of the normal state of things . (3) The administrative staff of public organizations means organizations aggregation state of mind, the administrative staff of public organizations in terms of not only the combination of composition, but also the human spirit and will, knowledge and skills of composition and aggregation. 35, summarized the characteristics of public organizations? Answer: (1) political; (2) social; (3) service; (4) authoritative; (5) Legal nature; (6) systemic. 36, outlined the role of public organizations? Answer: (1) the national organizers of the various public affairs and management. (2) The Government is the protector of people's lives and property, defenders of social order. (3) The Government of national sovereignty and territorial integrity of defenders. (4) The Government is of national economic development policy makers and the coordinator. (5) The Government is a provider of social equity. 37, outlined the advantages of centralized system of public organizations and shortcomings? A: The advantages: (1) decree unified, easy to unified leadership, unified command. (2) because the concentration of power, the Chief Executive reflects the flexibility and timely decision-making, more efficient. (3) has coordinated with the overall concept. (4) unity of will, unity of action, there is a collective concept, and enhance group cohesion, strong mobilization, organizational skills and adaptability. Deficiencies: (1) relatively rigid structure, the lower the lack of the necessary autonomy, so the lack of initiative and enthusiasm to work and can not give full play to lower the intelligence, negative mood, so the lack of organized activities and creativity. (2) higher levels of decision-making power rests in the hands of bureaucracy prone, subjective, resulting in poor decisions, but also vulnerable to a sea of Wenshan, travel documents, a waste of time and resources. (3) The level of excess, slow transmission of information, slow response to the external environment is not conducive to dealing with emergencies. (4) centralized system is easy to highly centralized, highly centralized system of easy-to parents, or one-man, even autocratic or authoritarian. 38, outlined the advantages and shortcomings of decentralization? A: The advantages: (1) independent, can be combined with the department, the local conditions, local conditions determine the administrative goals, decision-making and management. (2) hierarchical authority, hierarchical management, arousing the enthusiasm and initiative of subordinates. (3) responsive, do not ask for instructions at every level reporting, messaging faster, faster responses to the external environment, it is appropriate to handle emergencies near point of decision-making, more efficient. (4) The functions of the division of labor and professional management help. Deficiencies: (1) the separation of powers would result in decentralization, not easy to form a unity of will, not easy to unified leadership and unified command. (2) the separation of powers is not easy to concentrate resources, co-ordinating overall development. (3) over the separation of powers easily lead to fragmentation, the formation of localism and parochialism. ¡ù 39, outlined the advantages and shortcomings of a complete system? A: The complete system advantages: (1) conducive to a public organization or a public sector unified leadership, unified command. (2) governmental unity, the concentration of power. (3) a high degree of autonomy, independent decision-making power, help to mobilize the region or the sector initiative. (4) administrative objectives can be adapted to local conditions, policy and agile. Deficiencies: (1) limited resources, should not be doing big things; superior can not co-ordinate arrangements. (2) a high degree of autonomy, prone to fragmentation. (3) lack an overall view of imitation, only local interests. ¡ù 40, outlined the advantages and shortcomings of the separation? A: The separation system advantages: (1) benefit the entire public administration system of resource integration, unity, balanced. (2) benefit the entire public administration system of unified leadership and unified command. (3) is conducive to professional management, stressed that the Department functions. (4) took part in a joint, focused on the advantages of centralization and decentralization. Deficiencies: (1) multiple lower-level leadership may cause confusion. (2) separation of people and things is not conducive to the leadership of the civil service and use. (3) difficult to reconcile, Wenshan be prone to sea. ? ? 41, briefly head of the advantages and shortcomings of the system? A: The advantages: (1) the concentration of power, accountability, buck- passing can be avoided to reduce the conflicts and contradictions, efficient. (2) The Chief Executive alone grasp the decision-making power, decision-making flexible and fast, fast response to external environment. (3) the unified leadership, unified command is conducive to mobilizing and concentrating power. Deficiencies: (1) The Chief Executive's knowledge, wisdom, the limited nature of the decision of the Chief Executive in policy-making may be mistakes, so it will cause damage. (2) The Chief Executive monopoly of power, lack of democratic participation, is not conducive to mobilizing the enthusiasm of subordinates. (3) the lack of checks and balances, head of the system easily be turned into a patriarchal system of power there without supervision. 42, the Commission outlined the advantages and shortcomings of the system? A: The advantages: (1) brainstorming Masuhiro, democratic decision- making. (2) both the division and co-operate, this can reduce the burden on professional management help. (3) mutual supervision, checks and balances, to prevent arbitrary lone parents What system and private business fraud. Deficiencies: (1) decentralized, difficult to centralized. (2) decision-making costly, inefficient, prone to discuss without decisions, and decisions without procrastination and buck-passing line instead of fruit and other phenomena. (3) passing the buck to clearly define responsibilities. ¡ù 43, outlined the advantages and shortcomings of the system level? A: The advantages of hierarchy: (1) level control, a control level, power relations clearly conducive to leadership and command, help improve efficiency. (2) accountability, and help supervise. (3) administrative goals, help the performance appraisal of civil servants. (4) is conducive to the implementation of decision-making. Deficiencies: (1) If the level of excess or distortion of information transfer is slow, resulting in poor decisions. (2) strict control is not conducive to mobilizing the enthusiasm of subordinates. (3) vulnerable to the patriarchal system and the dependence of superior-subordinate relationship. 44, outlined the advantages and shortcomings of the system function? A: The advantages: You can expand the management functions of public organizations; specialized division of labor, is conducive to professional management, improve efficiency; decentralization, arousing the enthusiasm of the work of professionals. Disadvantages: too many functions of differentiation will lead to excessive government agencies, which would result in too many social and economic intervention, not conducive to the development of the consequences of a market economy; division too small, will cause power to cross, the consequences of administrative efficiency. ¡ù 45, summarized the public sector in the standards organizations? A: Generally divided into the following three standard public sector organizations: (1) are based on management functions and functions of the target divided by the executive branch. (2) is a geographical administrative departments. (3) by different segments of the public administration division of public administration. ¡ù 46, non-profit organization What are the main features? Answer: (1) organization; (2) non-governmental; (3) non-profit; (4) autonomy; (5) voluntary. ¡ù 47, non-profit organizations in the role of providing public services mainly in what areas? Answer: (1) have advocated the role of institutional development; (2) monitoring the market; (3) intermediary role; (4) to maintain a good social value; (5) monitoring the government. 48, brief non-profit organization of public administration? Answer: (1) non-profit organizations and expansion of extension of public administration, it can make up for insufficient management (2) non-profit organizations to focus on public value, particularly equity, democracy, efficiency, integrity and public interest, and other public values. (3) It is more emphasis on the public service, rather than the traditional emphasis on management and control of public organizations. (4) its organization more democratic, more open. (5) the establishment of participatory mechanisms. ¡ù 49, outlined the role of government non-profit organizations? Answer: (1) subsidies; (2) reduce taxes; (3) commissioned public affairs; (4) legal control; (5) counseling supervision. 50, learning organization with the main features of what? Answer: (1) the primary objective of the learning organization is to foster learning, so that members are open to new ideas. (2) members have a common vision. (3) good at learning. (4) self-management. (5) organizational boundaries will be redefined. 51, outlined five core learning organization practice? Answer: (1) self-transcendence. (2) improving mental models. (3) the establishment of public vision. (4) group learning. (5) systems thinking. 52, summarized the characteristics of innovative organizations? Answer: (1) organizational learning to organizational innovation, learning is not an end in itself, innovation is the learning objective. (2) organizational learning and organizational processes throughout the entire organization. (3) Organizational learning should play a jazz jam effect, for independent innovation. (4) From the "box" to "line" organic thinking. 53, outlined the six core creative organization practice? Answer: (1) activation study. (2) re-self-transcendence. (3) mode. (4) free. (5) innovation. (6) the concept of innovation. 54, to understand the meaning of leadership, need to grasp the main points of that? Answer: (1) leadership can only be produced in certain organizations, but also serve some organizations, no organization will be leaderless. (2) is a leading governing the behavior of the leadership and guidance the process was. 55, summarized the difference between leadership and leaders? Answer: (1) leadership is a management behavior and management process. (2) leadership is the leader of the leadership of the practice. (3) leadership is the essence of human relationships. (4) leadership is a leader in targeted management activities. 56, brief administrative leadership characteristics? Answer: (1) The Chief of leadership is the "executive" leadership. (2) from the administrative leadership of the way it features speaking, the implementation of administrative leadership, is its distinctive features. (3) activities from the administrative leadership of the social attributes of view, it has a distinct political character. 57, outlined the role of executive leadership? Answer: (1) administrative leadership is the implementation of political leadership. (2) administrative leadership to ensure harmonization of public administration. (3) administrative leadership throughout the entire process of public administration. (4) administrative leadership play a decisive role on the administrative efficiency. 58, brief administrative leaders in created a common way? Answer: (1) selection system. (2) the appointment system. (3) The test of any system. (4) appointment. 59, leading authority on the concept, which views can be summed up? Answer: (1) leadership is the decision-making power. (2) is a leading power capacity. (3) leadership is a relationship of power. (4), power is a dominant force. 60, the power of influence, including what factors? Answer: (1) Job factor. (2) qualification factors. (3) the traditional concept of factors. 61, non-power influence of factors, including what? Answer: (1) character factor. (2) Capacity factor. (3) professional factors. (4) emotion. ¡ù 62, the executive leadership of the main sources of power are there? Answer: (1) legal authority; (2) reward power; (3) the right expertise, also known as expert power; (4) the right of attribution, also known as the power relations. ¡ù 63, outlined the type of executive leadership? Answer: (1) political responsibility; (2) legal liability; (3) administrative responsibility; (4) moral responsibility. ¡ù 64, outlined the main contents of the executive leadership? Answer: (1) is responsible for the implementation of laws, regulations and authority, the higher of the executive; (2) over the development of the region, the department's work plan; (3) responsible for the development of public administration decision-making, decided to work in public administration major issues; (4) correctly select, use of personnel; (5) is responsible for lower levels of the department and the work of the executive authorities to implement supervision and inspection; (6) co-ordinate. 65, the main leadership contingency theory are there? Answer: (1) leadership behavior continuum model. (2) Fiedler's Contingency Model. (3) pathway of a target model. (4), a participation model. (5) immature a success theory. (6) life cycle theory of leadership. ¡ù 66, the executive leadership qualities constituted mainly by what? Answer: (1) political quality; (2) cultural quality; (3) moral quality; (4) psychological; (5) fitness. 67, administrative leadership and political qualities include? Answer: (1) conviction, loyalty to country, loyal to the party. (2) loyal to the government, loyal to people, devotion to duty. 68, brief administrative leadership and cultural professional quality? Answer: (1) general knowledge. (2) expertise. (3) management of knowledge. 69, the executive leadership of the moral quality of what main? Answer: (1) impartiality, austerity and personal. (2) realistic. (3) self-discipline. (4) personal attributes. 70, brief administrative leadership of the psychological quality content? Answer: (1) daring decision makings. (2) Competition open character. (3) The indomitable will. 71, administrative leaders should have the ability to have? Answer: (1) abstract thinking ability and determination. (2) human relations ability. (3) technical capacity. 72, brief administrative leadership ability of abstract thinking and the main content of decisions? Answer: (1) analyzing and solving problems. (2) decision-making capacity. (3) command, coordination and oversight capacity. (4) adaptability. 73, the executive leader of the interpersonal skills include what? Answer: (1) ability to motivate people. (2) the ability of interpersonal relationship. 74, need to briefly understand the meaning of Personnel Administration to grasp the main points. Answer: (1) the functions of personnel administration for the implementation of public administration, to complete a variety of organizations and social objectives provided an important safeguard. (2) personnel administration in the management of the main organs of the state personnel administration. (3) personnel administration is the legalization and institutionalization of personnel management. (4) personnel administration of the managed object is administrative staff. ¡ù 75, outlined the characteristics of personnel administration? Answer: (1) rule of law; (2) specialization; (3) professionalism; (4) modernization. 76, how to understand the characteristics of personnel administration of the rule of law? Answer: (1) legal status. (2) the legal relationship. (3) according to law. (4) the statutory procedure. (5) liability. ¡ù 77, personnel administration and professional mainly include? Answer: (1) professionalization of public servants; (2) theory of professional personnel administration; (3) organization specialized personnel administration; (4) personnel management professional. 78, outlined the basic content of professional personnel administration. Answer: (1) Upon appointment to the State Civil Service to obtain legal status, legal protection by the state, in addition to my volunteer jobs, that is a lifetime occupation; (2) national civil servants and dereliction of duty by reason of law through legal procedures, not to be dismissed or without pay, even be considered wrong, I also have the right to appeal and the reasons; (3) national civil service status has been confirmed that all the rights enjoyed by law, and by the proceedings, any organ or individual may deprive their rights. 79, personnel administration modernization mainly include? Answer: (1) the concept of modernization. (2) modernization of management. (3) modernization of technical means. ¡ù 80, outlined the basic principles of personnel administration should be followed. Answer: (1) both integrity and principle; (2) Use of Personnel principles; (3) the principle of fair competition; (4) merit principle; (5) according to management principles. 81, the Human Resources Management personnel administration compared with the traditional characteristics. Answer: (1) people-oriented. (2) the development and utilization of human resources as can be, can bring more value as the value. (3) to put the first human resources development. (4) Human Resources Management was raised to a high degree of organizational strategies to deal with. ¡ù 82, What are the main characteristics of human resources? Answer: (1) the timeliness of human resources; (2) human resources of the times; (3) human resources initiative; (4) regeneration of human resources; (5) value of human resources. ¡ù 83, summarized the public sector human resource management role. Answer: (1) public sector human resource management is the country's long, important guarantee for social stability and unity. Personnel system has always been the core of the construction of state power; (2) public sector human resource management is to promote economic and social development of the necessary conditions; (3) public sector human resource management is to continuously develop and train human resources in the public sector, is creating a Supporting Civil Service of the important ways. 84, briefly state civil service system in western countries have in common. Answer: (1) Public rigorous examinations. (2) strict appraisal, merit promotion. (3) political neutrality, the permanent position. (4) personnel classification, according to law. 85, outlined the types of civil service training in China. Answer: (1) novice training. (2) office training. (3) business training. (4) update the knowledge of training. 86, summarized the characteristics of China's civil service training system. Answer: (1) training system into law. (2) specialized training institutions. (3) of the national civil service training for life. (4) training, role, and promotion of the harmonization. 87, summarized in the form of promotion in China. Answer: (1) merit promotion system. (2) promotion examination system. (3) years of the promotion system. (4) leapfrog promotion system. (5) integrated promotion system. ¡ù 88, brief administrative decision-making characteristics. Answer: (1) the particularity of the main policy-making; (2) the object of extensive administrative decision-making; (3) non-profit administrative decision-making purposes; (4) the legality of administrative decisions; (5) the effectiveness of executive decision- making area universality; (6) the implementation of the mandatory administrative decisions. 89, brief administrative decision-making role. Answer: (1) Administrative decision-making process in the administration has a decisive role, at the core. (2) the administration of executive decision-making dominated the whole process. (3) administrative decision- making is the administration of the determinants of success and failure. (4) administrative decision-making is to carry out the national will and the necessary means of strengthening government legitimacy. ¡ù 90, brief administrative decision-making must follow the basic principles. Answer: (1) the principles of scientific forecasting; (2) Information principles; (3) the feasibility of principle; (4) the principle of satisfaction; (5) cost-effective; (6) fair and democratic principles; (7) the principle of legality; ( 8) to achieve the public interest. ¡ù 91, outlined the modern system of administrative decision-making contains. Answer: (1) leadership decision-making system; (2) citizen consultation and participation systems; (3) expert consultation system; (4) information support systems. 92, citizen consultation and participation in the system, including the content of what? Answer: (1) establishment of a social feedback system. (2) the establishment of government and social organizations and community groups consultation system. (3) evaluation and monitoring the establishment of civil government systems. 93, information support system composed mainly of the mechanism? Answer: (1) the establishment of a collecting society of information and government information networks. (2), collation, analysis and processing of social information and government information. 94, Simon's decision-making process outlined four stages. Answer: (1) intelligence activities stage, the main task is to gather information, identify gaps, define problems, identify decision-making goals. (2) program design activity phase, whose main task is to propose options for a variety of decision-making. (3) options stage, that is, decision-making stage. (4) Review of the presidency stage of review and evaluation of the implementation of the program. ? ? ? ? ¡ù 95, administrative decision-making process should include what steps? Answer: (a) Recognizing the problem, defining problems, identifying gaps; (b) determine the policy objectives; (c) determine the decision criteria, to determine the weight of each standard; (d) develop decision-making program; (5) analysis program; ( vi) options; (7) implementation of the decision-making programs, improve decision-making; (8) assessment of decision-making ¡ù 96, production of government policy objectives there? Answer: (1) the legislature established policy objectives; (2) guidelines developed by the Chinese Communist Party, line and policies; (3) higher levels of government or higher-level decision issued specific targets; (4) higher levels of government or higher authorities handed down a rough target; (5) for the organization's own development goals set by the decision-making. 97, which assess the decision-making can be divided into several steps? Answer: (1) assess the need to realistically assess the actual effect of policy implementation, it must be objective and real, not fraud. (2) making the actual implementation of the objectives and decision criteria and decision-making compared to identify gaps. (3) analyze the causes and take management measures to achieve decision-making by making the standard content. 98, assessment of decision-making, what should be evaluated? Answer: (1) should be evaluated in the decision-making process of implementation, really implement the Party's principles and policies and regulations are in accordance with the implementation of decisions, whether to implement the instructions of his superiors and command. (2) should conduct a comprehensive assessment of the quality of decision- making. (3) should measure and check the cost-effectiveness of decision- making and implementation activities to assess this. (4) to assess the implementation of the policy-making governing bodies and executive bodies of work is highly effective, strong and powerful. (5) to take measures to improve decision-making. ¡ù 99, the Chief Executive to understand the meaning of what elements should grasp? ? ?