VIEWS: 46 PAGES: 129

									       PERIODIC REPORT IN


YEAR 2008


Madagascar ratified most of the Conventions and Charters relating to the protection of human
rights including the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights pursuant to law 91-023
dated 06 August, 1991.

In response to the repeated calls of the African Committee for Human Rights, the
Madagascan Government through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs took the initiative to create
in accordance with inter-ministerial order no. 18600 dated 30 October, 2003 a committee
responsible for the Drafting of the initial and periodic reports relating to international
human rights instruments.

This Committee comprises of:

   •   Government institutions: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Population, Social Protection,
       (which was transformed into the present Ministry of Health), Ministry of Education,
       Scientific Research, Economy, Finance and Budget represented by the National
       Statistics Bureau of the Secretariat of State responsible for the Public Security within
       the Ministry of the Interior and Administrative reform charged with Public Security;
   •   Non Governmental Institutions, including NGOs active in the area of human rights in
       the former provinces of Madagascar;
   •   And other members of the civil society.

To date, Madagascar has neither drafted let alone defended a report relating to the African
Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights. This report spans from

The European Union provided financial support for the elaboration of this report under the
project entitled ‘technical cooperation facility. Support to the activities of the Committee
responsible for the Elaboration of Initial and Periodic reports relating to international
human rights instruments.’

                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

     1. Geographic position                                                9
     2. Climate and vegetation                                             9

B    POPULATION                                                            10

     1.      Background                                                    10
     2.      Language, customs and habits and foreign communities          10
     3.      The main characteristics of the Madagascan peoples.           10


     1.      2006 Presidential elections
     2.      Constitutional development
     3.      Administrative reform
     4.      Adoption of the Madagascar Action Plan (MAP) as a road map.



     1.      Economic
     2.      Social
     3.      Cultural
     4.      Communication and religion.


ARTICLES 2 AND 3          The enjoyment of rights and freedoms
ARTICLE 4                 Sanctity of life and protection of privacy – Right to life
ARTICLE 5                 Respect for the dignity inherent in the human person and
                          recognition of his legal existence.
ARTICLE 6                 Right to liberty and safety of the individual
ARTICLE 8                 Freedom of conscience to practice the profession or religion
                          of one’s choice
ARTICLE 9                 Right to training
ARTICLE 10                Freedom to establish associations
ARTICLE 11                Freedom of assembly
ARTICLE 12                Freedom of movement and abode
ARTICLE 13                Socio-political rights
ARTICLE 14                Right to property
ARTICLE 15                Right to fair working conditions
ARTICLE 16                Right to health
ARTICLE 17                Right to education
ARTICLE 18                Protection of the Family
ARTICLE 19   Equality of peoples’ rights
ARTICLE 20   Right to existence and self determination
ARTICLE 21   Right of peoples’ to economic self determination
ARTICLE 22   Rights of the citizens to economic, social, and cultural
             development as well as the equal enjoyment of the common
             heritage of mankind.
ARTICLE 23   Rights of persons to peace and security
ARTICLE 24   Rights of persons to a conducive and comprehensive


ACAT       Christian Action for the Abolition of Torture
AERP       Provisional exploitation and research authorisation
AJM        Organisation of Mahanja Journalists
APC        Skills Approach
APT        Association for the prevention of torture
Ar         African Development Bank
ARTEC      Telecommunications regulatory authority
ASPE       Association for the safeguarding and protection of children
BAD        African Development Bank
BIANCO     Independent anti-corruption office
BIT        International labour office
BLU        Single lateral bands
BM         World Bank
BTP        Buildings and Public works
CAID       Intra domicile insecticide spraying campaign
CDE        Convention on the rights of the child
CEDEF      Convention for the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women
CELCO      Coordination unit of the Environmental programme
CFP        Technical and professional training institute
CFTP       Technical and professional training institute
CHD        District health centre
CHR        Regional health centre
CHRR       Regional referral health centre
CHU        Teaching hospital
CLAC       Centre for cultural reading and activities
CNE        National electoral Council
CNE        National employment Council
CNEMD      National teaching centre for music and dance
CNEO       National workers’ training centre
CNLS       National Aids control committee
CNLTE      National committee for the fight against child labour
CNTEMAD    National tele-training centre
CNUCED     United Nations Conference on trade and development
COI        Indian Ocean Commission
COMESA     Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
CRDA       Law Reform Commission for Africa
CRSP       Criminal System Reform Committee
CSB 1&11   Primary Health Care Centre, levels I and II
CSFOP      Higher Civil Service Council
CSI        Committee for the Promotion Of Integrity
CSLCC      Higher Counter Corruption Council
D-CAO      decayed, missing and filled tooth
DCPE       Framework Paper For Economic Reform
DIRAP      Inter Regional Directorate For Prisons Administration
DSM        Department of household statistics
DSRP       Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
DTS              Special Drawing rights
EBDM             Economic Development Board of Madagascar
EDS              Population and health census
EDSMD II & III   Second and third population and health census in Madagascar
EKA              Ezaka Kopia ho an’ny Anhizy (Operation for the issuance of birth
                 certificates to children)
ENDS             National population and health census
ENMG             National school for magistrates and clerks of the court
EPM              Continuing household census
EPT              Universal schooling
ESEC             Children exploited sexually for commercial ends
FAO              Food and agriculture organisation
FARITANY         Province
FMG              Malagasy franc
FMI              International monetary fund
UNFPA            United Nations fund for population affairs
FOKONTANY        Ward (the smallest administrative entity in Madagascar)
FRAM             Fikambanan’ny Ray Aman-drenin’ny Mpianatra (Parent teachers
FTP              Technical and professional training
Ha               Hectares
HCC              High constitutional court
HCR              High Commission for refugees
HJRA             Joseph Ravoangy Andriavalona hospital
IDH              Human development index
IGL              Local governance initiative
INSCAE           National institution for accounting sciences and company management
INSTAT           National Statistics Institution
INSTN            National institution for nuclear sciences and techniques
INTRA            National labour institution
IPEC/BIT         International programme on the elimination of child labour,
                 International labour office
IRR              Rapid results initiative
ISCAM            Higher institute for communication, business and management
ISF              Total fertility rate
IST              Sexually transmitted diseases
IST              Higher institute for technology
JAS              African statistics day
LTP              Technical and professional high school
MAP              Madagascar action plan
MCA              Millennium challenge account
MECIE            Harmonisation of instruments and the environment
MENRS            Ministry of Education and Scientific research
MII              Insecticide treated bed nets
MININTER         Ministry of the Interior
MOP              Penal labour
MST              Sexually transmitted diseases
NAC/PCIME        Community based nutrition programme/ Integrated management of
                 childhood illnesses
NC         Non classified
ND         Undetermined
OEMC       Office for mass and civic education
OIT        International labour organisation
OLEP       Unit responsible for combating the occurrence of marine pollution
OMD        Millennium development goals
OMERT      Malagasy telecommunications regulatory agency
OMS        World Health organisation
ONG        Non Governmental Organisation
PAM        World food Programme
PANAGED    National sex and development programme
PANEF      National girls’ education programme
PAS        Structural adjustment programme
PCIME      Programme for the integrated management of childhood illnesses
PDP        Internally displaced persons
PESH       Persons with disabilities
PEV        Mass vaccination campaign
PGE        General state policy
PIB        Gross national product
PMA        Least developed countries
PNP        National population policy
PNPDES     National population policy for economic and social development
PNPF       National policy for the promotion of women
PNUD       United Nations development programme
PVVIH      People living with HIV AIDS
RGPH       General population and housing census
RNDH       National human development report
RRI        Rapid result initiative
SADC       Southern African Development Commission
SME        Minimum salary for agricultural and non agricultural recruitment
SSD        District health service
TBS        Gross schools enrolment rate
TIC        Information and Communication Technology
TPI        Court of first instance
TVA        Value added tax
UNESCO     United Nations Educational, scientific and cultural organisation
UNICEF     United Nations Children’s Fund
USD        United states dollar
VHF        Very High frequency
VIH-SIDA   Human immunodeficiency virus- acquired immunodeficiency syndrome HIV-

                    LIST OF TABLES, CHARTS AND MAPS

Table 1    Average size of households according to social setting and region
Table 2    Gross national product in nominal and real terms and inflation rate
Table 3    Average rate of exchange in Madagascar from 2001 to 2006
Table 4    Average salary, unemployment and under development in the region
Table 5    Number of persons placed under a warrant for detention, and a provisional
           release (indo-Pakistani victims), cases handled by the Antananarivo crime
           squad from January 2000 to May 2007.
Table 6    Number of radio stations per province as at November, 2004.
Table 7    Number of television stations per province as at November, 2004.
Table 8    Main daily and weekly newspapers
Table 9    Percentage of men and women at all levels of the civil service
Table 10   Public and private schools, levels II and III
Table 11   Evolution of the gross school enrolment rate
Table 12   Evolution of college enrolment
Table 13   Evolution of high school enrolment from 1995 to 2005
Table 14   Evolution of enrolment of higher education students by gender from 1987 to
Table 15   Enrolment of students in the CNTEMAD correspondence courses
Table 16   Number of girls in the licensed public and private higher education institutions
           in 2005
Table 17   Literacy rate among the population above 15 years of age
Table 18   Proportion of private schools
Table 19   Status: ratification multilateral conventions

Map 1      Madagascar: Administrative sub divisions

                                          PART ONE


        1. Geographic position

           (1) Madagascar is a large island in the Indian Ocean, the fourth largest island of
               the world covering 587,000 square kilometres, 1580 kilometres long from
               North to South and 580 kilometres wide from East to West. It is situated
               400km off the coast of Southern Africa and is separated from the continent by
               the Canal of Mozambique.

           (2) The topography of Madagascar is more rugged than that of the rest of Africa
               including Eastern Africa. Most of the landscape is made up of close normal
               valleys ‘lavakas’ (deep ravines with steep slopes) cutting gashes into the
               slopes. The country is divided into several geographic zones: savannah, and
               plains to the West, the highlands inland, cliffs and tropical forests to the East,
               the enclaves to the North, and finally the semi-desertic plateaus of the South
               and South East. The country has a five thousand kilometre coastline and many
               inland sites.

        2. Climate and Vegetation

           (3) Due to its relief, the country has a wide variety of tropical climates. In general,
               there is a stark difference between the hot and humid season on the one hand
               and the cooler and less rainy season, temperatures vary depending on the
               altitude and the seasons.

           (4) The ferralitic soils are predominant in the basins. The forests of the past have
               disappeared leaving grassy savannahs. This situation has created considerable
               runoff leading to the formation of holes and deep gashes on the slopes.

           (5) In the west, the climate is tropical and dry. Temperatures are high with low
               rainfall towards the South. The average temperature is 20o c ranging from 5.5o
               to 10oc. The mainly savannah landscape is only broken up by the edge of the
               forest along the rivers.

           (6) Administratively, Madagascar is divided into 22 Regions, 118 Districts, 1558
               Communes and 17500 Fokontany1,

           (7) The urban and rural areas consist of several communities which in turn are
               subdivided into wards.

1   community

                      Map 1 Madagascar: administrative sub divisions.

                                      Map to be amended



      (a) The first known inhabitants of the country were the Vazimba. They moved from the
      coasts towards the centre of the island on the arrival of the immigrants from the Asian
      continent (Indonesians, Malays,) and from the African continent (East Africans and
      Arabs). Other population groups followed later on, Indians, Chinese and Europeans.
      Before the arrival of the Europeans in Madagascar, several indigenous kingdoms were
      created between the XVIth and XIXth century. As of the XIXth century, the Kingdom of
      Imerina gained some control over the other kingdoms.

      2) Language, habits and customs and foreign communities

10)       The Madagascan people live within a nation.

11)      Despite the level of evolution of the Madagascan socio-political system, habits and
         customs have always played a major role in the mode of social control.

12)      In Madagascar there are European, American, Asian, African and Arab communities.

      3) The distinctive traits of the people of Madagascar

13)      As at the latest general population and housing census fielded in 1993, the population
         stood at 12,238,914 persons. It was estimated in 2007 at 18,359,000 according to the
         projections of the National Statistics Institute (INSTAT) with a growth rate stabilised
         at 2.8%.

14)      Due to its insular nature, and its distance from the main international migration flows
         there is little exchange of populations with foreign countries. The effects of
         international migration are minimal.

         a) Social distribution of the population

15)      According to the continuing household census, slightly less than 8 individuals out of
         10 reside in the rural area. Regarding the regional distribution, 15 out of 100 people
      live in Analamanga. The regions of Melaky, Ihorombe, Betsiboka and DIANA are
      each home to under 2% of the entire population. 5 to 9 % of the population live in
      Vakinankaratra, Matsiatra, Ambony, Vatovavy, Fitovinany, Atsinanana, Sofia and
      Atsimo Andrefana.

16)   The Malagasy population is young. One in five persons is aged five or younger.
      Furthermore, half the population is less than 20 years old. People of retirement age,
      specifically within the civil service, make up 4% of the population. In terms of
      numbers within the general population, the proportion of male to female is more or
      less ‘balanced’. The proportion of women to men stands at 50.6%.

      b) Main population indicators

                 Birth rate, fertility, and mortality

17)   According to some sources of data, (General population and housing census, 1993,
      second national population and health census, 1992, third population and health
      census, 1997) the fertility rate is high and precocious in Madagascar. Actually, the
      total fertility rate (TFR) is 6 and the proportion of sexually active adolescents aged
      15-19 years is high (30% according to the 1997 population and health census).
      According to the third population and health census fielded in Madagascar in 2003-4,
      the life expectancy has increased and now stands at 58.1 years for women and 56.3
      for men.

18)   Infant mortality at birth was pegged at 58% in 2003-2004.

                 Life expectancy

19)   In 1993, life expectancy at birth was higher among women than among men in the
      entire country.

20)   According to the 2003-4 third population and health census in Madagascar, the life
      expectancy has risen to 58.1 among women as opposed to 56.3 among men.

      c) Characteristics of Malagasy households.

                 Average size of households.

21)   On average, there are 4.9 persons in a Malagasy household. Rural families are bigger
      than urban ones (4.9 compared to 4.6). These figures are constant irrespective of the
      region of residence. However, this indicator varies from 3.9 in DIANA to 5.8 in
      Mahatsiatra Ambony.

       Table 1: Average size of households according to social setting and region.

      REGIONS                           SETTINGS                              TOTAL
                                 Urban                  Rural
Analamanga                         4.5                    4.8                     4.7
Vakinankaratra                     4.4                    5.0                     4.9
Itasy                              5.0                    5.4                     5.3
Bongolava                          4.6                    5.2                     5.1
Mahatsiatra Ambony                 5.0                    5.9                     5.8
Amoron’l Mania                     4.8                    5.5                     5.4
Vatovavy Fitovinany                5.0                    4.9                     4.9
Ihorombe                           5.2                    5.0                     5.1
Atsimo Atsinanana                  4.6                    4.7                     4.6
Atsinanana                         4.5                    5.1                     4.9
Analanjirofo                       3.7                    4.1                     4.1
Alaotra Mangoro                    4.5                    4.7                     4.7
Boeny                              4.2                    4.4                     4.3
Sofia                              4.7                    4.9                     4.9
Betsiboka                          5.0                    5.1                     5.1
Melaky                             4.9                    4.3                     4.6
Atsimo Andrefana                   4.2                    4.6                     4.6
Androy                             5.3                    5.5                     5.5
Anosy                              5.5                    5.0                     5.1
Menabe                             4.2                    4.7                     4.6
Diana                              3.9                    3.9                     3.9
Sava                               4.0                    4.2                     4.2
Total                              4.6                    4.9                     4.9
Source: National Statistics Institute/ Department of household statistics, Madagascar/ 2005
Continuing household census

                  Socio-demographic characteristics of heads of households.

22)    The Malagasy society is based on a patriarchal system.

23)    The different matrimonial statuses are: monogamous customary marriage, legal
       marriage, monogamous common law marriage, polygamous customary and common
       law marriage.


           (1) 2006 Presidential election

24)    Marc RAVALOMANANA emerged as the winner of the 3rd December presidential
       elections to serve a second five year term.

         (2) Changes in the Constitution since the last report

25)   The 4th April, 2007 referendum approved the revision of the Constitution. The
      following amendments were made to the Constitution and subjected to a referendum:

                Chapters II and III define the decentralised local authorities i.e. regions
                and communes;

                Article 2 – “The Republic of Madagascar is subdivided into local
                government authorities whose administrative and financial autonomy are
                enshrined in the Constitution. These local government authorities
                collaborate with the Government to develop the nation.”

                Article 4 – “The official languages are Malagasy, French and English.”

                Article 13 – [......] ‘Any individual charged with or accused of an offence
                shall be entitled to the presumption of innocence until proven guilty by a
                competent court of law.’

                Article 14- ‘All individuals shall be entitled to freely forge associations
                with others on condition said action is in conformity with the Law. The
                same right shall be applicable to the creation of political parties. However,
                associations and political parties which jeopardise the unity of the Nation
                shall be prohibited; the same shall apply to parties which advocate
                totalitarian or segregationist ideas of an ethnic, tribal or denominational

                Article 35- ‘The Fokonolana shall be at the base of all development’

                Article 39- ‘All individuals shall be compelled to respect the cultural
                values, public property and the environment. The State and the
                decentralised local government authorities shall ensure the protection, and
                conservation of the environment through appropriate means. ’

                Article 46- ‘All candidates to the post of President of the Republic must
                hold a Malagasy citizenship whereby both parents are nationals of
                Madagascar, enjoy civil and political rights, be at least forty years old on
                the closing date for filing candidatures, and reside within the territory of
                the Republic of Madagascar at least six months before the date of filing

                Article 48- ‘Before taking office, the President of the Republic shall be
                sworn in before the Nation, at a solemn ceremony held at the High
                Constitutional Court in the presence of the Government, National
                Assembly, Senate and the Supreme Court’[.....]

Article 68- “Whilst in office, no Member of Parliament shall hold any
other elective public office and public employment excepting a teaching
Any Member of Parliament appointed to a post within the Government
shall resign forthwith from Parliament.
All Members of Parliament shall dispatch their duties in all conscience and
shall abide by the ethical rules laid down in article 76 hereunder.
He shall be bound by the requirement to seat regularly. In the event of an
unjustified absence, the MP’s salary shall be stopped forthwith.
The Member of Parliament’s right to vote shall be personal.
Voting shall be in public by a show of hands excepting where the issues at
hand personally affect the members of the National Assembly’

Article 70- “No Member of Parliament shall be prosecuted, pursued
arrested, detained, or judged for his opinions or vote during his term of
Members of Parliament shall only be arrested during sessions of the House
to face criminal charge with the permission of the Parliament, unless in
instances where they were caught in flagrante delicto as the main author,
co-author or accomplice perpetrating the offence.
Any individual may report in writing to the Permanent Bureau of the
National Assembly on cases of incompetence or misconduct involving
Members of Parliament.
The Bureau must give a detailed response to the report within a period of
six months”

Article 69 to78, review of Parliamentary representation;

Article 99- [.......] “The delegation of authority authorises the President of
the Republic to adopt measures of a general nature on matters touching on
the law through Cabinet orders.”

Article 100- “In the event of an emergency or disasters, the President of
the Republic shall be entitled to take measures through orders on matters
touching on the law.”

Article 109- “The High Judicial Council, a protection, career management
and punitive body shall be charged with ensuring respect of the law, the
statutory provisions of the bench, respect for the code of ethics by
Magistrates, making recommendations for improved delivery of justice
especially in the case of measures of a legislative or regulatory nature
concerning the Courts and Magistrates.”

Article 131- “ The provisions of the present Constitution shall not impede
the ratification of the Statutes of the International Criminal Court done in

                    Rome on 17 July 1998 and the implementation of the attendant obligations
                    under the conditions outlined in the said Statutes.”
                    Articles 134 to 140 on local Government authorities
                    Articles 141 to 145 on the regions
                    Articles 146 to 149 on the Communes

         3. Administrative Reform

26.      Article 35 of the revised Constitution stipulates that “the Fokonolona shall be the
         foundation of all development.”

27.      Article 138 of the revised Constitution stipulates that “The decentralised local
         government authorities shall be the regions and communes.”

         4. Adoption of the Madagascar Action Plan (MAP) as a road map.

28.      The Madagascar Plan of Action (MPA) is a five-year plan spanning from 2007 to
         2012. The Plan is based on the achievements of the PRSP and hence a follow up to
         the latter. The aim of the MAP is to make a quantum leap in development terms
         through the mobilisation of a five-year innovative plan which proposes to mobilise the
         Malagasy people and their international partners to generate rapid growth, promote
         poverty reduction, and guarantee the country’s development in spite of the challenges
         of globalisation, in line with the “Naturally Madagascar” Vision.

29.      The eight commitments of the Map are premised on eight pillars, namely:
         • Good governance
         • Infrastructure
         • Education reform
         • Rural development
         • Health and family planning
         • Economy and the private sector
         • The environment
         • National Solidarity.


30.      For the year 2005, the HDI for Madagascar was evaluated at 0.5272. Over the past
         five years, the HDI of Madagascar has increased by 8.8%. In general, the rise is a
         result of the progressive improvement in indicators linked to life expectancy at birth
         and school enrolment.

31.      However, there was a drop in the HDI in 2002 (0.479) due to the post electoral crisis
         and the protracted slump in economic activities in revenue terms.

2   Source: 2006 National human development (NHDR) report of the UNDP.

32.   On the contrary, since 2003, the Big Island has been progressively drifting away from
      the group of least developed countries with a HDI slightly higher than 0.5. That
      notwithstanding, the country is still ranked amongst the 20 poorest countries

33.   The HDI of Madagascar is above the average HDI of the LDCs but twice as low as
      that of the rich countries.


                     1. The Economic field

34.   The recent socio-economic reforms undertaken have led to tangible growth and real
      changes in the country. Despite the slump which came in the wake of the post-
      electoral crisis in 2002, the economy has continued to register real positive growth.
      After several decades, the adoption of new legislative and regulatory provisions
      ushered in improvements and major reforms in the management of public finances.

35.   Madagascar is committed to rise up to the challenges attendant to the attainment of
      the millennium development goals of halving poverty come 2015. The strategy
      adopted for the implementation of this policy is outlined in the Poverty Reduction
      Strategy Paper (PRSP) which was updated in 2005 and ended on 31st December,
      2006. The 2007-2012 Madagascar Action Plan (MAP) is the follow up to the PRSP.

36.   The expansion-oriented economic policy revolves around a boost in global supply and
      increased public sector investment, especially in the priority sectors such as
      education, health, infrastructure, and justice. Furthermore, in the private sector, the
      subsistence economy is evolving into a market economy, rural economy is expected
      to expand into an industrial economy and cooperation with other countries will be
      strengthened through international and regional trade.

      a) 2006 economic and financial performance.

37.   In the first quarter of 2006, the grim economic outlook led to a slowdown in economic
      activities. Poor rainfall had an adverse effect on agricultural produce especially rice
      and the production of electrical power.

38.   Despite the existence of many external factors, the economic growth rate was
      estimated at 4.7% in 2006. This economic growth was mainly spearheaded by a high
      level of investment of some 21.8% of GDP, 10.8% coming from the public sector and
      0.8% from the private sector.

39.   Actually it is the primary sectors which have been the hardest hit.

40.   The low rainfall had adverse effects on hydro-electrical power production and on
      industrial production whereas activities of firms in the free zone are at a standstill.

41.   The tertiary sector is at the origin of the bulk of GDP growth. Growth in this sector is
      lower than expected due to delayed disbursement under public investments for the
        CPW and the drop in the number of tourists in the wake of the “Chikungunia”

               b.) Economic and financial outlook, 2007.

42.     Madagascar must register a relatively high growth rate if she is to attain the
        millennium development poverty reduction goals outlined in the MAP. Thus, the
        expected growth rate for the year 2007 stands at 5.7, supported by investments
        estimated at 22.1% of the GDP with 10.3% and 11.7% coming from the public and
        private sectors respectively. Furthermore, a boost in exports is anticipated thanks to
        the development prospects in store for export-oriented industries (agro-industry,
        mining industries.......) and the implementation of various measures to diversify
        exports. Hence, the growth in exports is estimated at 1.3% of SDR and imports at

43.     The 2007 estimated growth rate for the private sector is estimated at 3.1% as opposed
        to 2.1% in 2006. Such growth is supported by developments in the agriculture sector
        assisted through financial partnerships, especially under the Millennium challenge
        account programme. In the secondary sector, the estimated growth rate was 5.9% in
        2007 and 6.9% for the tertiary sector.

Table 2- Gross national product (GDP) in nominal and real terms and inflation rate.

 Year    Nominal GDP Nominal GDP Real             Real GDP      Growth Inflation
         (billion      (billions of Mgf GDP       (billions  of (%)    (%)
         Ariary)       1984)             (Billion Mgf 1984)
 2000          5377          26885         466          2332     4.8%    9.8%
 2001          5969          29845         494          2470      6.0     7.3
 2002          6008          30040         432          2160     -12.7   15.2
 2003          6777          33885         474          2370      9.8     2.8
 2004          8156          40778         499          2494      5.3    13.8
 2005x         9914          49568         531          2655      6.4     5.8
       Source: Department of economic studies.

        c. )      Inflation and currency depreciation

44.     2004 has been marked by a generalised hike in consumer prices. Fuel, basic
        commodities and healthcare products have been affected.

45.     Inflation was caused among others by the two devastating cyclones, the hikes in the
        price of fuel and rice on the international market coupled with the heavy depreciation
        of the Malagasy currency during the first semester of 2004.

46.     The escalation of oil prices on the international markets during the first semester of
        2006 has affected domestic prices resulting in an inflation rate of +8.8% in February
        to +13.6 in June 2006 on a sliding scale. The implementation of a prudent monetary
      policy coupled with a judicious budgetary policy in the area of liquidity management
      has contributed to a large extent to the deceleration of prices.

47.   Control of and attempts at stabilising inflation will be pursued in 2007.

48.   In 2004, the Malagasy currency depreciated considerably. The rate of exchange
      became less volatile as of July 2006 after a 7.64 % depreciation against the Euro and
      1.3% against the dollar during the second quarter of 2007.

           Table 3: Average value of exchange rate in Madagascar from 2001 to 2006.

       Year                       USD                             EURO
                                  Average for       End of the    Average for     End    of
                                   the period       period        the period      period
       Average 2001               1318              1317          1181            1174
       Average 2002               1366              1366          1274            1274
       Average 2003               1238              1239          1399            1409
       Average 2004               1869                            2320
       Average 2005               2003                            2488
       Average 2006               2142                            2686
       January 2007               2036                            2644
       February 2007              2021                            2640
       March 2007                 1975                            2612
      Source: Central Bank of Madagascar.

      2.       The Social field

      a) Employment in Madagascar

49.   In accordance with the Universal Declaration for Human Rights, the National
      Employment Policy aims to promote full productive employment for all chosen out of
      one’s free will.

50.   The National Employment Policy aims to:

      •    Provide the conducive environment for economic growth, investment and
      •    Support the private sector, the main player in the reduction of unemployment;
      •    Improve access of workers in the informal and rural sector to education and skills
           training to boost productivity;
      •    Promote remunerative and income generating activities;
      •    Facilitate access for socially sensitive groups to the job market especially women,
           youth and persons with disabilities.

      b) Under employment and average salary

51.   More than 86% of the jobs created in Madagascar are non-wage earning. The
      percentage of wage earning jobs was 13.4% in 2005. The average annual salary is
      estimated at 991 000 Ar per month. The average salary in the urban areas is double
      that in the rural areas, 1,296,000 Ar as opposed to 691,000. Salaries of women are
      significantly lower than that of their men folk: on average 750,000 Ar. for women and
      1,147, 00Ar for men.

      Table 4: Average salary, unemployment and under-employment according to

                        Average Unemployment Unemployment       Inadequate
                        annual    rate        linked to the employment
                        salary                duration of work
      Analamanga            1 319         5.1              20.6          27.2
      Vakinakaratra      621 000          2.0              44.8          61.8
      Itasy              581 000          0.9              34.3          60.8
      Bongolava          584 000          3.2              28.1          55.8
      Mahatsiatra        964 000          2.5              21.5          38.5
      Amoron’l           398 000                 3.4                17.3              84.0
      Vatovavy           779 000                 1.7                30.9              53.3
      Ihorombe             1 085                 2.0                27.9              28.8
      Atsimo             802 000                 3.8                32.7              60.3
      Atsinanana           1 336                 3.4                28.0              25.5
      Analanjirofo       941 000                 2.2                28.7              39.6
      Alactra            664 000                 2.7                25.9              51.0
      Boeni                1 181                 5.3                17.8              26.5
      Sofia                1 031                 1.1                 4.0              30.6
      Betsiboka          884 000                 1.0                16.7              52.2
      Melaka             945 000                 1.9                17.7              52.2
      Atsimo             719 000                 1.8                28.9              58.2
      Androy               1 005                 0.9                30.0              40.9
      Anosy              901 000                 3.6                25.9              53.6
      Menabe               1 113                 3.3                23.0              44.8

       Diana                  1 097                 7.6                 16.0              23.1
       Sava                   1 310                 1.4                 24,4              22.4
                            991 000                 2.8                 25.2              42.5

       Source: INSTAT/DSMEPM2005

52. Unemployment is a real problem within the Madagascar job market. In 2005, the
    unemployment rate linked to the duration of work was estimated at 25.2%, it was 24.6%
    for workers between 15 and 64 years of age. Women bear the brunt of this situation.

c)   Unemployment

53. The unemployment rate in Madagascar was estimated at 2.8% in 2005. Should we
    consider only individuals aged between 15 and 64 years, the unemployment rate would
    be 2.6%. According to table 6, the unemployment rate varies from one region to the
    next. Unemployment is also mainly an urban phenomenon. In the urban areas, it is 7.1%
    as opposed to a mere 1.7% in the rural areas.

54. Further, unemployment affects more women than men. The unemployment rate is 3.6%
    among women and 2.0% among men. The same situation prevails in all regions of the

d.   Poverty

55. Both rural and urban dwellers benefitted from the economic growth which occurred
    between 2004 and 2005. In this period the incidence of poverty dropped across the board
    from 72.1% to 68.7%. The impact is more significant in the rural areas than in the urban
    areas. As a matter of fact the incidence dropped by 1.70% in the urban areas and 3.8% in
    the rural areas. The incomes of the urban dwellers were less responsive to the rise as they
    are mainly salary earners whereas the rural population benefitted from the rise in
    consumer prices of foodstuffs.

56. In 2005, the incidence of poverty in Madagascar was 68.7%. Poverty is more acute in the
    rural areas than in the urban areas. In effect, the poverty rate in the urban area stands at
    52.0% as opposed to 73.5% in the rural area. The regions situated on the eastern coast of
    the island are the hardest hit by this scourge.

     e. Health

57. As the Malagasy Government is aware of the importance of health in the development
    process, it has earmarked improved access to basic healthcare as its main objective
    especially for the poorest.

58. Overall, 120 activities have been conducted in the health sector with a 98 to 100.0%
    completion rate 2005. Only the most salient interventions will be highlighted in this
    report. In this vein, the following programmes were taken into consideration with the
    context of the 2005 objectives and achievements:
    •   Improved access to sound health services;
    •   Promotion of maternal/child healthcare;
    •   Intensification of the fight against infectious diseases; and
    •   Fight against HIV/AIDS

             Improved access to sound healthcare.

59. For improved access to basic healthcare services, the outreach approach has been
    adopted to reach as large a segment of the population as possible throughout the country.
    The improvement is not only quantitative but more a qualitative improvement in the
    delivery of the attendant services.

There are five objectives:

    • Improve the health coverage of the population;
    • Improve the hygiene and sanitation of health service;
    • Boost the availability of and accessibility to essential medicines, blood and quality
        healthcare products;
    • Improve the performance of the health system.


60. In a bid to improve the health coverage of the population, the 63 Primary health care
    centres (PHC) built and the existing 197 which were equipped and rehabilitated are the
    physical manifestation of the attainment of this objective with the relevant achievement
    rates revolving around 114.6% and 197.0%. In addition, basic technical and PHC
    products were provided as planned and 75.06% of the equipment and products meant for
    30 PHC centres within the framework of the National General Policy (NGP) have been

61. The construction of health units at the Ambrohimiandra Teaching Hospital, HJRA
    Teaching Hospital, and 10 Health schools have contributed to the improvement of
    hygiene and sanitation in the health facilities. These activities have been fully

62. Regarding the availability of and access to essential medicines, an implementation
    protocol has been signed between the Ministry of Health and Family Planning and the
    Salama Central stores for the supply of drugs to the 111 District Health Centres (DHC), 2
    Teaching hospitals, 19 Regional Referral Hospitals (RRH), 17 health care centres,
    District 2, 69 District 1 health care centres, and fourteen specialised centres.

63. Regarding the improvement of service delivery quality, and performance of the health
    system, 18 district health centres (at all levels) have been rehabilitated, and bio-medicinal
    equipment provided for ten district health centres levels 2 and 6, regional referral health
    centres and 1 district health centre level 1. Human resources have been beefed up both
    quantitatively and quantitatively. In effect, to increase the personnel, 511 doctors and
    669 medical staff have been recruited, 152 officers attached to the administrative

    services, and contracts signed with 43 dental surgeons. These activities have been 96.0%

       Promotion of maternal and child health.

64. The well-being of the mother and child is of primary concern to all. For the mother the
    possibility of participating actively in development depends not only on her state of
    health but also on that of her child. Regarding health promotion four objectives have
    been identified:


     Boost vaccination cover;
     Strengthen school activities;
     Strengthen strategies for the integrated management of maternal illnesses;
     Promote safe motherhood.


65. Three activities have been fully implemented in a bid to improve vaccination cover i.e.
    supply of vaccines (doses) to district health centres, vaccination material (units) to 111
    targeted district health centres, 164 cases of placid paralysis and 111 cases of measles
    have been notified. Apart from the strategies and progress in the 45 low coverage areas,
    cold chain coverage has been 67.0% and 92.0% completed respectively. Other activities
    such as the re launching of the Mass Vaccination Campaign (MVC) based on the 100
    day Rapid Results Initiative, the FAV Polio and Tetanus eradication campaign have all
    been fully implemented.

66. In a bid to improve on school health activities, all 111 targeted district health centres
    have been supplied with petrol and spare parts to operate the cold chain.

67. Within the framework of the promotion of strategies for the Integrated Management of
    Childhood illnesses (IMCI), the National Health Policy for children was formulated and
    validated. At the regional level, 96 trainers were trained and 300 community nutrition
    programme sites reactivated in order to improve the nutritional status of children.
    Presently, 52 IMCI sites are functional.

           Intensification of the fight against contagious diseases.

68. In this part, 11 objectives have been defined with 18 activities implemented between
    15% and 100%.

69. For the elimination of leprosy, the goal is 1 case for every 10,000 inhabitants. Active
    screening and free treatment in 28 district health centres have been fully implemented.

70. Regarding Malaria control, 2 out of 4 activities have been fully conducted, namely,
    I) the distribution of 900,000 impregnated bed nets and the re-dipping exercise in the
    regions of DIANA and SABA; and II) provision of the intermittent malaria treatment for
     pregnant women. The impregnated bed nets are availed pregnant women and children
     under the age of 5 in 35 DHC of the stable zones and adjoining DHC.

           HIV/AIDS control

71. Even though the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is still relatively low in Madagascar (1%),
    Government has expended considerable efforts to combat this scourge both through
    prevention and the treatment of patients. In 2005, 16,491,744 condoms were sold in the
    whole of the Island to stop the disease from spreading. Sensitisation and training have
    been conducted including: training of 172 trainers out of the expected 300, the
    production of 24 hour programmes and daily broadcasts. Training on medical care for
    240 targeted AIDS worker while, in 2005, 80 people living with HIV AIDS were treated.

f)   Education

        Universal education (UE)

72. The Malagasy state subscribed to the Universal Education Plan formulated in Jomtien,
    Thailand, in 1990 and in Dakar, Senegal in 2000. In the case of Madagascar, the main
    objectives are:

     • Basic education for all;
     • 100% primary cycle completion rate;
     • Reduction by 50% of the illiteracy rate.

73. The efforts of the government centre around three main parameters:

     • Access: that is, increase in the enrolment capacity for all Malagasy children by 2015;
     • Equity: ensuring sound quality assessment in both rural and urban settings to stem the
        dropout rate.
     • Quality: improved education and teaching materials to reduce the school repeater rate
        to 8% and attain a 100% school completion rate by 2015.

74. To attain these objectives, the Malagasy State has received an additional 1,000,000,000
    US dollar loan within the framework of the Fast Track Initiative.

75. Legislative and regulatory reforms have been undertaken in the field of education.

             The Malagasy education system

       •     The education, non formal training, comprising all educational activities and
             training conducted outside the formal educational system. This includes nursery
             schooling, functional literacy, citizenship and civic education.

       •     Civic and moral education were reintroduced into the basic education school
             programme in 1992.

         •      The Office for Mass and Civic Education, under the Ministry of Education was
                created in 2002 for continuous training and sensitisation of the population
                especially the school population on civics and citizenship.

77. Formal education and training cover basic, secondary education, technical and skills
    training, higher education and university training.

78. Basic nine-year training includes:

    Basic education in the first cycle organised in levels:
    o Nursery: first and second year
    o Elementary: one year
    o Fourth or fifth year in primary school.

    Second cycle basic education.

    o Observation class: 1st and 2nd year
    o Orientation class: 1st and 2nd year

79. Secondary education is three years (from form five to sixth form).

80. Technical and skills training (TST) which comprises technical and skills training
    colleges (TSC), technical and professional high schools and (TPHS) is the least
    developed area of education. In 2003-2004, only 3% of the total college and high school
    population attend TSTs.

81. There are 6 public universities, national schools, private higher education schools and
    facilities licensed by the State and a National Distance Learning Centre in Madagascar
    (CNTEMAD), within the higher education and universal schooling system.

    3.       Culture

82. The Government action plans revolve around the promotion of a cultural identity, among

                  Promotion of a Malagasy intercultural dialogue during the annual United
                  Nations day commemorations;
                  Promotion of the national and regional cultural heritage;
                  Establishment of the National culture office, the Arts and culture provincial
                  centres, and the “creation of arts and culture sections in Madagascar’s
                  embassies abroad.”

83. Taking into account the importance of the cultural dimension of development, the
    Government has prepared and published books in Malagasy for use by the general
    public. These publications are aimed at highlighting the contribution of the different
    cultures and civilisations and mainstreaming the latter into school programmes.

4. Communication and religion

84. The right to information and communication as well as the freedom of religion are
    enshrined in the Constitution without distinction of any kind such as race, origin and sex.

85. Abolishment of censorship in 1991 ushered in the emergence of private radio stations,
    and the development of the written press.

86. In August 2004, 93 cultural associations from all religious denominations were in


87. The protection of citizens and their property is enshrined in the Constitution without
    distinction of any kind such as their race, origin or sex .....,

88. The Constitution guarantees Gender equality before the law.

                                                      PART TWO

Articles 2 and 3:      The enjoyment of rights and freedoms- Equality and protection of
                       all and sundry before the law.

ARTICLE 2- Every individual shall be entitled to the enjoyment of the rights and
freedoms recognised and guaranteed in the present Charter without distinction of any
kind such as race, ethnic group, colour, sex, language, religion, political or any other
opinion, national and social origin, fortune, birth or any status.


“Every individual shall be equal before the law;”
“Every individual shall be entitled to equal protection of the law.”
89.     Articles 2 and 3 relate to non discrimination, equality, and the protection of all and sundry before the
        law and will be dealt with together.
                                     1.       Constitutional Provisions
90.     The Malagasy Constitution of September 1992 amended by constitutional laws no. 98-001 dated 08
        April, 1998 and revised in April 2007 recognises the principle of non-discrimination especially in its
        articles 7 and 8.
91.     Article 7 stipulates that “the law is an expression of the common will. It shall be applicable to all,
        protect all, be binding on all or punish all.”
92.     Similarly, article 8 emphasizes that: “Nationals shall be equal before the law and shall enjoy the same
        fundamental freedoms protected by the law without any distinctions of any kind based on sex, level of
        education, fortune, origin, race, religion or any other opinion.”
93.     Further, this very Constitution recognises:

        •   The International Charter on Human Rights;
        •   The Convention on women’s rights;
        •   The Convention on the rights of the Child.
        •   The African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights.
94.     Article 2 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights confirms the above constitutional
95.     Regarding article 3 of the Charter, the principles of equality before the law and prohibition of
        discrimination or favouritism on the grounds of one’s sex, race, language, religion or political
        affiliation are enshrined in the Constitution.
96.     Actually, article 8 above only goes to reinforce the above assertion.

                                            II. - Legal Provisions
                a.-       On the criminal plane
97.    Any infringement of these constitutional provisions shall lead to the sanctions set forth in article 115
       of the Criminal Code pertaining to Law no 82-013 of 11 June 1982 as follows: “Any individual who
       deliberately denies another individual the enjoyment of a right he/she is otherwise entitled to on the
       grounds of his colour, sex, family status, actual or purported affiliation or non affiliation with an
       ethnic group, nation, race or specific religion shall be liable to one month imprisonment and a fine
       ranging from 200,000 to 1,500,000 Ariary or any one of the two punishments.
       The above penalties shall be doubled where the deeds were perpetrated by a holder of public office or
       a citizen responsible for a public service Ministry in the course of dispatching his duties.
       In the cases described in the two preceding paragraphs, where the perpetrator proves that he was
       acting under the instructions of his supervisor in matters under the purview of the latter, and that he
       had to bow down to the supervisor’s superiority, only the supervisors who gave the orders shall be
       liable to the stipulated punishment.
       The present article shall not be applicable to distinctions, exclusions, restrictions, or preferences
       established by the laws or regulations regarding persons of Madagascan or non Madagascan
                b-        On the civil plane
98.    Recognition of the right of all parties to go before a court to defend ones rights is explicitly stipulated
       in article 1 of the Code of Civil Procedure: “Any individual may go before a court for recognition or
       protection of his case, as the case may be.”
                         Equal access to employment in the public sector:
99.    By virtue of Law no 2003-011 dated 03 September 2003, order 93-019 dated 30 April 1993 on the
       General Status of the Civil Servant was repealed. The significant innovations ushered in by this new
       statute are stipulated in articles 5 and 78:

                •     Article 5: “For the application of this Status, there shall be no discrimination based
                      on sex, religion, opinion, origin, birth, fortune, political belief, or membership
                      of a union.”
                •     Article 78: “The Covenants and regional and international Charters on the Civil
                      Service of which Madagascar is a signatory shall all be considered as an integral part
                      of the present Status.”

                      Equal access to employment in the private sector:
100.   The Labour Act governing the private sector is currently being reviewed with the same tendencies to
       combat discriminatory practices of all forms.
101.   Despite the legal strides accomplished, there are still a number of customary practices which militate
       against the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women.

102.   Women are marginalised due to their:

   •   Illiteracy and lack of education;
   •   Their status vis a vis the mores exiting in certain communities;
   •   Their matrimonial status and especially the stigma attached to single or barren women in certain
   •   The position of families with regard to tradition on heritage, the poverty of women in the rural areas.
103.   These factors explain the low participation of women in public life and public discourse, generally.
                                 III-     Administrative Measures.
       a.      Measures taken by the State to respect the notion of equality before the law.
104.   Presently, in terms of gender, the government and parliamentarians have launched sensitisation and
       awareness creation activities to convince the population to adopt behaviours which are conducive to a
       just and equitable treatment in a bid to conform with article 3 of the International Covenant on Civil
       and Political Rights.: “State parties to the present Covenant undertake to ensure the equal right of
       men and women to the enjoyment of all civil and political rights set forth in the present Covenant.”
105.   The Ministry of Justice through its Legal literacy programme organises radio and television
       programmes and workshops to inform citizens of their rights:

               •    Weekly programmes on the Malagasy Radio airwaves with nationwide coverage;
               •    Vulgarisation programmes by jurisdictions on local radio stations;
               •    Bi- annual television programmes on Malagasy Television.
106.   In addition, open days were organised in Antananarivo (December 2005) and Mahajanga (May
       2006) , Toamasina (September 2006) for sensitisation purposes.
107.   In a bid to foster this equality of all before the law, the Malagasy government has established five
       Appeal Courts in the county seats of former Farianty and the sixth is under construction at
108.   With the Magistrate and Clerks’ school (ENMG), Madagascar has been able to augment the number
       of Magistrates by 25 each year and as of 2006 the intake will be doubled.
109.   Further, educational films have been produced by the Research Department at the Ministry of Justice
       to sensitise the citizens of their rights and responsibilities.
110.   The Antananarivo Bench Association with the support of the European Union has set up a kiosk to
       advise justifiables. Other regions shall soon be equipped with these kiosks.
111.   Article 105 of the Labour Code (Law no 2003-044 dated 228 July, 2008) stipulates that “there shall
       be no discrimination in terms of work and employment between able bodied persons and persons
       with disabilities having the same capacity and competence as a result of the latter’s disability.
       Persons with disabilities shall be entitled to work, employment, apprenticeship, and skills training and
       employment on an equal footing and for equal pay as their peers.”

112.   Law 97-044 on disabilities dated.....implementing order no 2001-162 (cf. AUGUSTE)
               b.-      Other measures
113-   Human Rights NGOs from all regions have been availed paralegal training since 2003 to man the call
       and legal advice centre where citizens who believe their rights have been violated can receive
114.   To this end, the Ministry of Justice published brochures and leaflets outlining the relevant legal
       procedures. The leaflets were distributed during the open days. During support visits to jurisdictions
       one of the brochures, “Guide to respect of Human Rights for law enforcement officials” was
       distributed to the parties concerned (legal personnel, judicial officers, legal aids as well as NGOs and

           ARTICLE 4 : The inviolability of the person: privacy protection- Right to life.

ARTICLE 4: “Human beings are inviolable. Every human being shall be entitled to respect
           for his life and the integrity of his person. No one may be arbitrarily deprived
           of this right.”

                a-       Privacy protection

115.   Article 13 and paragraphs 1 and 2 and article 19 of the revised Constitution of 4th April, 1992
       enshrining the protection of privacy for all individuals who are “guaranteed the inviolability of their
       persons, residence and secrecy of all correspondence.
       Home searches shall be conducted only with the authorisation of the law and on the written orders of
       the competent legal authority, except in cases of a flagrant offence........ ”
       Paragraph 116. deleted.
116.   Law no 70-001 dated 23 June, 1970 incorporating the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights which
       stipulates in its article 17 that: : “No one shall be subjected to the arbitrary or unlawful interference
       with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and
       reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.”
117.   Any infringement of these constitutional provisions shall be punishable under articles 184, paragraphs
       1, 2, and 187 of the Criminal Code relating to order no 72-051 dated December 1972.
118.   However, a number of problems have arisen in the area of privacy protection. Certain journalists in
       the written press cast aspersions on some individuals in contravention of the provisions of article 2
       paragraph 3 of law 90-031 dated 21 December 1990 on the Communication which “ enjoins respect
       of the rights and dignity of others.”
119.   Training sessions were held in 2006 for journalists in Antananarivo, Toamasina, and Antsirana and
       plans are afoot to organise others. The training is organised by the Research Department of the
       Ministry of Justice to create awareness of the legal procedure and build the capacity of journalists to
       report on judicial matters.
120.   Two meetings were organised by the Association of Mahajanga Journalists one with the senior staff
       of the administrative and financial Court, in the first quarter of 2007 and the other with the first
       instance court (FIC) and the Appeal Court to build the capacity of the journalists to appreciate the
       meaning of respect for fundamental rights and freedoms.
                b-       Right to life
121.   Article 19 of the Constitution stipulates that: “The state shall recognise and organise the right to the
       protection of their health from conception for all individuals” and article 21 stipulates in turn that “the
       State shall guarantee the protection of the family for its unfettered self realisation including that of the
       mother and children by an appropriate law and social institutions.”
122.   Article 17 stipulates that: “the State shall organise the exercise of the rights which guarantee the
       individual’s integrity, dignity of his person, his full physical, intellectual and moral self realisation.”

                   c-        Protection of the human being
123.       Faced with the recent spate of kidnappings, the State has exerted efforts to preserve the physical well-
           being of citizens. Hence the Police was able to dismantle several networks involved in kidnapping
           cases (most of the victims were Indo-Pakistani nationals). It transpired though that the MAMOD
           TAKY case was but a settlement of scores with the Malagasy serving as the agents.”
Table 5:           Number of persons placed under committal notice and given provisional release (Indo
                   Pakistani victims), cases dealt with by the Antananarivo Crime Squad from January
                   2000 to May 2007.

                               Year                      Committal notice                Provisional release

                                2000                             21                                1

                                2001                             17                                3

                                2002                             53                               16

                                2003                             16                               24

                                2004                              9                                6

                                2005                             15                                2

                                2006                              9                                0

                                2007                              1                                2

                             TOTAL                               141                              54

124-       In a bid to improve urban security, the number of police officers was increased and busts carried out
           with the assistance of the population.
125.       Community police stations have been opened in several cities to improve on the security situation.
126.       The public security and police forces of the three regional capitals that is Ansirabe, Mahajange and
           Taolagnaro have received funding within the framework of the Local Government Initiative (LGI) to
           improve the security of the communities through accelerated police interventions:

                   •    Procurement of BLU, VHF walkie-talkie communications equipment;
                   •    Rehabilitation of vehicles
                   •    Procurement of fuel and lubricants.
127.       In the rural areas, gendarmerie advanced posts, village self-defence organisations as well as mobile
           units have been deployed in many villages in Madagascar.
128.       These efforts have been complemented by the activities of the National Gendarmerie within the
           framework of the Local Government Initiative. (LGI)

129.   Joint national gendarmerie and army operations have been carried out to combat rural banditry which
       is often compounded by murders and rape.
       d-      Protection of vulnerable groups
                    Protection of the Child
130.   Madagascar ratified Convention 182 on the abolition of the worst forms of child labour.
131.   In 2004, Madagascar also ratified two Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the
       Child, on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography as well as the Protocol to the
       African Charter on the rights and well-being of the Child.
132.   Bodily insecurity is provided for and punishable under the Malagasy Criminal code. The right to life
       of a child conceived normally is protected through the criminalisation and repression of abortion as
       stipulated under article 317 of the Criminal Code.
133.   However, the case of new born babies thrown into dump sites, rape, and prostitution of minors are
       proof of the violation of these provisions.
134.   Measures have been taken to reduce child mortality through mass vaccination coverage against
       tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, poliomyelitis and measles, distribution of vitamin
       A, and the implementation of the Integrated Management for Childhood illnesses (IMCI)
135.   An exclusive breastfeeding programme was also carried out.
                    Protection of persons with disabilities
136.   Madagascar signed the Convention on persons with disabilities and the September 2007 additional
137.   Further, Madagascar adopted Law no 97-044 dated 2nd February 1998 relating to persons with
       disabilities. This law is aimed at guaranteeing all persons with disabilities the recognition, enjoyment
       and exercise of all rights recognised every citizen without any distinction whatsoever.
138.   In Mahajanga, permits for public buildings are only granted by the Commune technical services if the
       plan includes a ramp for persons with disabilities.
                    Protection of women
139.   Madagascar ratified the Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women
       on 17 March, 1989.
140.   In order to reduce maternal mortality several measures including social mobilisation for the use of
       family planning services and education thereon.
141.   Reduced maternal and neonatal mortality are part of commitment 5, challenge no 6 of the Madagascar
       Action Plan (MAP) from 2007-2012.
A-     Right to legal status
       a.      Right to recognition of legal status.

142.   The recognition of the legal status for every human being implies that a certain number of attributes
       may be assigned to an individual to distinguish him from other citizens. This recognition is registered
       in the civil status.
143.   Legal status confers on the individual protection of the rights set forth in the Covenant on Civil and
       Political Rights of which Madagascar is a signatory to give effect to his patrimonial and/or extra
       patrimonial rights.
144.   The progress made in the field of recognition of the legal status of individuals is given effect to
       through the implementation of an operation for the delivery of birth certificates to persons who were
       not registered at birth.
145.   Operation EKA (Ezaka Kopia ho an’ny Ankizy) is one of the measures taken to that end. The
       operation is a countrywide national birth registration programme, initiated by the Ministry for
       Population in collaboration with NGOs and supported by UNICEF to simplify the birth registration
       procedure whereby any person who witnesses a delivery may make a declaration to the Chairman of
       the Fokotany.
146.   The public supplementary registration sessions have been increased to allow many Malagasy to
       obtain a copy of their birth certificate and a copy of their national identity papers.
147.   Possession of a birth certificate facilitates the exercise, enjoyment and protection of civil and political
148.   A campaign for the distribution of national identity cards was conducted in 2003 and 2006 to afford
       all adult citizens the right to vote.
       e.       Death Penalty
149.   In paragraph 1 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights it is stipulated as follows:
       “No individual shall be arbitrarily deprived of life.”
150.   The death penalty was established in 1958 and has not been abolished. It is automatically commuted
       to life in prison with hard labour. Madagascar is de facto one of the abolitionist states in view of the
       fact that none of the death sentences delivered by the competent courts have ever been executed.
151.   Nor has Madagascar expressed any objections vis a vis the international moratorium on the death
152.   The Criminal Code describes the death penalty as a corporal sentence involving deprivation of civil
       rights exclusively reserved for the most serious criminal acts such as:

            •   national security offence (articles 75 and 76 of the Criminal Code);
            •   deprivation of life: (assassination, patricide, poisoning, castration, (articles 296 to 302 and
                316 of the Criminal Code);
            •   crimes coupled with acts of torture or barbarism (article 303 of the Criminal Code)
            •   murders preceded by, accompanied or followed by another crime (article 304 of the
                Criminal Code);
            •   overt or covert armed robbery (article 381 of the Criminal Code)
            •   unlawful arrest and forcible confinement (article 344 of the Penal Code) ;
            •   cattle theft preceded or followed by death. (Article 4 of order 60-106 dated 27 September,
153.   Mitigating circumstances:

       •     Where a women sentenced to death declares she is pregnant and it is so proven, the sentence
             shall be deferred till she delivers (article 27 of the Criminal Code: order 60-086 of 31st August
       •     Under no circumstances shall the death sentence be passed on a minor;
154.   The above mentioned articles shall be attached to this report.

       Article 5:       Respect of the dignity inherent in a human being and recognition of his legal
Article 5: “Every individual shall have the right to the respect of the dignity inherent in a
human being and to the recognition of his legal status. All forms of exploitation and
degradation of man, particularly slavery, slave trade, torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading
punishment and treatment shall be prohibited.”

                                 A. Prohibition of torture and abuse

                                 I. At the international level

155.   In December 2005, Madagascar ratified the Convention against Torture and other
       Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.

                                 II. Legislative measures

156.   The Malagasy legislation has established as a criminal offence all physical or moral
       violations cited in article 114 of the Criminal Code: “Where a civil servant or agent of
       the Government acknowledges or commits an act which is arbitrary or prejudicial
       either to personal freedom, or civil rights of one or several individuals, or the
       Constitution, he shall be punishable by the loss of his civil rights.”

157.   Article 186 of the Criminal Code (order no. 60-086 of 31st August, 1960) provides for
       special sanctions against persons vested with public powers, and who without any
       valid reason use violence against individuals in the exercise of their powers or during
       the course of exercising such powers.

158.   There are also provisions for disciplinary sanctions: suspension from the service,
       demotion, retirement and dismissal;

159.   The Malagasy Criminal Code does not contain a definition of torture:

160.   A bill on torture was submitted for adoption since October 2007.

161.   “However, where the perpetrator proves that he was acting under the instructions of his
       supervisor in matters under the purview of the latter, and that he had to bow down to the supervisor’s
       superiority, only the supervisors who gave the orders shall be liable to the stipulated punishment.”

162.   Reforms are being conducted to domesticate the provisions of the Convention into the
       national laws.

163.   Articles 303, 309 to 315, 344 paragraph 4 of the Criminal Code, mentioned above
       also repress such acts.

164.   A brainstorming session facilitated by two experts from the Geneva-based
       Association for the Prevention of Torture (APT) on the United Nations Convention

       against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment was
       held from 23rd to 25th January, 2007 in Antananarivo, under the auspices of the
       Ministry of Justice in collaboration with ACAT Madagascar (Christian Action against

165.   At the end of the seminar, recommendations were made and an action plan
       formulated. The following commitments were made:

       •    Adoption of laws domesticating the provisions of the Convention in the national
            legislation (incrimination and drafting of texts)
       •    Elaboration and presentation of the initial and periodic reports.

Training and sensitisation

166.   A steering committee and a technical unit charged with the implementation of the
       Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or
       Punishment were set up.

               B.     Abolition of slavery, bondage, and forced labour.

                      I. At the international level

167.   Madagascar has ratified Conventions 29 and 182 of the ILO as well as the Additional
       protocol to the United Nations Convention against organised trans border criminality
       aimed at preventing and repressing human trafficking especially that of women and

                      II At the national level

168.   Officially slavery ceased to exist in Madagascar since its abolition by King
       RADAMA I in the XIXth century. However a certain form of slavery has persisted
       whereby some workers are not paid their rightful dues as reported in a study carried
       out by a Consultancy firm, “Mara Mita” in April, 2004.

       a.      Legislative provisions

169.   In Madagascar, forced or compulsory labour is strictly prohibited in accordance with
       article 4 of Law 2003-044 of 28th July 2004 of the Labour Laws on forced or
       compulsory labour.

170.   According to article 8 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, “No
       one shall be held in slavery and the slave trade in all its forms shall be prohibited. No
       individual shall be held in servitude. No one shall be required to perform forced or
       compulsory labour.”

171.   However, forced labour still exists but is punishable.

172.   The new forms of modern slavery are mainly manifested through work done in
       contravention of normal working norms or in the form of poorly remunerated or
       unpaid labour.

       b.     Administrative measures


173    In accordance with Convention 182, the Malagasy Government in collaboration with
       IPEC-ILO is implementing Recommendation 190 through a National Action Plan for
       the abolition and fight against the worst forms of child labour.

174.   This bulk of workers within this category are mainly domestic workers especially
       minors or prisoners.

175.   Government has decreed the month of June of each year “the month of the child.”

176.   Madagascar commemorates the 12th June as the International day of the Child.

177.   The Malagasy state in collaboration with the ILO/IPEC and the Malagasy football
       association and other partners (associations, NGOs, and firms...) produced a clip
       entitled “Red carding child labour” on the fight against child labour.

178.   Sensitisation campaigns on the abolition of child labour have been conducted by the
       CNLTE (National Committee for the fight against child labour) in collaboration with
       the Malagasy football association and the ILO/IPEC. The main activities are the
       posting of publicity banners stating: “Let us red card child labour” in all major cities
       and football stadia in Madagascar.

179.   Other information education and sensitisation activities have been conducted such as
       talent shows, carnivals, exhibitions, puppet shows, debates and panel discussions,
       information sharing meetings with authorities, radio and television programmes...

180.   The Ministry in charge of Population and UNICEF have produced advisory banners
       within the framework of the fight against the worst forms of child labour.

181.   A school manual on the rights of the child was jointly produced by the associations
       and partners of the Mahajanga Commission for the rights of the child in partnership
       with UNICEF.


182.   The National Plan for the Promotion of women (PNPF) was formulated.

183.   PANAGED or the National Plan of Action for Gender and Development promoted the
       emancipation of women both as womenfolk and as players in development.

       C.     Humane treatment of arrested persons or detainees.

                   Arrested persons

184.   Law 97-036 of 26 October, 1997: right to protection from the time of arrest to


185.   Decree no 2006-15 of 17th January, 2006 on the general organisation of the
       Madagascan Prison Services provides for humane treatment and respect for the
       human dignity inherent in the human being.

186.   Overall, the prison facilities require repairs and the construction of new buildings. In
       effect, the prison population surpasses the holding capacity of the premises and in
       some facilities the situation has reached untold proportions with some not even having

187.   Regarding the humanisation of conditions of detention, rehabilitation, humanisation
       and social re-integration measures have been adopted by the Ministry of Justice in
       collaboration with both national and international organisers, namely,

       •   Improvement in the conditions of detention through expansion and construction of
           new buildings;
       •   Fast tracking cases of detainees who have endured protracted incarceration.

188.   From 1997 to 2000, there was a backlog of 3791 cases concerning persons detained
       for periods exceeding five years without trial but luckily by 2001, 2497 of these cases
       had been cleared.

189.   Other measures have been taken in collaboration with the Embassies of Great Britain
       and the United States of America leading to the establishment of:

       •   A Health and Humanisation Unit within the Prisons services in 2002;
       •   A supervised education service within the prisons administration in 2004.

190.   This unit also caters for detained minors or those placed temporarily within a re-
       education centre on the orders of a juvenile court judge.

191.   In a bid to improve the quality of public prisons services, a National School of Prisons
       Administration was opened in Tamatave.

192.   In 2005, the Ministry of Justice set out as its main objective the humanisation of
       conditions of detention. The strategy for the implementation of this policy is
       translated into the following objectives:

           • relieving the congestion in prisons;
           • social reintegration;
           • food self sufficiency.
193.   This policy is founded on the Constitution of the Malagasy state and more specifically
       on the rights of individuals under detention.

194.   The programme for the strengthening of prison camps is in line with this Ministry of
       Justice Policy to:

               •   Increase production. At Mahajanga, the KOFEHY association in
                   collaboration with USAID contributes to the improvement of food supply
                   to prison camps (seeds, cassava seedlings....)
               •   The provision of the requisite food stuff to cover the nutritional needs of
                   the detainees and the prison camps. It is important to note that nutritional
                   assistance is provided by various associations and secular and religious

195.   The programme also provides the opportunity to move detainees and decongest

196.   The prison camp consolidation policy is translated into reality through
       decentralisation at the level of DIRAP (Inter-regional prisons administration
       directorate) and even prison facilities, of financial investments, human resources and
       their responsibilities.

197.   Further, the same programme is strongly committed to improving and sustaining the
       rights of detainees especially:

       •   The right to food, article 72 of decree no.2006-015 of 17 January, 2006;
       •   The right to hygiene and health;- articles 69, 70, and 71 of decree no 2006-015 of
           17 January, 2006;
       •   Decree no. 2006-015 of 17 January, 2006 in its articles 109, 112 and 113 revised
           article 70 of decree 59-121 concerning the status of prisoners liable to do corvee.

198.   Prisoners can no longer be employed at the service or for the convenience of
       individuals, be they civil servants or private citizens. Under the direct supervision of
       the Prisons administration, prison camps are offered the opportunity to progressively
       repatriate the large Criminal workforce (MOP) presently allocated to the dealers.

199.   In 2006, the Regional Prisons Administrations Directorates (DRAP) of Mahajanga,
       Antsirabe, and Taolagnaro received funds allocated under the pilot project entitled:
       “Local government initiative”. Among the activities defined in the DIRAP are:

           •   Improvement of prisons services;
           •   joint rehabilitation of certain neighbourhoods;

200    Regarding medical services, article 76 of the same decree stipulates that “each prison
       service shall be provided with a doctor and a dentist and or nurse.”

       The doctor and the dentist shall be designated by the Minister of Health or his

201.   However the number of doctors and dentists in the prisons is far from adequate.

202.   In view of this situation, measures have been taken since 1996 to train prison wardens
       as nurses to make up for the shortfall in medical personnel.

203.   Regarding pregnant women, the necessary facilities for their treatment have been put
       in place (article 67 of the 2006 decree.) Arrangements have been made for deliveries
       to take place at a hospital.

204.   At Antananarivo, the TSARA MANASOA association has created a reintegration
       centre for female convicts at the Antanimora prison in partnership with the Swiss
       Corporation (sewing, initiation to human rights....)

205.   At Mahajanga, the KOFEHY association in partnership with USAID carried out
       reintegration activities (2007) for female convicts (sewing and cookery )

                 ARTCLE 6: The right to liberty and the security of the person.

ARTICLE 6: Every individual shall have the right to liberty and to the security of his person.
           No one may be deprived of his freedom except for reasons and under the
           conditions previously laid down by law. In particular, no one may be arbitrarily
           arrested or detained.

                                  I.       At the international level:

    206.   In its paragraph 1, article 9 of the Covenant on civil and political rights stipulates that:
           “Everyone has the right to liberty and security of his person. No one shall be
           subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention. No one shall be deprived of his liberty
           except on such grounds and in accordance with such procedure as are established by

                                  II.      At the national level

           a.     Constitutional provisions

    207.   The Malagasy Constitution recognises the right to freedom and to the security of his
           person for all individuals: “No one shall be prosecuted, arrested or detained except in
           such cases as are determined by the law and according to the manner laid down by
           the latter.” (Article 13 paragraph 3)

           b.     Legislative provisions

    208.   The prevention and repression of illegal arrest and arbitrary detention are set forth in
           articles 119, 120, and 122 of the Malagasy Criminal Code.

    209.   Article 119 of the Criminal Code stipulates that: “Public servants responsible for
           administrative and judicial policing who refuse or fail to defer to a legal claim aimed
           at recording illegal or arbitrary detentions, either in facilities meant for the detention
           of detainees, or elsewhere, and who cannot prove that they had drawn the attention of
           their superiors to the situation, shall be punishable by demotion and be liable for
           damages as set forth in article 117.”

    210.   Article 120: (order 60-160 of 3rd October 1960) stipulates that: “guards at prisons
           and remand centres who receive a prisoner without an arrest warrant or judgement
           or, in the case of a deportation or extradition, without a provisional order from the
           Government, those who detain him or refuse to hand him over to the police officer or
           to the bearer of the orders without producing a warrant from the public prosecutor or
           the judge, or those who refuse to present their registers to the police officer, shall be
           deemed guilty of arbitrary detention, punishable by a six month to two year prison
           sentence and a fine of 100,000 to 450,000 Ariary.”

211.   Article 122 stipulates that: “shall also be punished by demotion all public
       prosecutors, prosecutors, judges or police officers who shall have detained or caused
       an individual to be detained beyond the locations determined by the Government or
       the public administration, or which have filed suit against an individual before a
       criminal court without prior indictment.”

212.   Furthermore, article 136 of the Malagasy Code of Penal Procedure stipulates that: “a
       CID officer may only detain an individual for the purposes of preliminary
       investigations for forty-eight hours.

       Beyond this prescribed time, the detainee must be released or appear before a
       magistrate from the public prosecutor’s office. Where this deadline falls on a
       Saturday, Sunday or a holiday, the Magistrate on duty or the officer from the public
       prosecutor’s office should be advised of the time at which the individual shall be
       arraigned before the court.”

       Where the magistrate from the public prosecutor’s office is absent from his residence,
       the deadline shall be extended to three days.

       And where the abode of the Criminal Investment Department (CID) officer is situated
       in a city other than the headquarters of the court or a section thereof, he may request
       the magistrate or official from the office of the public prosecutor from his judicial
       division to authorise the extension of the police custody for a period not exceeding
       forty-eight hours. This authorisation must be confirmed in writing and attached to the
       record of proceedings.”

       Once this deadline elapses, the detainee must be released or arraigned before the
       competent magistrate or official of the public prosecutor’s office.
       The Public prosecutor’s office shall decide on the next course of action.”
213.   In a bid to meet the obligation of judging delinquents within a reasonable time limit,
       the Ministry of Justice, through the Commission for the reform of the Penal System
       (CRSP) plans to table a draft bill aimed on the one hand at reducing the detention
       period before judgment and on the other at instituting a rapid and simplified process,
       in other words immediate appearance in court.

214.   The procedure envisaged is geared towards ensuring that the individual is brought
       immediately before the court for minor offences of little consequence.

215.   The right to recourse to a Court of competent jurisdiction to rule on the legality of the
       detention ensues from the recognition of the principle of legality of crimes and
       misdemeanours enshrined in article 13 paragraph 4 of the Malagasy Constitution and
       article 4 of the Penal Code.

216.   A person held in temporary detention is entitled to file for discharge before the
       remand court.
217.   Article 343 (law 97-036 of 30/10/97) of the Code of penal procedure instituted the
       competent remand court to rule on applications for discharge. In effect, it is
       mentioned in the said article that “the court provided for in article 223a of the present
       code shall rule on applications for discharge by giving a reasoned decision within
       three days of receipt of the communication of the Office of the public prosecutor. The
       judgment shall mention the summing up for the prosecution on pain of civil penalties
       of 40.000 Ariary imposed on the clerk by the Presiding judge of the criminal court of

218.   The innovation introduced by this text is that it is no longer within the purview of an
       authority which has decided on committal to custody to rule on cases involving
       applications for provisional release which are henceforth entrusted to the remand
       court consisting of three magistrates.

219.   There is also provision for release on bail where the type and amount of the sanction
       are established by the remand court (article 346 of the Malagasy Penal Code, law no
       97-036 of 30/10/97):

       “release on bail may be contingent on the provision of bail whose type and amount
       shall be determined by the remand court charged with ruling on the preventive

220.   In conformity with the spirit of the Covenant on civil and political rights in paragraph
       2 of article 9, anyone arrested shall be informed of the grounds for his arrest and shall
       receive a notification of all charges against him as quickly as possible.

221.   Article 341 of the Penal Code states: “shall also be sentenced to hard labour those
       persons who without the orders of the appointed authorities and barring cases for
       which the law orders the seizure of the accused, arrest, detain or hold any individual

       Whosoever shall have provided premises to perpetrate the detention, or confinement
       shall suffer the same punishment.”

222.   Article 342 of the Penal Code states: “Where the detention or sequestration lasts more
       than a month the punishment shall be life imprisonment with hard labour.”

223.   Article 343 of the Penal Code states: “The sentence shall be reduced to two to five
       years imprisonment where those accused of the misdemeanours mentioned in article
       341 have de facto not been charged before the law and have released the arrested,
       held or detained person within ten days of the date of arrest, detention or

224.   Article 344 of the Penal Code: “In each of the following cases:

          1. Where the arrest was carried out under false pretences, under a false name or
             a fallacious order from the competent authority;
          2. Where the person arrested, detained or held in custody has received death
             threats the culprits shall be sentenced to life in prison with hard labour.
             However, the crime shall be punishable by death where the arrested, detained
             or confined persons were subjected to corporal torture.”

225.   Law no 97-036 of 30 October, 1997 compels the investigator to notify the suspect of
       the reasons for his arrest and the crimes he is accused of.

226.   Efforts have been made to expedite the processing of cases involving remanded
       persons in order to judge them within a reasonable timeframe in Antananarivo and
       other jurisdictions.

227.   Thus the administrative and financial courts have been established in the former
       county towns of Faitany and new Courts of Appeal have been inaugurated namely at
       TAmatave and Tulear, that of Antisiranana is under construction.

                                        ARTICLE 7
1.     Every individual shall have the right to have his cause heard. This means:
       a)     The right to an appeal to competent national organs against acts violating
              his fundamental rights as recognized and guaranteed by conventions, laws,
              regulations and customs in force;
       b)     The right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty by a competent court
              or tribunal;
       c)     The right to defence, including the right to be defended by counsel of his
       d)     The right to be tried within a reasonable time by an impartial court or tribunal.


                                I. Constitutional provisions

228.   The Constitution in its article 13 paragraph 6 stipulates that “the law guarantees
       everyone the right to ensure justice is done, and that insufficient resources shall not
       constitute an impediment thereto.”

229.   The Constitution in its article 13 paragraph 6 stipulates that “the law shall guarantee
       completeness and inviolability of protection before the courts and at all levels of the
       proceedings including the preliminary investigation at the level of the Criminal
       Investigation Department or the public prosecution’s department.”

                             II.      Legislative provisions

230.   Laws and regulations have espoused these constitutional provisions and guarantee all
       individuals the right to assert their rights before the national courts.

231.    In criminal matters, the Penal Code of Procedure PCP provides in article 1 for
       “public right of action in the enforcement of sentences. It is set in motion and
       exercised by magistrates or by civil servants so entrusted by the law or by the
       aggrieved party as defined by the PCP.

       It ends on the death of the delinquent, the prescription, amnesty, abrogation of the
       penal law and res judicata.

       It may also end following a transaction or payment of a fine where the law makes
       express provisions; the same applies to the withdrawal of a charge where the latter is
       a necessary condition to the prosecution of the complaint.”

232.   Furthermore, the same Code in its article 6 cites public right of action which provides
       for reparation for the prejudice caused by a crime, an offence or a minor offence. This
       public right of action is open to all individuals who have endured direct personal
       damages as a result of the offence.

233.   The renunciation of civil action shall neither impede, nor suspend the exercise of the
       public right of access except in instances where the law makes said right contingent
       on a claim by the aggrieved party.

234.   In civil matters, article 1 of the Civil Code of Procedure guarantees all persons the
       capacity to go to court to obtain recognition or where necessary the protection of the

       In effect, any person whose rights are violated may sue for reparations of the damages
       caused before a competent jurisdiction. That is civil reparation. This reparation takes
       the form of damages being granted, the amount being left to the discretion of the
       Court and shall be commensurate with the severity of the actual prejudice.

235.   Where the reparations are asked for from the state courts, the double degree principle
       is observed.

236.   Where the appeal is not acceded to, there is provision for the plaintiff to lodge an
       appeal to the supreme court. (articles 398, 389, and 433 of the judicial system. )

237.   Article 398 of the Malagasy judicial system and procedure state that the decision
       being appealed against shall be heard by a higher court de facto and de jure.

238.   “The deadline to file an appeal shall be one month” according to article 399.

239.   Article 433 makes provision for the lodging of appeals before the Supreme Court.

240.   According to article 433, “a party which is not present or not represented at the trial
       shall, at any time, be availed the possibility of contesting the judgement should the
       latter run counter to his rights.”

                     Practices and decisions of the Courts and other organs

241.   Courts rarely rule on discrimination cases excepting in case no.180 CO/03 Court of
       the first instance of Toamasina.

242.   The dearth of cases can be explained by the poor popularisation of the texts governing
       the matter hence the importance of the popularisation and mass education activities
       currently being organised by the Government.

                             III.    Administrative measures

243.   The following improvements have been made:

              The opening of a National School for the Bench and Clerks of the Court in
              1997 has helped increase the number of magistrates and clerks of the court.
              Presently, there are 565 magistrates, 732 legal practitioners, including 410
              clerks and 322 secretaries at the office of the public prosecutor;

              Increase in the number of First Instance Courts to 36 in line with the
              Government policy of bring justice to the doorsteps of the persons subject to

              In the same vein, whereas formerly there was only one Appeal Court in
              Antananarivo for the whole of Madagascar presently there are four new
              Appeal courts at Toamasina, Toliara, Mahajanga and Fianarantsoa. The
              Antsiranana Appeal Court is under construction;

              The same applies to the establishment of Administrative and financial courts
              in accordance with law no 2001-025 of 9th April 2003 amended by law no
              2004-021 of 19 August, 2004.

244.   These jurisdictions set up in each county town are competent to be seized of
       administrative cases at the provincial level as a first step in the legal process.

245.   The State Council hears appeal cases lodged against the decisions of administrative

246.   The Court of Audits hears appeal against rulings made by the financial courts or
       administrative organs of a judicial nature.
247.   The establishment of these jurisdictions whose mandate is to administer justice
       impartially and independently is in line with the Charter.
248.   Efforts have been made in a bid to clear cases within a reasonable period such as:

       •   civil proceedings reform including the nomination of judges in charge of case

       •   increased frequency of sittings of the criminal court to hear cases involving
           prolonged preventive detention within a reasonable period.
249.   In order to usher in fair justice, it was decided to abolish the Special Courts such as
       the Special Criminal Court and the Special Economic Tribunal. Henceforth, offences
       which fall under the purview of these jurisdictions shall be tried by the ordinary law
250.   Other measures have been adopted to enhance universal access to justice e.g.

       •   reactivating legal assistance for persons in difficulty in collaboration with the
           African Development Bank.

       •   creation of a Penal System Reform Commission to review the existing system,
           simplify the proceedings, reduce the duration of detention and expedite trials.
251.   The holding a fair trial presupposes that the justice delivery system is modernised, to
       wit the efforts made in these areas:

       •   Harmonisation of texts in force in collaboration with International Organisations,
           in addition to reform of Business Law under the aegis of the Business Law

           Reform Commission (CRDA). The reform in question aims to create the enabling
           environment for improved protection of investments and legal security for

       •   Computerisation of Business Court records;

       •   Computerisation of the Business and Companies Register at the level of
           jurisdictions and at the national level centralised at the Ministry of Justice.
252.   Furthermore, international cooperation has helped improve the working conditions in
       the field of Justice considerably.
253.   And with co- financing from the Cooperation Francaise and the UNDP, the Public
       Prosecution Office of Antananarivo is presently being computerised.
254.   USAID is actively involved in capacity building for the Bench through the donation
       of law books.
255.   The European Union, Great Britain, and Switzerland have contributed immensely to
       the rehabilitation and extension of prisons facilities. Finally the avenues of redress
       open to citizens in the event of violations of the Charter are enshrined in Decree no
       231 of 5th September, 2003 of the Supreme Court which outlines the supremacy of
       duly ratified international conventions and confirms the relevant constitutional
       provisions (art, 132, paragraph 4 of the revised Constitution);
256.   In the exercise of their judicial duties, Malagasy jurisdictions respect the provisions of
       the Charter viz.:

       •   Presumption of innocence

       •   The right to be informed of the nature and grounds for the charges;

       •   Special legal proceedings for juvenile delinquents;

       •   Respect for the two-tier legal system rule;

       •   Application of the “non bis in idem” principle;

       •   Right to redress in the event of an error of justice.
257.   Furthermore, respect of the Right to a fair trial implies that the legal profession is made more ethical.
       To this end, Madagascar has ratified the UN and African Conventions on the fight against corruption.
258.   The bona fide application of the said conventions is manifest in:

       •   The adoption of an anti-corruption law no 2004-030 of 9th September, 2004;

       •   The establishment of appropriate structures including the Committee for the
           Promotion of Integrity (CSI) formerly known as the Higher Council for the Fight
           against Corruption (CSLCC), Independent anti-corruption bureau (BIANCO), the
           Anti Corruption Criminal Chain and Intelligence services.

259.   Within the framework of the programme of the Ministry of Justice aimed at boosting
       respect for human rights, a “Task Force” was set up to clear the backlog of cases at
       the Antananarivo First Instance Court. The findings showed a large number of
       persons under preventive detention awaiting trial for up to ten years in some
260.   The expected result is that as at early 2007, all inmates under the FIC of Antananarivo
       will be tried within the normal period.
261.   Thus, under the programme entitled Rapid Result Initiative RRI, the objective of the
       Task Force is to settle, within a hundred days, as at 15 June, 2006, 496 pending cases
       of which 233 concern 431 detainees in remand. Priority is given to cases spanning
       1990 to mid 2005).
262.   To attain this objective, 8 offices for Examining Magistrates were set up where new
       Magistrates worked with more experienced ones. In addition, 16 examining court
       clerks, a secretary from the Public Prosecutor’s Office and 2 messengers were also
       part of the team.
263.   The Attorney General and Minister of Justice has issued the following circulars:

          •   Circular no 005/MJ/DA/06 regarding the judgement of accused persons
              detained for many years;

          •   Circular 006-MJ/DGA/DAJ-Circ/06 pertaining to the fast tracking of appeals
              cases involving detainees and notification of arrests.
                B-      Presumption of innocence and right to protection.
                             I.      Constitutional provisions
264.   The Malagasy Constitution has espoused the principle set forth in the Universal
       Declaration of Human Rights which states in its article 13 paragraph 8 that: “All
       defendants or accused persons shall be entitled to be presumed innocent until proven
       guilty by a competent court.”
                              II-    Legislatives provisions
265.   Law no 97-036 of 30th October, 1997 modifying the Code of Penal Procedure
       stipulates in article 61 that: “at the preliminary hearing of any individual suspected of
       having committed a crime or offence, the CID officer shall inform the suspect of his
       rights to engage a lawyer registered at the Madagascar Bar Association or an agent
       or any other person of his choice subject to the legal provisions in force.”
266.   The fulfilment of this formality should be noted in the records of the hearing on pain
       of nullity of the proceedings and without prejudice to the application against the CID
       officer of the provisions article 112 paragraph 2 of the Code of Penal Procedure.
267.   The same law stipulates, in its article 62 that: “Counsel for the defence may witness
       the questioning, confrontation, and searches of premises conducted within the
       framework of the investigation. Where counsel is chosen by the accused, his services
       shall be pro bono...... ”

268.   The Malagasy Code of Penal Procedure guarantees any person accused of an offence
       and is arraigned before the courts the assistance of a defence counsel chosen from the
       list of lawyers and trainee lawyers of the Madagascar Bar or that of a country bound
       to the Republic of Madagascar by an assistance agreement in legal matters. Where
       the accused can prove his indigence he shall be provided a court-appointed lawyer
       where there is one at the seat of the jurisdiction.
269.   Where the offence is punishable by death or life imprisonment with hard labour, a
       lawyer is appointed by the court. (Law no 61=030 of 18.10.61)

                                       III.   Legal Aid
270.   In a bid to better protect this law, the Malagasy Code of Penal Procedure even
       provides for “legal aid” in its article 32. The latter may be afforded to any individual
       as well as public or state-approved institutions and private charitable associations with
       a corporate personality, where due to insufficient resources, these individuals,
       institutions and associations are unable to exercise their legal rights either as plaintiff
       or defendant.
271.   It is noteworthy that even persons detained under a preventive detention enjoy the
       right to protection. To this end, decree no 2006-015 of 17th January, 2006 on the
       general organisation of the Prisons administration, in its article 140, guarantees the
       accused the right to communicate freely with their counsel verbally in the absence of
       staff or in writing, and that every facility compatible with the requirements of
       discipline and security of the prison facility are afforded them in the exercise of their
272.   According to the same statutory instrument, counsel duly chosen or designated acting
       in the exercise of his duties and on the presentation of a permit indicating his capacity,
       may meet the accused in a location identified by the head of the institution.
273.   Hearings can be held every day at the times stipulated in the establishment’s internal
                      C-      Rights of children before the law.
                              Administration of justice for minors
274.   Article 40 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child ratified by Madagascar on 19
       March, 1991 stipulates that: “any child alleged as, accused of, or recognised as
       having infringed the penal law be treated in a manner consistent with the promotion
       of the child’s sense of dignity and worth, which takes into account the child’s age and
       desirability of the promotion of the child’s reintegration into society. Every child shall
       have the following guarantees as well as legal or any other appropriate assistance in
       the preparation and presentation of his defence. Judicial proceedings and
       institutionalisation should be avoided to the extent possible. ”
275.   Furthermore, “all the minimal rules of the United Nations concerning justice delivery
       for minors (Peking Rules) of 1985 namely on the age of criminal liability, on the
       rights which should be recognised in law for minors during the entire proceedings, on
       the instructions and on recourse to extrajudicial means, on the judgment and
       settlement of cases as well as treatment in open custody and within an institution.”

276.   These international documents outline the panoply of rights to be accorded the child
       during the entire proceedings to ensure a fair trial and treatment commensurate to his
       age. These set forth a specific procedure for minors, which shall be extra judicial to
       the extent possible. In any case, the following rules should be followed:

       •   Presumption of innocence

       •   The right to be informed of the charges
       •   The right to the assistance of counsel

       •   The right of parents and guardians to be present

       •   The right to interrogate and confront the witnesses

       •   The right to a double tier jurisdiction.
277.   For the application of this principle, order no 62-038 of 19 September for the
       protection of the child stipulates the specific provisions for minors involved in
       criminal proceedings.
278.   This ordnance distinguishes between three situations in determining criminal liability
       of the minor:

           •   A child aged less than 13 years old is criminally irresponsible;

           •   A child aged 13 to 16 years old may be found guilty without being totally
               responsible that is, his criminal responsibility may be mitigated based on his
               faculties of judgment, the environment in which he lives and level of

           •   Finally, a child aged from 16 to 18 years may be found guilty and deemed
               fully responsible. The law allows that mitigating circumstances based on age
               be denied this age group.
279.   Despite this possibility, in practice Judges tend to grant this mitigating circumstances
       clause to minors aged 16 to 18 years.
280.   Legal majority age is 18 years.
281.   According to the law, a 13 year old minor shall be liable for criminal prosecution. In
       this case, educational measures are given priority over punitive sanctions.
282.   Within the framework of the ongoing review, a study was conducted to assess the
       utility of putting in place a criminal mediation or extra judicial system.
283.   The adoption of law 97-036 of 30 October, 1997 strengthened the rules relating to the
       protection of parties and filled the missing gaps noted in the above mentioned order.
284.   Consequently, minors are entitled to the assistance of counsel at all stages of the
285.   In Madagascar, there are criminal jurisdictions for minors. For example:

           •   The juvenile judge investigating accused minors;

           •   The competent child’s court to judge offences committed by the minors;

           •   The child criminal court
286.   The position of Malagasy substantive law on “endangered” children is noteworthy.
       This concerns children whose family or social environment endangers them and

       makes them vulnerable to delinquency. In order to protect them the law insists they be
       placed in specialised centres such as re-education centres.
287.   Actually, efforts have been made to increase the number of social workers by creating
       specialised schools in this field.
288.   As at the Antananarivo Central Prison minors are separated from adults at the
       following prisons: Toamasina, Ambatondrazaka, Antalaha, Antsiranana, Antsirabe,
       Tolagnaro, Toliara, Morondava and Farafangana.
289.   At the end of the judicial proceedings, there is provision for a re-adaptation and social
       reinsertion programme organised in accordance with set regulations. To this end,
       decree no 2004-160 of 3rd February 2004 was issued.
290.   This decree provides for the opening of a correctional education service within the
       General directorate of the Prison’s administration of the Ministry of Justice.
291.   Improvements have been made in the regions of Mahajanga, Toamasi, and
       Fianarantsoa with the assistance of private associations and nongovernmental
       associations through the establishment of reception centres for juvenile delinquents.
292.   For example the “Association pour la sauvegarde et la protection de l’enfance” (ASPE
       – Association for the promotion and protection of the child) of Toamasina tends to
       150 children including some fifty delinquents.
293.   In collaboration with the Ministry of Justice and the Embassy of Great Britain, this
       association has built three reception buildings.
294.   Pursuant to article 3 of 0rder 62-038, the State bears the cost of upkeep of the children
       placed in care following a decision of the courts.
295.   Madagascar has ratified the additional protocol to the Conventions on the Rights of
       the Child regarding sale of children, prostitution of children pornography involving
       children, and the involvement of children in armed conflict. To combat the sale of
       children disguised and carried out through the international adoption process, law no
       200-014 of 7 September was enacted.

                      D.       Legality of offences and punishment
                      I        Constitutional provisions
296.   Paragraphs 3 and 4 of article 13 of the Constitution confirm the provisions of the
       Charter and respectively state that: “No individual shall be prosecuted, arrested or
       detained except in specific cases provided for by the law and according to the forms
       laid out therein.” And “No individual shall be punished by virtue of a law enacted and
       published after the committal of the punishable act.”

                                II.       Policy and Programme
297.   The Malagasy state has formulated the Madagascar Plan of Action spanning 2007 to
       2012 under its Commitment no. 1 on responsible governance whose challenges are as

           •   Challenge 1: “ensure satisfactory level of security to guarantee security of
               persons and goods.”
298.   Priority programmes and activities:
           1. Strengthen laws, rules and procedures to ensure proper coordination between
              the law enforcement agencies and the judiciary to pre-empt crimes and
              prosecute criminals;
           2. Put in place local “Dinas” by ensuring their efficiency and conformity with
              positive law and train communities on the application of the latter;
           3. Identify, obtain, use and maintain new resources, transportation, and
              communication equipment and arms to prevent and prosecute criminal
              activities and protect economic zones.
           4. Put in place new transparent incentive and personnel rotation measures to
              enhance the capacity and integrity of the security forces.
           5. Reorganise and secure the bovid sector (rearing and marketing),
           6. Control the trade in natural resources in Madagascar.

                             Indicators                          2006              2012

       Rate of criminality                                        4.2               2.6

       Number of red districts (cattle rustling and               61                 0
       crimes): out of 116 Districts

       Coverage of the surveillance of territorial waters        17%               40%
       and the economic exclusive zone

        •   Challenge 2: “strengthen rule of law.”
299.    Priority projects and activities:
   1. Make punishment within the legal system harsher for corruption;
   2. Pursue the review of laws, put in place simplified legal procedures to ensure rapid and
      transparent justice delivery;
   3. Continue clearing backlog of cases;
   4. Review case laws and regulations by an independent committee including EDBM
      (Economic Development Board of Madagascar).
   5. Boost observation, monitoring and protection of human rights by the National
      Commission and Office of the Ombudsman.
   6. Amend laws to ensure detainees are not imprisoned without trial for more than a year
      (thirty days for minor offences.)
   7.   Increase financing to improve medical and health conditions within prisons and
        develop efficient prison camps to ensure proper nutrition.
   8. Create an educational reintegration system for juvenile delinquents.

                           Indicators                                   2006             2012

World Bank indicator on the rule of law (base 100)                         45             60

Delays in judgement                                                        100            66

Percentage of the annual budget/overall budget (base 100)                  1.25           2.6

Convict/accused ratio in prisons                                        33/67            60/40

Assessment of the prison conditions by the International Red        Poor              Acceptable

Public appreciation of the legal system                                 Poor             Good

                                    III.    Legal provisions:
300.    The Malagasy law maker has opted for the legality of offences and penalties by
        stipulating in article 4 of its Penal code that: “No violation of the law, offence or crime
        shall be punishable by sanctions which were not set forth in a previous law
        establishing that crime.”
301.    Such is the “nullum crimen, nulla peona sine lege” principle which means that the
        individual is supposed to be aware that specific actions are criminal and know the
        punishment he is exposing himself to should he commit such a crime.

                      IV.     Measures taken
302.   Efforts have been made to eradicate certain traditional practices of meting out
       sentences which are not provided for by the Criminal Law such as the “Dina”
       practice, customary conventions which manifest themselves in the form of “people’s
       justice”. The Dina seems to be a collective convention between community members
       with provision for penal and civil coercive measures.
303.   Thus law no 2001-004 of 25 October, 2001 on the general regulation of “Dina” in the
       area of public security states in article 7; “Dina shall only be enforceable on
       homologation by the court of the competent judicial order or the Appeal Court as well
       as its publication by posting, information dissemination, or any other mode of public
304.   By this law, the State intends to carry out prior checks on the legality of the sanctions
       enacted in the application of the Dinas. As a result, a penal sanction which is non
       compliant with the law and Charter shall not be approved.

                                                ARTICLE 8
“Freedom of conscience, the profession and free practice of religion shall be guaranteed. No one may,
subject to law and order, be submitted to measures restricting the exercise of these freedoms.”
                                       I. Constitutional Provisions
305.    Freedom of religion set forth in article 8 of the Charter is recognised implicitly by the Constitution
        which classifies it among the fundamental freedoms. In effect, by virtue of article 10 of the
        Constitution “freedoms of opinion and expression, communication, press, association, assembly,
        movement, conscience, and religion are guaranteed for all and shall only be contingent on the respect
        of the freedoms and rights of others and by the necessity of protecting law and order.”
                                           II       Legislative provisions
306.    In Madagascar, several laws govern religious practice. Order 62-117 of 1st October,
        1962 on the denomination regime espouses the principles contained in article 8 of the
        Charter by stipulating that: “The State shall guarantee freedom of conscience for all
        its citizens as well as freedom to exercise the religion of their choice with the
        exception of the restrictions provided for in the present order in the interest of
        morality and law and order.”
307.    The increase in the number of cultural associations apart from the traditional catholic,
        protestant and Muslim religions nationwide is proof enough of the State respects for
        this freedom.
308.    Apart from the hundreds of existing associations in Madagascar, the main churches
        governed by order no 62-117 of 1st October 1962 are as follows:

            •   Catholic Church, both apostolic and roman

            •   Malagasy espiskopaly Fiangonana

            •   Fiangonan’i Jesoa Kristy eto Madagasikara

            •   Fiangonana loterana malagasy

            •   Fiangonana ara-pilazantsara eto Madagasikara

            •   Fiangonana frenjy Malagasy,

            •   Fifohazan’ny Mpainatry ny TTompo

            •   Fiangonana Protetana Malagasy Tranozozoro

            •   7th Day Adventist Church
309.    Religious freedoms mentioned in article 8 of the Charter are only contingent on the
        respect of the rights and liberties of others and the protection of law and order.
310.    In the event of an appeal the administrative chamber of the Supreme Court shall
        ascertain the legality of the restriction, suspension, or dissolution so decided by the
        authorities against religious associations.

       Such jurisdictional oversight offers a guarantee of protection of the exercise and
       enjoyment of the freedoms cited in article 8 of the Charter.
311.   The secularity of the State and the Constitution is not mentioned in the revised
312.   Madagascar respects the freedom of parents to provide their children religious and
       moral education in conformity with their own beliefs.
313.   In Madagascar, even detainees preserve their freedom of religion. In this vein, decree
       no 2006-015 of 17 January, 2006 on the general organisation of Prison’s
       administration advances in its article 87 the possibility of meeting the requirements of
       their religious or spiritual life. Detainees are free to attend services or meetings
       organised in the Prison by persons certified to that effect.

                                               ARTICLE 9
1       Every individual shall have the right to receive information.
2.      Every individual shall have the right to express and disseminate his opinions within the law.
                                       I-    Constitutional provisions
314.    Article 11 of the Constitution makes provision for the right to information without any constraints
        whatsoever. Further, article 10 of the Constitution guarantees the freedom of opinion and expression,
        communication, press (.....) to all citizens of Madagascar but enjoyment of these rights is contingent
        on the respect of the freedoms and rights of others.
                                    II-     Policy and Programme
315.    The Malagasy State formulated the Madagascar Action Plan spanning from 2007 to 2012 especially
        under Commitment 2 on connected infrastructure beset by the following challenges:
        Challenge 5:       “Provide an efficient and reasonable communication system.”
316.    Priority projects and activities:
        1. Connect Madagascar to the international fibre optic cable;
        2. Develop access to telecommunication services including ITCs and the internet;
        3. Install a national Backbone system including a national fibre optic network coupled with major
           infrastructure projects (roads......);
        4. Set up new ITC centres in each region (technocity);
        5. Improve the distribution system and the postal services processing delivery system;
        6. Upgrade and modernise radio and television services using new technologies’
        7. Liberalise the telecommunication sector;
        8. Generalise the use of “Voice over IP”
        9. Replace the OMERT National regulator by ARTEC.

                             Indicators                                   2005                   2012

Percentage of the population owning a mobile                        To be determined      To be determined

Rate of coverage of communes by public-private postal services           TV: 39%                 65%

Rate of coverage of communes: television and radio                       TV: 23%              TV:70%
                                                                     FM Radio: 28%         FM Radio: 70%

Composite index of the evolution of connexion costs (2005 base             100                    70
index = 100)

                          III-     Legislative provisions
317.    Law no 90-031 of 21st December, 1990 on Communications is the fundamental legislation which
        governs the right to the freedom of press and information.
318.    Article one of this legislation specifies from the outset that: “the present law guarantees freedom of
        expression and press, in accordance with the Constitution. It recognises for all individuals the right to
        express one’s opinions and ideas through the press or through any given medium.”
319.    In fact, order no 92-039 of 14th September1992 on audio visual communication in article 2 paragraph
        1 states that the State shall guarantee freedom of expression through the audiovisual media.
320.    Furthermore, article 59 of the above law guarantees the right to information since it clearly stipulates
        that: the public has the right to comprehensive information true to the facts and events. The provision
        of quality information shall be guided by attention to detail, integrity and intellectual honesty.”
321.    Equally, by virtue of article 75 paragraph 5, “those who through any of the above means mentioned in
        article 74 provoke discrimination, hatred, or violence against an individual or group of individuals as
        a result of their origin, colour, gender, family fortune, or citizenship or non citizenship of a specific
        nation, race or religion, shall be punishable by a prison term ranging from one month to one year
        and a fine of Ar. 20,000 to Ar. 600,000.”
322.    These measures do not contravene those contained in the Charter in any manner whatsoever.
                                   IV.      Administrative measures
323.    The liberalisation of the communication sector is illustrated in the following table:
        Table 6: Number of radio stations per province as of the month of November, 2004.

Province          Government Public                 Licensed         Licensing       Private        Total
                  Conventions services              Private          process         radios
                                                    radio            on-going        operating
                                                    stations                         illegally.

Antananarivo      04                 03             52               03              04             66

Fianarantsoa      02                 04             18               04              04             32

Toamasina         01                 07             17               05              07             37

Toliara 4         01                 08             18               05              06             38

Ansiranana        01                 03             13               08              20             45

MHAJANGA 00                          05             08               05              02             20

Total             09                 30             126              30              43             238

Source:          DIRM/SRR/CSCA (17/11/04)

TABLE 7:          Number of television stations per Province as at November, 2004.

        Provinces           Public Services        Licensed          Licensing           Total
                                                                    process on-

   Antananarivo                    01                 13                 00                14

    Flanarantsoa                   01                 02                 01                04

       Toamasina                   01                 01                 01                03

          Toliara                  01                 02                 01                04

       Antsiranana                 01                 00                 01                02

       Mahajanga                   01                 02                 00                03

          Total                    06                 20                 04                30

Source: DIRM/SRR/CSCA (17/11/04)

          Table 8:       Main daily and weekly newspapers.

                Daily newspapers                                 Weekly newspapers

Express du Madagascar                               Das les Medias Demain

Gazetiko                                            Imongo Vaovao

La Gazette de la Grande Ile                         Ngah (humoristic publication)

Madagascar Tribune                                  Telonohorefy

Midi Madagasikara                                   Lakroan’i Madagasikara

Ny Gazely Androany                                  Revue de l’ Ocean Indien

Le Quotidien                                        L’ Hebdo de Madagascar

Ny Vaovaontsika

Les Nouvelles



324.      The Malagasy Telecommunication Research and Regulatory Agency (OMERT) is
          responsible for granting operating licenses for private radio and television stations, for

checking and verifying the use of frequencies in accordance with the legislation in

                                              ARTICLE 10
       1.       Every individual shall have the right to free association provided that he abides by the law.
       2.       Subject to the obligation of solidarity provided for in Article 29, no one may be compelled
       to join an association.
                                  A-       Constitution of Associations
                                  I-       Constitutional Provisions
325.   Article 10 of the Constitution stipulates that the Malagasy State shall recognise the right to freedom of
       association for all. This provision is repeated in article 14 of the fundamental law which explicitly sets
       forth the modalities governing the exercise of freedom of association. Malagasy citizens can freely
       form associations or political parties without having to seek approval.
326.   However, this very Constitution sets limits to this freedom and prohibits associations and political
       parties which jeopardize the unity of the Nation and which espouse totalitarian or segregationist
       tendencies based on ethnic, tribal or confessional differences.
327.   In the constitution of such associations particular attention should be paid to the freedoms and rights of
       others and the need to safeguard law and order.
328.   It is the law which determines the conditions for the creation and functioning of associations and
       political parties.
                                  II-      Legislative provisions
329.   Order no 60-133 of 3rd October, 1960 on the general association plan represents the fundamental law
       which sets forth the general conditions governing the constitution, functioning and dissolution of
330.   According to article 5 of the order, for an association to be formed, the members must submit a
       statement to the administrative authorities. It is only on the basis of such a declaration that the
       association may acquire legal status.
331.   Any duly declared association shall without any special authorisation file suit, acquire for a
       consideration, possess or administer, in addition to State, province and commune subventions.......
332.   Article 12 of this very order provides that all declared associations may be recognised as state
       approved bodies by orders in Cabinet.
333.   Regarding foreign associations in particular, order 60-133 in its article 14 stipulates that: “except
       where provisions to the contrary are provided for in international conventions no foreign association
       shall be set up in Madagascar without prior authorisation.”
334.   Foreign associations which have been denied authorisation or whose authorisation has been
       withdrawn should cease their activities immediately and embark on the liquidation of their assets
       within one month of the notification of the decision.
335.   All foreign associations, irrespective of the manner in which they are dissimulated and which have
       failed to apply for an authorisation under the above conditions shall be considered as nul in law.

336.   Regarding the constitution of religious organisations in particular, article 5 of order no 62-117 of 1st
       October, 1962 pertaining to cults stipulates that a religious organisation shall be constituted where the
       size of the usual adult congregation is about a hundred. The organisation shall be constituted during a
       general assembly of the congregation which shall appoint a board and approve the statutes of the
337.   The elected Board of the organisation shall apply for legal status from the Minister of the Interior.

                              III-        Administrative measures (347 to 352)
                                     B-       Non Governmental Organisation
338.   One of the manifestations of the right to form associations freely could be the establishment of NGOs
       which are governed by law no 96-030 of 14th August, 1997.
       An NGO is similar to an Association. In effect, an NGO according to article 1 law no 96-30 is a group
       of natural, juristic persons with the following attributes: autonomous, private, structured legally
       declared and certified, non profit making, professionally engaged in charity, socio-educational, and
       cultural activities through the delivery of service for the purposes of sustainable human development,
       self promotion of the community as well as the protection of the environment.
339.   Decree no 60-383 of 5th October, 1960 pertaining to the application of order no 60 133 which governs
       the mode of creation of associations in Madagascar.
340.   Article1 proposes a practical method and lists the documents to be submitted to the administrative
       authorities namely the Provincial bureau (copies of the statements and statutes as well as documents
       displaying the amendments to the statutes and changes in its administration and management.)
341.   According to article 2 of the said decree anybody, without having to be physically present, shall have
       the right to receive information from the Ministry of Interior or Provincial bureaus on the statements,
       statutes, and documents presented by associations.
342.   Pursuant to article 12 of order 60-133, this statutory instrument entitles all associations to apply for the
       special “state owned” status. This application shall be signed by such persons duly delegated to that
       effect by the general assembly and deposited in exchange for a receipt at the provincial bureaus. It is
       up to the Ministry of the Interior represented by the Secretary of State delegated to the Province to
       take a decision on the outcome of the application. This status qualifies the recognised association to
       enjoy both administrative and fiscal benefits.
343.   It is noteworthy that the protection of the enjoyment of the freedom of association is guaranteed by a
       jurisdictional oversight exercised by the administrative Chamber of the Supreme Court. The suit
       brought should centre on the protection of the collective interests of members.
344.   Where their rights and freedoms are violated, associations may file an appeal before this jurisdiction
       against the administrative authorities for abuse of power.
345.   As a non profit-making organisation, the latter’s activities are guided by the principles of voluntarism,
       impartiality, without any discrimination whatsoever on the basis of race, religion or political affiliation.
346.   Associations are endowed with human, material and financial resources to conduct their interventions.

347.   The law curbs the power to set up NGOs by stating that all NGOs founded on an illegal cause or aim
       which runs counter to the laws and public decency or whose activities pose a threat to public law and
       order or national unity shall be nul and void.
348.   It is decree no 98-711 of 2nd September, 1998 which defines the mode of enforcement of law no 96-
                                   C-       Limitations
349.   The Malagasy legislator has deemed it indispensable to curb the exercise of the freedom of expression
       in some instances. To this end, articles 1, 2 and 3 of order no 60-063 of 22 July, 1960 prescribe the
       dissolution of certain associations and house arrest for persons proven guilty of engagement in
       subversive activities, and call for the dissolution by orders in Council of any Association or all
       groupings, be they de facto or de jure:

           •    That incite armed riots in public on the streets, or in public or private locations;

           •    With the exception of military training companies licensed by the Government, any physical
                education and sports companies which due to their form or military organisation seem to be
                private combat groups or militia;

           •    Which appears bent on undermining territorial integrity or forcibly overthrowing the

           •    Which have been proven guilty of receiving, taking or sourcing funds or orders from abroad;

           •    Which are proven guilty of having repeatedly engaged in a manner likely to:
                    1. Induce public disobedience of laws and regulations and incite the population to
                       elude their execution;
                    2. Induce the people to hate the constitutional institutions of the Republic;
                    3. Incite discontentment among the population leading to uncalled for manifestations
                       against institutions and Government by spreading false information;
                    4. Incite campaigns against the constitutional principles of the State using means other
                       than those legally available for the smooth running of the parliamentary institutions.
350.   Article 4 stipulates that any individual found guilty of having personally and persistently engaged in
       subversive activities shall be liable to house arrest by orders in Council where such activities are
       grounds for the dissolution of groupings, associations or parties as laid down in the preceding articles.
351.   Any individual under house arrest and who five clear days of the day of service of notice of the
       measures taken against him fails to comply with the said house arrest shall be punishable by
       imprisonment for a term ranging from one to three years.
                                   D.       Dissolution
352.   Dissolution shall be either:

       •   Voluntary

       •   legal or administrative.
                                                 ARTICLE 11

Every individual shall have the right to assemble freely with others. The exercise of this right shall be
subject only to necessary restrictions provided for by law, in particular those enacted in the interest of
national security, the safety, health, ethics, rights and freedoms of others.

                                           I.       Constitutional Provisions

353.    Freedom of assembly is enshrined in Article 10 of the Constitution. The word “assembly” covers that
        held in a room, in private or in public.

354,    The only restrictions provided for with respect to this freedom shall be the respect of rights and
        freedoms of others and the necessity to protect law and order.

                                           II.      Legislative provisions

355.    Two main legal documents regulate assembly in Madagascar, namely: order no 60-082 of 13th
        August, 1960 pertaining to public assembly and demonstrations in public whereas order no 60-104 of
        21 September, 1960 relates to unlawful assembly.

                                           III.     Restriction

356.    Order no 60-082 of 13tth August, 1960 on public assembly and demonstrations in public sets forth the
        restrictions to the freedom of assembly.

357.    Article 1 of order 62-017 of 14th August 1962 amending the first article of the 1960 order stipulates
        that: “public assembly for any reason whatsoever shall be subject to prior authorisation by the
        General Delegate of the Government for the city of Antananarivo or sub-prefects, as the case may be,
        who may deny the authorisation where the proposed assembly is likely to disturb the public peace.

        The application for a permit shall be transmitted to the general delegation of the Government or the
        sub-prefecture 48 hours prior to the date of the proposed meeting.

        Where the administrative authority believes that the meeting is prone to disturb public peace, it shall
        immediately notify the applicant of its rejection of the application by letter or telegram.

        The authorisation is given under the same conditions. However silence on the part of the
        administrative authorities is tantamount to consent to assemble. ”

358 .   Regarding the permit to assemble in public, article 8 of the same order requires that to organise any
        procession, parade, gathering of persons, that is any public demonstration of any sort, the organisers
        shall apply for a permit from the authorities cited in article 9 of the above order, who may deny the
        permit where the assembly is likely to disturb law and order. However, public outings in accordance
        with local traditions shall not be subjected to the application for a permit.

359.   It should be specified that no public meeting shall be held past 2300 hours. However, in those places
       where public establishments close later than that, the assembly may continue until the stipulated
       closing time of the said establishment.

360.   Finally, it should be underscored that any armed or non armed gathering likely to disturb the peace
       shall be prohibited in Madagascan territory as a whole.

361.   In effect, order no 60-104 of 21 September 1960, relative to unlawful assembly states in its first article,:
       “Shall be construed as an assembly any planned or chance gathering of persons in public. ”

362.   Where a state of emergency prevails within the country, the relevant law, law no 91-011 of 18 July,
       1991 shall prohibit and criminalise all forms of public gathering or assembly.
363.   Articles 3 and 4 of the above mentioned order govern the position of the law on religious gatherings.
364.   However, according to article 30 of the same order: “political assemblies or union meetings shall be
       prohibited in places which usually serve as places of worship. The organiser shall be liable to a fine
       of Ar 5,000 to Ar 40,000.”

1.     Every individual shall have the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of
       a State provided he abides by the law.
2.     Every individual shall have the right to leave any country including his own, and to
       return to his country. This right may only be subject to restrictions, provided for by
       law for the protection of national security, law and order, public health or morality.
3.     Every individual shall have the right, when persecuted, to seek and obtain asylum
       in other countries in accordance with the law of those countries and international
4.     A non-national legally admitted in a territory of a State Party to the present
       Charter, may only be expelled from it by virtue of a decision taken in accordance
       with the law.
5.     The mass expulsion of non-nationals shall be prohibited. Mass expulsion shall be
       that which is aimed at national, racial, ethnic or religious groups.
365.   Article 12 of the Charter lays down:

       •        rights recognised for any individual to move freely and to chose his place of abode within the

       •        the right to leave the country including his country and to return;

       •        the right to obtain asylum;

       •        that non-nationals shall only be expelled from a country by virtue of a decision
                taken in accordance with the law.

       •        prohibition of mass expulsion of foreigners.

                                         I.        Constitutional provisions
366.   Article 12 of the Malagasy Constitution and article 12 of the Charter guarantees all individuals
       established in Madagascar be they Malagasy or foreigners the right to free movement within their
       country and to choose their place of abode in accordance with the laws in force.
367.   Paragraph 2 of the same article guarantees all individuals the right to leave the national territory and to
       return under the conditions set forth by the law.
                           II-       Legislative and administrative measures.
368.   In accordance with the Constitution, the law guarantees all Malagasy citizens the freedom to leave the
       national territory and to return home. It is law no 91-025 of 12th August 1991 on the organisation and
       supervision of the movement of citizens abroad which makes provisions for the latter in its article 1.
369.   However this legal document lays down restrictions thereto.
370.   In effect, according to article 9, citizens may be denied leave to travel out of the country on the written
       orders of the competent legal authority where there is a case pending against the individual in question
       filed by the competent authorities or organisms for offences against the laws and regulation in force,
       punishable by a penalty or where a final sentence has been passed making the individual liable for a
       fine or a prison sentence without probation for crimes or offences, and the sentence which has not
       been overturned by a pardon or statute of limitations or reversed by an amnesty or pardon has yet to
       be executed.
371.   The lifting of prohibitions to travel out of the country shall be ordered by the competent judicial
       authority automatically or at the request of any individual in the event of a decision to dismiss the case
       or the relinquishment of the public right of action for one of the reasons laid down by the law, or
       pursuant to the execution of the sentence.
372.   Notwithstanding these provisions, any citizen prohibited from leaving the country may at his request,
       be issued a special clearance to leave for duly proven and pressing health or family reasons by the
       judicial body which pronounced the decision.
373.   Regarding foreigners, the possibility of securing entry visas at the airport or port of disembarkation is
       availed foreigners by inter ministerial order decree no 8421/97-MAE/MININTER/MI/SESP OF 19TH
       September, 1997.
374.   This is a new development.
375.   Madagascar does not have any “internally displaced persons” within the country. The country has
       never carried out a mass-expulsion of foreigners.
376.   Regarding refugees, the Malagasy State has signed the Convention on the Status of Refugees but has
       yet to ratify it.
377.   The High Commission for Refugees (HCR) has mandated UNDP to take care of some forty
       refugees, nationals of African Union member countries.
378.   On arrival in Madagascar, these asylum seekers presented themselves to the local authorities who in
       turn referred the matter to UNDP.
379.   This organism issued them a temporary refugee card which is meant to be presented to the ministerial
       departments concerned i.e. Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Labour
       and Social laws.
380.   Refugees are not ill treated due to discrimination. Four of them are presently detained at the
       Antanimora Central Prison accused of counterfeiting Malagasy currency but are not discriminated
       against in the least because of their origin. In fact, they enjoy the right to legal protection and assistance
       during the course of their trial and the services of an interpreter at the behest of the Ministry of Justice.
       One of the four money counterfeiters who was recently put on trial in Antananarivo has been released.

                                            ARTICLE 13
1.     Every citizen shall have the right to participate freely in the government of his
       country, either directly or through freely chosen representatives in accordance with
       the provisions of the law.
2.     Every citizen shall have the right of equal access to the public service of the
3.     Every individual shall have the right of access to public property and services in
       strict equality of all persons before the law.
       I       Participation of all citizens in the government of their country.
381.   The principle of multi party democracy is enshrined in the 1992 Constitution:

       •   Article 14 states: “Every person shall have the right to freely associate with others
           subject to compliance with the law.
           This same law is applicable to the creation of political parties.
           However political parties which compromise the unity of the Nation and those
           which espouse totalitarian or segregationist tendencies based on ethnic, tribal or confessional
           differences shall be prohibited.
           Political parties shall compete for votes with the minority be availed the right to democratic

       •   Article 15 states: “Any citizen shall have the right, without any discrimination
           based on his affiliation or otherwise with a political party or the obligation to be
           nominated by a political party to present his candidature for the elections
           provided for in the present Constitution and this, in accordance with the
           provisions of article 46 hereunder and the conditions laid down by the law.”
                                A.       Eligibility criteria.
382.   Organic law no 2000-014 of 24th August, 2000 relating to the Electoral Code enshrines
       in article 4 the right for any candidate to present his candidature for public office:
       “shall be eligible without any distinction whatsoever based on gender all
       Madagascan citizens who meet the criteria to vote as well as the conditions set forth
       by the special laws governing the different categories of elections, namely:
       1. Be registered on the voters’ roll;
       2. Be of the age stipulated by the law for all elective posts;
       3. Have a clean criminal record.”
383.   Article 2 of the Electoral Code shall define the conditions for the application of article
       6 paragraph 2 of the Constitution as follows: “all Madagascan citizens without any
       discrimination based on gender, aged 18 years and over on election day, residing
       within the national territory and enjoying their civic and political rights shall be
       eligible to vote.”

384.   Since the promulgation of the Constitution in 1992, several elections have already
       taken place:

       •    Presidential elections: 1992, 1996, 2001, 2006

       •    Legislative elections: 1993, 1998, 2003, 2007

       •    Municipal elections: 1994, 1998, 2003, 2007.
385.   After the 1992, 1996, and 2002 elections, the Electoral Code was amended.
                           B.      Settlement of electoral disputes
386.   The High Constitutional Court as the first and final instance is seized of election
       petitions pertaining to referendums, presidential or parliamentary elections. The State
       Council rules on appeals in cases involving violations of the law, whereas the
       Administrative Court established by law no 2001-025 of 9th April, 2003 shall hear, as
       the first and final instance court, petitions pertaining to provincial regional and
       municipal elections.
                                 C. Grassroots participation
387.   Article 7 of the same law refers to “a local Committee to conduct a census of the
       electorate. This Commission is charged with the enumeration of all citizens who meet
       the legal criteria to exercise the right to vote and is set up in each Fokotany. ”
       D.      Monitoring and evaluation of elections
388.   The establishment of the National Electoral Commission (NEC) has led to improved
       monitoring and supervision of elections. Article 14 of organic law no 2004-014 of 24th
       August, 2000 stipulates that: “a National Council morally responsible for the
       authenticity of the polls and fairness of the vote shall be charged with supervising all
       operations relative to the smooth conduct of the elections.”
389.   Other measures have also been adopted to ensure the proper conduct of the elections:

       •    Observation of elections by apolitical citizens’ committees, without any
            distinction based on ethnic origin or creed;

       •    Possibility of regional and international organisations observing elections;

       •    Monitoring of elections by observer groups;

       •    Establishment of a co-ordinating committee for elections’ observers by civil
            society associations or entities in an apolitical collaboration to ensure strict
            compliance with democratic principles during elections. Only NGOs registered by
            the National Electoral Committee shall be members of this Committee;

       •    Creation of a consortium of observers trained by the NEC in 2001.

                         E-     The National Electoral Commission

390.   A National Electoral Commission was set up in 1992 to supervise all activities to
       ensure the smooth conduct of the elections in accordance with the provisions of article
       113 of organic law no 2000-014 of 14 August, 2000 on the Electoral Code.
391.   The composition of the National Electoral Council shall be as follows:

           •   A member nominated by the President of the Republic, the Ombudsman or
               one of his Deputies,

           •   A member designated by the Minister of the Interior,

           •   A member designated by the Bar Association,

           •   A member designated of the Press Union

           •   A member designated by the Prime Minister

           •   A member designated by the President of the Supreme Court;

           •   A member designated by the Attorney General.
392.    According to articles 23 and 24, the National Electoral Council shall advise and assist
       the authorities charged with the organisation of elections, ensure the proper conduct
       of electoral operations, and register non-governmental organisations desirous of
       participating in elections in an observer capacity.
                                II-   Access to the civil service
393.   Article 23 and 24 of the 1992 Constitution sets forth the conditions for acceding to the
       civil service as follows:
       “Work and skills training are both a right and a duty for every citizen.”
394.   Access to the “civil service is open to all citizens without any other conditions other
       than the requisite qualifications and skills.”
                    A-General conditions of access to the civil service
395.   On the legislative plane, law no 2003-011 of 3rd September, 2003 on the general status
       of civil servants asserts in its article 17 that: “ no one shall be employed as a civil
       servant unless he meets the following conditions:

       •   Be a citizen of Madagascar;

       •   Enjoy civic rights

       •   Has performed national service

       •   Be certified physically and medically fit to work in the service

       •   Be in possession of one of the qualifications required for the lowest positions and
           scales for officers.”

396.        Applicants for civil service jobs are recruited through direct or professional
            competition, qualifications or entry. In accordance with article 18 of the said statutes,
            applicants are recruited by year and merit following entrance exams.

            Table 9: Percentage of men and women at all levels of the civil service.

Category                    2000                        2002                        2004

                 Women       Men     Total   Women       Men     Total   Women       Men     Total

                    %         %        %        %         %        %        %         %        %

       I           23.1      76.9     100      24,0      76.0     100      24.5      75.5     100

       II          42.4      57,6     100      46.4      53.6     100      46.5      53.5     100

       II          40.6      59.4     100      40.9      59.1     100      41.0      59.0     100

       IV          36.8      63.2     100      38.7      61.3     100      40.8      59.2     100

       V           26.6      73.4     100      28.0      72.0     100      31.4      68.6     100

       VI          42.4      57.6     100      42.5      57.5     100      42.9      57.1     100

   VII             23.7      76.3     100      22.1      77.9     100      20.2      79.8     100

   VII             28.8      71.2     100      29.5      70.5     100      30.6      69.4     100

       IX          30.9      69.1     100      32.7      67.3     100      32.6      67.4     100

       X           28.4      71.6     100      21.1      78.9     100      21.5      78.5     100

  ELD 1             0.0     100.0     100      16.7      83.3     100      20.0      80.0     100

  ELD 2            12.5      87.5     100       7.1      92.9     100       6.1      93.9     100

  ELD 3            10.2      89.8     100       8.6      91.4     100       8,2      91.8     100

  ELD 4            21.4      78.6     100      20.5      79,5     100      19,9      80.1     100

   HE              17.2      82.8     100      18.0      82.0     100      19.0      81.8     100

  Total            35.0      65.0     100      38.0      62.0     100      38.2      61.8     100

            Source: INSTAT/DI/JAS2004

                                             ARTICLE 14
The right to property shall be guaranteed. It may only be encroached upon in the interest of public need or
in the general interest of the community and in accordance with the provisions of appropriate laws.
                                        I-      Right to property
397.    The Constitution states in its article 34 hereunder: “The State shall guarantee the right
        to personal property. No one shall be deprived of the latter unless by expropriation in
        the interest of public need in exchange for a fair compensation paid in advance.”
398.    This principle is enshrined in law no 96-015 of 13 August 1996 on the repeal of law no
        89-026 of 29th December, 1989 relating to the Investment Code and defining the
        general guarantees covering investments made in Madagascar in its article 4.
        Article 4: “The State shall ensure that the rights to personal or collective property are
399.    Where in the interest of public use and by virtue of a law expropriation or requisition
        measures are adopted owners shall be entitled to compensation assessed on the basis
        of the capital invested and according to the methods normally used for such
                             II-    Protection of the right to property
400.    Order no 60-121 of 1st October, 1960 modified by law no. 66-025 of 19 December,
        1966 is aimed at stemming violations of the right to property.
        Article one- (Law no 66-025 of 19.12.66) “Anybody who maintains or resettles on the
        entirety or part of an urban or rural property from which a “res judicata” court
        decision had ordered his eviction less than five years before the encroachment shall
        be punishable by an imprisonment ranging from one month to two years and a fine
        ranging from 5,000 to 100,000 francs.”
                      III-     Case for expropriation in the interest of public use
401.    Order no 62-023 of 19th September, 1962 organises expropriation carried out in the
        interest of public use, non adversarial acquisition of landed property by the State or
        secondary public bodies and real estate betterment.
        Article 1: “The present order lays down the conditions for expropriation in the
        interest of public use, non adversarial acquisition of landed property by the State or
        secondary public bodies and the conditions for the recovery of proceeds from real
        estate betterment (rehabilitation or provision of equipment) conducted in urban or
        rural areas by the authorities or with their assistance.”
                                             IV-     Compensation
402.    Decree no 63-030 of 16 January 1963 defines the modalities for the application of
        order no 62-023 of 19th September, 1962 relating to the expropriation in the interest of
        public use, non adversarial acquisition of landed property by the State or secondary
        public bodies and real estate betterment amended by decree no 64-399 of 24
        September, 1964.
                                       ARTICLE 15
“Every individual shall have the right to work under equitable and satisfactory conditions,
and shall receive equal pay for equal work.”

                      I.      Legislative and regulatory framework

403.   Madagascar ratified the ILO Convention on equal pay for equal work in 1962 as well
       as the following conventions:

       •      No 100 Convention Concerning Equal Remuneration for Men and Women
              Workers for Work of Equal Value

       •      No 14 Convention concerning the application of the weekly rest in industrial

       •      No 132 Convention concerning holidays with pay

       •      No 81 Convention on Labour inspection

       •      No 129 Convention on labour inspection in the field of agriculture
404.   Convention 131 on the establishment of the basic salary is yet to be ratified however
       measures have been taken to implement Convention no 26 on the minimum wage
       which has already been ratified.

405.   Convention 106 on weekly rest in business and offices has yet to be ratified however
       weekly rest is observed both within industries, businesses and offices.

406.   The right to work is enshrined in article 27 of the Constitution: “Work and
       professional training shall constitute a right and duty for all citizens.”

407.   “Access to public service shall be open to all citizens without any conditions other
       than their having appropriate qualifications and skills.”

                                     A- Public Sector

408.   The new staff regulations for civil servants repeats the same provisions as those
       outlined in articles 16 and 17 of the previous staff regulations.

       Article 16: “Appointment to the different permanent jobs mentioned in the first article
       shall only occur under the conditions laid down in the present staff regulations.”

       Article 7: “No one shall be recruited into the civil service should he fail to meet the
       following conditions:”

           1. Be a citizen of Madagascar;

           2. Enjoy civic rights;

           3. Accomplished national service;
          4. Be certified physically and medically fit to serve in the service.

          5. Be at least 18 years of age and at most 45 years of age as at the 1st of January
             of the year of the entrance exam in the case of a first recruitment.

          6. Be in possession of one of the qualifications required for the lowest positions
             and scales for officers.”

                                       B.     Private Sector

409.   Law no 2003-44 of 28th July on the Labour Code stipulates in its article 2: “Shall be
       considered as a worker according to the present law, any person, irrespective of
       gender and nationality, who undertakes to place his professional activity in return for
       a consideration under the administration and authority of another natural, public or
       private person.”

410.   Article 4 of the code prohibits forced or compulsory labour except where specific
       work or services are required in accident or disaster situations, the work is performed
       in the collective interest, in accordance with a convention freely assented to by the
       public authorities, work of a purely military nature and any other work done by force
       by an individual as a result of a sentence pursuant to a judicial decision.

                    II-     Structures for the protection of the right to work

411.   In order to promote social dialogue between the State and Social Partners, the
       National Employment Council (CNE) was established to discuss problems and issues
       relating to the job market and the world of work within the private sector whereas the
       Higher Civil Service Council (CSFOP) was established for the public sector.

                          III-   Employment promotion policies.

412.   A national employment policy which guarantees the fundamental rights of social
       partners was formulated. The main strategies are: consolidation of the partnership
       between the State, employers and employees, increasing the GDP growth rate and the
       investment rate to:

          •   Create employment in the rural and urban areas;

          •   Reduce unemployment;

          •   Formalise the informal sector.
                                         A- Skills training
413.   In accordance with the provisions of the Labour Code, skills training is a right for the
       worker and a duty for the nation.
       Professional training includes:

           • Initial training;

           • Continuing professional education;

           • Sandwich instruction;

           • Smorgasborg training.
414.   To promote initial professional training, the Malagasy State has embarked on a
       certification programme in collaboration with the Private Higher Education
       Institutions and Centres:

          • Introduction of Instruction in Art Trade and Techniques for middle level
            executives and supervisory officials;

          • Higher Training Institutes for officers in Communications Management and
            Company Administration (ISCAM, INSCAE)

          • Religious higher education institutions (Catholic university, Adventist
            university, Christian Higher Institute for management and mathematics)/

                                   B. Worker’s education
416.   A National Labour Institute (INTRA) was set up in accordance with decree no 2003-
       857 to replace the National Workers’ Education Centre. The administration is a
       tripartite one and its mandate is outlined in article 189 and 190 of the present Labour

           •   Article 189. “The mission of the National Labour Institute is to ensure
               continuous training for workers in order to enable them participate in the
               socio-economic life of the firm, country and assume their union and other
               attendant duties to the full.
               Article 190- In addition, the National Labour Institute

                  •   Assists in the research work conducted by the Technical Works,
                      Employment, and Social Protection Departments;

                  •   Participate in the training of labour controllers and inspectors:”
417.   The regulations governing study leave for the promotion of workers’ education has
       been maintained in the new Labour Code.
                        C- Unemployment and under-employment.
418-   Unemployment according to the ILO norms is not a major problem within the job
       market in Madagascar with a low rate of 2.8% in 2005 (2.6% should we only consider
       individuals aged 15-64 years old), under employment affects more than 25.2% of the
       active population aged 15-64 years, especially in the Regions of Vakinankaratra, Ilasy
       and Atsimo Atsinanana where more than 45%, 34%, or 33% respectively of the
       workers are affected.
419.   Pages 58 and 59 of the Madagascar’s National Human Development Report 2003
       (NHDR) on entry into the job market deal with unemployment and underemployment
       depending on the type of urban and rural setting explains that: “The 1.6 million jobs
       created between 1993 and 2001 were not sufficient to absorb all the job applications.
       The unemployment rate among men has been stagnant whereas that of women has
       IV- Special working conditions of certain categories of workers.
420.   Chapter 3 of the Labour Code deals with the working conditions of women, children,
       and persons with disabilities.
                                 A- Employment of women
421.   Special protection is availed women from 93 to 97 of the Labour Code.
       -       Article 93 on types of work prohibited for pregnant women;
       -       Article 94 on pregnancy and salaried women.
       -       Articles 95 and 97 on job security for pregnant women.

                                          B- Child labour
422.   In accordance with the provisions of Convention no 138 of the ILO, article 100 sets
       the minimum age for entry into the job market at 15 years.
423,   Article 101 limits the duration of the working day for children, prohibits night shifts
       and stipulates a minimum turnaround period.
424.   Article 102 regulates jobs prohibited for children
425.   Article 103 provides for compulsory medical consultations for children prior to
                        C- Employment of persons with disabilities
426.    The Labour Code deals with non discrimination of persons with disabilities in its
       articles 104 to 109 and article 105 thereof expressly stipulates:
427.   “There shall be no discrimination whatsoever in matters of labour or jobs between
       able-bodied people and people with disabilities with the same qualifications and skills
       because of the latter’s disabilities. Persons with disabilities shall be entitled to work
       and employment on equal terms and conditions in the areas of apprenticeship,
       professional training and employment.”
          D- Treatment of persons with disabilities within the administration.
428.   A specialised unit of the Ministry for Social Protection is responsible for persons with
       disabilities and its duties are as follows:

          •   Elaboration of legal documents and regulations governing the conditions of
              enforcement and protection of economic, social and cultural rights of persons
              with disabilities;

          •   Technical material and financial guidance and support for institutions or
              organisations responsible for the affairs of such persons: centres, training,
              income generating activities etc...
                         V-Enforcement of laws and regulations.
                                    A-Labour inspection
429.   In accordance with Conventions no 81 and 129 of the ILO, regional inspection units
       have been established for the application of Labour laws and regulations.
430.   Article 234 of the Labour Code defines the duties of the Labour Inspector among
       others as:
       a. “ensuring that the legislative and regulatory provisions pertaining to working
          conditions and the protection of workers are enforced;
       b. providing information and technical advice to employers and employees on (....)
          the legal provisions in force;

       c. informing the competent authorities of deficiencies or abuses which are not
          specifically covered by the existing legislative and regulatory provisions.”
              B-      Labour Controllers and Labour Inspection Officers.
431.   Labour Controllers assist Labour Inspectors. They are authorised to record
       infringements of the legal and regulatory provisions of the Labour Code.
432.   In the administrative districts where there are no Labour Inspectors or Controllers, the
       District Head deputising for the labour Inspector transmits to the latter the necessary
       information to draft a report.
                                   C- Capacity Building
433.   In view of the dearth of Labour Inspectors, measures were taken in 1998 to address
       the situation. Hence, 90 Labour Inspector were trained at the Ecole Nationale de L’
       Administration (ENAM- Madagascar National School for Administration) and 45
       Controllers are presently posted at the Regional Inspection units.
                D-     Monitoring of the application of the Labour Code.
434.   Any worker or employer may request the Labour Inspection unit to settle a dispute
435.   Before referring a case to the courts for settlement, the Labour inspectorate must first
       be seized for any dispute to be settlement between an employee under contract and his
436.   Labour Courts are set up within Courts to settle disputes between employees and

           • arising from the interpretation of the law or a collective agreement or shop

           • arising from employment contracts or training contracts; or

           • unresolved disputes before the duly seized Labour inspectorate.
                       VI. Fair and favourable working conditions
                       A- Equal opportunity in terms of promotion
437.   In order to ensure that external factors do not impede equal access to opportunities,
       the Labour Code has made provisions for the respect of human dignity. Thus,
       regarding sexual harassment and its consequence on the promotion of workers,
       article 5 paragraphs 3 and 4 of the Code stipulate that: “Shall be construed as sexual
       harassment on the job any uncalled for behaviour of a sexual nature which interferes
       with the job, conditions employment or the normal development of ones career or
       creates an intimidating working environment.
438.   No salaried worker shall be punished, discriminated against career wise or job wise
       or dismissed for testifying about the actions mentioned in the above paragraph or for
       recounting them.”

                               B- Weekly Rest and holidays
439.   Weekly rest provided for under Convention 14 is domesticated into the Malagasy
       legislation in article 80 of the Labour Code of law no 2003-044. Article 81 deals with
       public and bank holidays.
                                          C. Leave
440.   Articles 86 to 90 of the present Labour Code deal with the regulations in force
       regarding paid leave. All workers shall be entitled to two and a half days paid leave
       for every calendar month served at the expense of the employer.
                                   D- Health and Safety
441.   The issue of health, safety and the working environment is provided for in law no 94-
       027 of 18 November, 1994, presently it is governed by Title IV of the Labour Code
       on: “Health and safety conditions and the working environment.”
442.   In accordance with the provisions of Title IV, decree no 2003-1162 on the
       organisation of occupational medicine was enacted on 17th December, 2003 on the
       advice of the Consultative Technical Committee and the National Employment
443.   The provisions of decree no 889 of 20th May, 1960 set forth the general measures
       pertaining to the area of health, safety and the working environment.
444.   Occupational medicine shall be provided by intercompany medical services and
       autonomous occupational medicine companies.
445.   For workers in the informal rural and urban sectors, health and hygiene services shall
       be provided by the Community health Centres (CHC 1 and CHC 2) in the communes
       and hospitals in the Districts.
                                    VII. Remuneration
446.   Convention no 100 on equal pay has already been ratified by Madagascar and the
       Malagasy Government has already taken legislative steps to ensure equal pay for
       equal work.
447.   Article 29 of the Constitution enshrines the principle of equal salaries and wages and
       states: “all citizens shall be entitled to a fair remuneration commensurate with the
       quality of their work and output guaranteeing them and their family an existence
       consistent with human dignity.”
448.   Malagasy legislation provides for non-discrimination on salaries: “for the same
       professional qualifications, same job and for the same value of work, all workers
       shall be paid the same salary without any discrimination whatsoever on the basis of
       their origin, colour, nationality, gender, age, affiliation to a union or opinion.”
449.   The determination of salaries shall be governed by the national norms that is, by the
       principle of minimum starting salary for the agricultural and non agricultural sectors.
450.   The competent organs authorised to give advice on the issue of salaries are:
       •   The Higher Council of the Civil service, a public sector bipartite organ;

       •   The National Labour Council, a private sector tripartite organ for consultations on
                        A- Minimum guaranteed inter occupational wage
451.   The Minimum Starting Salary replaced the Minimum guaranteed inter occupational
       wage (SMIG) since 1993. Article 55 of law no 2003-044 of 28 July, 2004 relating to
       the Labour Code states that: “there shall be a minimum agricultural and non
       agricultural minimum starting salary taking into consideration the minimum poverty
       line to guarantee workers a decent purchasing power.”
452.   A decree passed on the advice of the National Labour Council shall establish the
       minimum starting salary based on the professional category and revised periodically
       in line with developments in the Nation’s account, the economic outlook and
       consumer prices.
453.   A decree enacted on the advice of the National Labour Council shall establish the
       indices, the credit value index and the minimum starting and seniority salaries for
       various professional categories applicable in the agricultural and non agricultural

                                         Article 16
1.     Every individual shall have the right to enjoy the best attainable state of physical
       and mental health.

2.     State Parties to the present Charter shall take the necessary measures to protect the
       health of their people and to ensure that they receive medical attention when they
       are sick.

454.   Provisions on the physical and mental health of the general Malagasy public and its
       different segments are enshrined in the revised Constitution of the Republic of
       Madagascar in response to the requirements of the Charter in the following articles:

       •   Article 17- “The State shall organise the exercise of the rights which guarantee
           every individual the integrity and dignity of his person, his utmost physical,
           intellectual and moral development.”
       •   Article 19- “The State shall recognise and organise for every individual the right
           to the protection of their health from conception.”

455.   In accordance with these principles, Madagascar has elaborated a National Health
       Policy to guide all health development activities.

                              1-      Legislative framework

456.   The major element of the Madagascar health legislation on public health is order no
       62-072 of 29th September, 1962 on the codification of legislative documents relating
       to Public Health. This 8 volume Public Health Code” is the main regulatory reference
       document on health in Madagascar,

457.   Various legislative and regulatory documents have been elaborated to reflect the latest
       realities, for example:

       •   Decree no 90-026 of 18th February, 1992, pertaining to the establishment of a
           National Council for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) and Acquired
           Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Control;
       •   Circular no 53- MEFB/SG/DGD/DGFPE of 9th November, 1993, introducing the
           decentralisation of payment of salaries and pensions to provincial offices;
       •   Decree no 94-678 of 31st October, 1994 defining the responsibilities and general
           organisation of the Ministry of Health and providing for the establishment of
           District Health Services or Health Districts;
       •   Decree no 95-587 of 5th September, 1995 on the adoption of the National Policy
           for the Fight against Disorders associated with Iodine Deficiency;
       •   Law no 2004-029 of 9th September, 2004 authorising the ratification of the World
           Health Organisation Framework Convention on the Anti Smoking Campaign;
       •   Law on the prevention and protection of Persons Living with HIV Aids adopted in
458.   The draft bills modifying the public health codes and the code of conduct are being

                              II.   The National Health System

459.   The main principles guiding the national health system are geared towards increasing
       life expectancy coupled with good health for citizens, improving the quality of their
       existence to promote active participation in economic and social development and
       sound health development

                    II-    Medical protection and assistance measures.

460.   In order to guarantee sound protection and make medical assistance effective in any
       given situation or period, the State has outlined the strategic orientations of the
       Madagascar Action Plan (MAP) hereunder:

                            A-      Maternal and Child Survival.

461.   The survival of the Mother and Child is supported by five programmes:

       •    Safe motherhood
       •    Child health
       •    School health
       •    Family Planning
       •    Fight against malnutrition in vulnerable groups.

                                    B-    Disease Control.

462.   The main components of the disease control strategy are communicable and non
       communicable disease control.

       a-      Communicable disease control

463.   Communicable diseases constitute a major public health problem and caused about
       25% of hospital deaths and 52.4% of external consultations in basic health care
       centres, in 2003. Such diseases are among the first ten causes of death.

       b-      Communicable diseases targeted by the MDGs.

               •   Malaria.

464.   Malaria is the second cause of morbidity in Madagascar (18, 8% in 2003), the number
       one cause of death among children under five and pregnant women. It affects
       practically the whole population.

465.   The measures taken to combat this disease are:

       •   Residential mosquito spraying campaigns (RMSC);
       •    Generalised use of insecticide impregnated bed nets (IIB);
       •   Presumptive treatment for pregnant women using                  sulphadioxine   and

466.   The 2008 objective regarding the fight against malaria is to reduce mortality due to
       the latter by 25% among children under 5.

               •   Tuberculosis

467.   With a high annual incidence of some 20,000 cases, Madagascar is also faced with the
       added problem of screening new cases of Tuberculosis and two major attendant
       stumbling blocks namely:

       •   The low recovery rate (72%);
       •   A high mortality rate (17%).

468.   The 2008 objective for the fight against tuberculosis is to increase:

       •   The screening rate to 70%;
       •   The recovery rate to 85% of bacillary tuberculosis.

           •   HIV AIDS

469.   Even though prevalence is still relatively low (the 0.95% sero positive rate poses a
       major threat for the Malagasy public health considering the high prevalence of
       Sexually transmitted diseases (STIs) and the existence of a series of risky sexual
       behaviours(unprotected sex, multiple sex partners).

470.   The measures taken to fight against HIV/AIDS are:

       •   A strong political commitment buttressed by the establishment of the National
           Aids Control Council (NACC);
       •   A multi sectoral approach to mobilisation at different levels.

471.   The 2008 objectives are:

       •   To maintain sero posivity below 1%;
       •   Promote the welfare of persons living with HIV Aids (PLWHIVA);
       •   Reduce the incidence of STDs.

                          o Other infectious diseases

472.   Bilharzias, plague, influenza, endemic diarrhoea, (bacillary dysentery, and cholera in
       early 2000), collective food-borne infections, other emerging diseases
       (cysticercosis......) and re-emerging diseases are the other important transmissible
       diseases whose impact is exacerbated by the difficulties encountered in the area of
       surveillance and response as well as the socio cultural factors which hinder prevention
       and early and proper treatment.

473.   Objective 2008:

       •   Reduce the death rate from suspicious plague from 14 to 5% and less to 10% for
           other transmissible diseases;
       •   Reduce the morbidity rate of other diseases;

474.   Severely disabling diseases:

           •   Leprosy (prevalence rate remains at 2-5 for every 10,000 inhabitants in 2004;
           •   Lymphatic filiariasis (the prevalence rate exceeds 50 for every 100 in the
               highly endemic areas.)

475.   Measures taken:

       •   In the case of leprosy, diagnosis supervision and updating district level registers,
           heightened community participation;
       •   For lymphatic filariasis, Madagascar is strongly committed to the global
           programme for the elimination of the disease; a national policy is under validation
           with the initial elimination campaigns kicking off in 2005.

476.   2008 objective:

       •   Eliminate leprosy, vie for the elimination of filariasis and reduction of disabilities
           due to these two diseases.

       c- Fight against non communicable diseases.

477.   Non communicable diseases which are more and more prevalent in these countries are

       •   Cardio-vascular diseases, especially hypertension;
       •   Diabetes;
       •   Cancer.

478.   In the sole specialised oncology unit in Madagascar, (Antananarivo Oncology and
       radiotherapy unit) 1200 new cases were registered in 2003 (more than half were
       gynaecological cancers). This figure does not reflect the reality as 70% of patients
       come from Antananarivo and its immediate surroundings.

479.   2008 objective

       •   Reduce by 25% the incidence of hypertension in the high concentration areas
       •   Increase the cancer screening rate by 50%.


480.   The global prevalence of different types of disabilities is estimated at 7.5% following
       the 2003 survey covering visual, motor, auditory, intellectual and physical disabilities.
       In 50% of cases, blindness is avoidable: cataract is the single most frequent cause of
       avoidable blindness.

              Main conditions leading to disabilities.

481.   The main disabling conditions identified are as follows: cerebral deficiencies, club
       foot, osteo-articular infections, chronic otitis media, cerebro-vascular accident,
       epilepsy and acute paranoid reaction.

482.   Presently, the rehabilitation and prosthesis fitting centres are poorly integrated into the
       medical system, ill-equipped and lack qualified human resources.

483.   2008 objectives.

       •   improve management of incapacitating and chronic diseases and mental disorders;
       •   reduce screening rates of eye diseases from 1.3% to 1%;
       •   carry out screening of birth defects in 50% of basic health centres and district
           hospitals and make the necessary referrals;
       •   guarantee functional rehabilitation services in at least 25% of secondary level
           hospital centres.

              Oral health

484.   Poor oral health is mainly due to inadequate oral health and nutritional practices as
       well as the low fluoride content of water in Madagascar.

485.   98% of persons aged 35-44 years present on average with 13.1 cavities, the level of
       oral health cover is still very low (8%in the communes) and the level of utilisation of
       services is only 2%.

486.   2008 objectives:

       •    Ensure at least 20% of children aged less than 6 years do not have any cavities;
       •    reduce the caries index (number of teeth decayed, missing or filled) for children
            under 12 to less than 2.7;

       C-      Health protection and promotion of healthy practices.

487.   Health protection programmes cover both the protection of health and the promotion
       of healthy practices.

488.   The following measures have been identified:

               a.      Water, sanitation and the environment

       •    Develop drinking water supply and drainage networks in the urban areas;
       •    Increase the present level of potable water supply to 50% and that of drainage to
            30% in the rural areas.

               b-      Health and safety monitoring and food quality control.

489.   The food and non food products regulations (fraud prevention and quality control)
       date back to 1905 and would do with some updating. The National Health and Safety
       Monitoring and Food Quality Control policy has been formulated.

490.   The 2008 objectives are as follows:

       •    Reduce morbidity and mortality due to nutritional diseases;
       •    Guarantee wholesomeness of food at the production, handling, storage,
            processing, preparation and distribution stages;
       •    Make actors in the food industry more accountable;
       •    Help promote enforcement of food standards.

       c-      Risk and disaster management

491.   The population should be protected from the health implications of risk and disaster
       situations. The objectives are to:

       •    provide free treatment for 90% of the disaster victims;
       •    reduce lethality and duration of outbreaks of epidemics during disasters.

       d-       Anti-smoking campaign

492.   In Madagascar, more than 80% of the population in the rural areas chew tobacco.

493.   The Ministry of Health and Family Planning has set up a national body to coordinate
       anti-smoking interventions called the National Anti-smoking Unit to support the
       implementation of the strategies aimed at attaining these objectives by 2008:

       •    reduce the number of smokers by 1% yearly;
       •    stem the propagation of the smoking epidemic;
       •    fight against alcoholism and drug addiction.

       D-      Measures in support of the health systems

494.   These main components have been identified to bolster the health system:

       •    decentralisation of the health system and organisation/management at different
       •    improvement of health coverage and quality of services;
       •    capacity building;
       •    better financing of the health sector.

495.   In a bid to boost financial access to treatment especially for the most deprived, the
       FANOME system and equity funds were re-activated in January, 2004.

               a-      Hospital policy

496.   Hospital policy aims to provide proper treatment under more humane and equitable
       conditions, hence the following objectives:

       •    avail referred patients comprehensive and quality treatment;
       •    ensure secondary level health facilities are autonomous.

               b-      Monitoring, evaluation, information and communication systems.

497.   Availability of monitoring, information and communication tools for sector
       performance appraisal and decision-making.

               c-      Nurturing partnerships.

498.   Promote public private partnership through the National Contractualisation Policy of
       the Ministry of Health and Family Planning.

499.   The “National Ethics Committee for Biomedical research involving human beings”
       was established in Madagascar in a bid to:

       •    garner respect for the rights of persons and the ethical principles applicable to
            biomedical research involving human beings;
       •    protect the integrity and physical and mental health of as well as the privacy of
            persons participating in research;

       •   make pronouncements on all issues touching on the conduct of biomedical
           research involving human beings.

500.   Operational research is pivotal to health development by helping resolve community
       problems, guide health programmes and update the requisite data to inform decision-

              e.     Information and Communication technology.

501.   In order to rationalise and better harness communication and information technologies
       for the judicious management of the information system, the Ministry of Health and
       Family Planning plans to make the health information system effective at all levels,
       by 2008 while implementing e-governance.

502.   An ICT village has been established at Sambaina-Manjakandriana and the strategy
       paper on the introduction of Tele- Medicine is currently being validated.

                                          Article 17

1.     Every individual shall have the right to education
2.     Every individual may freely take part in the cultural life of his community.
3.     The promotion and protection of morals and traditional values recognized by the
       community shall be the duty of the State.
                                RIGHT TO EDUCATION

503.   For the Republic of Madagascar, Education is a national priority with the successive
       reforms aimed primarily at improving the education system.

504.   It is in this light that two laws on the general Orientation of the Education, Teaching
       and Training System in Madagascar were adopted in 1994 and 2004 respectively
       coupled with the administrative and social provisions made by Government.

                        1. Constitutional and Legislative Measures

505.   The Malagasy Constitution stipulates in article 24 that: “the State shall provide
       public, free and universal education. Primary education shall compulsory for all.”

506.   Laws no 94-033 of 13th March, 1995 and 2004-004 of 26th July, 2004 stipulate that
       there shall be compulsory and free education as of the age of six and that secondary
       and higher education shall be public and free.

507.   Presently, almost all Fokontany (grassroots communities) have a public primary
       school called a level one basic school, more than half of the Communes have a
       general college or a level 2 basic school, virtually all districts have a public high
       school and each provincial county seat a university.

                   Table 10: Public and private levels I and II Schools.

       Type of            2000/01        2001/02        2002/3         2003/4         2004/5

       College                 1426            1519          1596          1879          1596

       High School               331            359           336            336          415

       Total                   1757            1878          1932          2015          2011

               Source: MESR statistics unit.

                                II-    Administrative measures

       a- For girl’s enrolment

508.   To promote girls’ education, measures have been taken in accordance with decree no
       95-645 of 10th October, 1995 pertaining to the National Action Plan for the Promotion
       of Girls’ Education (NAPPGE) dated 10th October, 1995 which stipulates in article 2
       that: “the national action plan for the education of girls aims to prepare girls for their
       future roles as wives, mothers, citizens and partners in development while furthering
       their full development.”

509.   In line with Madagascar’s commitment to universal education, incentives were
       provided to that effect by Government, in 2002, such as:

       •     a significant increase in the resources allocated to the Education sector, in general
             from 2.3 to 33% of GDP between 2001 and 2004- and to the primary education
             sector, in particular, from 39% and 49% of total Ministry of Education and
             Scientific Research (MESR) expenditure for the same period;
       •     enrolment incentives: to reduce parent’s expenses school kits are provided for
             students, the primary school children are exempted from paying registration fees
             and teachers recruited by FRAM subsidised;
       •     transfer of funds to public and primary schools countrywide (school funds);
       •     improvement in the working conditions of teachers with the payment of classroom
             and family separation allowances;
       •     construction and rehabilitation of classrooms with international assistance;
       •     distribution of textbooks to all public and private pupils;
       •     transformation of basic education into student learning modules to reduce repeater
                 o 1st and second year in primary school
                 o 3rd and 4th year in primary school
                 o Fifth and six year in primary school.

       b- Government’s objectives in the field of education.

510.       The Government’s objectives and standards are as follows:

       •     Achieve universal education and keep students in first cycle of basic education;
       •     Improve the quality and relevance of student’s learning to attain a completion rate
             of 100% in 2015;
       •     Rationally and efficiently manage the education system;
       •     Improve technical and professional education;
       •     Revision of the curricula in line with the “skills approach” (APC) to make
             schooling more relevant;
       •   Training of teachers in APC, broad groups as well as mixed classes;
       •   Improved management of the education system through the installation of a
           Ministerial Intranet and 38 ITC resource centres, setting up of 22 Regional
           National Education Directorates and providing the different management
           structures with vehicles and computers.

           Table 11. Trend: Gross primary school enrolment rate (GER)

                   Years           1992-1993              1997-1998          2000-2001

           Boys                         110.3               104.4               117.4

           Girls                         89.8               102.8               115.8

           Ratio B/G                    1,228               1.015               1.014

           Source: Ministry of Education and Scientific Research

           Table 12 Trend: College student’s enrolment

               Year           1995/96           1990/00         2003/4         2004/2005

           Total              232, 817          287,873        420,592          486,239

           Boys               118,503           145,779        211,841          244,590

           Girls              114,313           142,094        208,751          241,649

           Table 13 Trend: Enrolment of high school students, 1991 to 2005

           Year                1995/96          1990/00             2003/4      2004/2005

           Total               54. 316           66.381             88,857      106, 595

           Boys                 27,212           32,926             45,224       52,725

           Girls                27,104           33,455             43,633       43, 870

           Source: Ministry of Education and Scientific Research statistics Department

511.   The numbers of male and female students is practically the same in higher education.

Table 14       Trend: enrolment of students in higher education according to gender
               from 1987 to 2005.

               Year               1994/95              2000/2001           2004/2005

               Total                    21,997              21,599               34,746

               Boys                     11,678              11,746               18,547

               Girls                    10,319               9,853               16,199

               % Girls                   46,91               45,61                46,62

               Source: Ministry of higher education

512.   In principle, public universities are free of charge. However students contribute
       financially through the payment of registration fees or study tour expenses.

513.   Regarding accessibility, the University of Antananarivo is compelled to organise
       entrance exams for almost all disciplines due to the dearth of infrastructure and
       teachers. In other Universities, access is gained on the basis of screened applications
       or entrance exams.

Table 15:      Number of students enrolled on the CNTEMAD correspondence courses.

       Year                         1996/1997             2000/01               2004/05

       Overall                         7864                6891                  5978

       Boys                            3416                3096                  3024

       Girls                           4448                3795                  2954

       International students            -                  70                    13

       Source: Ministry for higher education

514.   In 2006, both public and private higher education institutions were in a position to
       provide a wide range of training prospects.

            Table 16:       Number of courses offered by public and licensed private higher
                            education institutions in 2005.

Instituti        Ar   Education Law    Managem          Pure       Engineeri   Agri   Med    Co      O   Tota
ons              ts   al               ent                         ng          c      ical   mpu     t   l
                                Social                  Scien                                ter     h   cour
                      Science                           ce                     Scie   Scie           e   ses
                                Scien                                          nce    nces   scie
                                ce                                                                   r
                                                                                             nces    s

Universi         26           17       8          14       15             26     11      8      5 1       130

INSTN                                                          1                                            1

IST                                                 6                      9                               15

CNTEM             1                    6            4                                           5 2        18

Private           2                    2          23           1          10      4      2      1 3        48

            c-        Non formal education

 515.       The Malagasy educational system also covers non formal education which comprises
            of all educational and training activities conducted outside the formal education
            system viz.
            • Nursery school
            • Functional literacy
            • Civic education.

 516.       It is meant to offer apprenticeship and training possibilities to individuals who have
            not undergone formal education.

 517.       It should allow persons of all ages to acquire useful knowledge, professional skills,
            general knowledge and civic aptitudes which promote the development of their person
            in all dignity.

 518.       Non formal education is conducted in collaboration with NGOs (Education within
            literacy centres, education and reintegration into society as well as professional and
            technical training centres,) under the Ministry of Education,

519.    Despite all the legislative, administrative and technical measures, the enforcement of
        the right to education is fraught with problems because:

        •    most areas are totally or partially landlocked areas;
        •    parents are discouraged due to unemployment and under employment;
        •    of the poverty of the population
        •    of rural insecurity
        •    of customs and traditions which hinder girls’ or boys’ right to education, early
             marriages, worst forms of child labour, ESEC (children exploited sexually for
             commercial ends), urban and rural informal labour.......
        •    of the inadequacy of the budget despite the Government’s efforts and international

             d- Literacy

520.    Concerning the segment of the population aged above 15 years, literacy figures have
        increased over the last two years.

        Table 17        Literacy rate of the population aged over 15 years.

Years                      Overall                 Urban                    Rural

2004                       59.2%                   78%                      53.2%

2005                       63%                     76%                      59%

Source: EPM 2004, 2005

        e-      Difficulties encountered in the area of literacy.

521.    The difficulties attendant to the literacy activities include the pretty high attrition rate
        among learners (40 to 60%) and the inadequacy of funding for the fight against
        illiteracy despite international assistance.

522.    Government’s plan of action provides for literacy training for 100,000 persons as of

        f-      Private education

523.    The right to private training is enshrined in the Constitution which states in article 25:
        “the State shall recognise the right to private education and guarantee the freedom to
        learn subject to the health, moral and capacity conditions prescribed by the law.”

524.    Presently there are 8 national directorates for private education subsidised by the
        Government including five denominational and three secular institutions coordinated
        by the National Bureau for private education.

525.    The latter manages the subsidies allocated by the State and grants operations licences
        to private schools.

526.    Financing for the construction of classrooms is availed private establishments by the
        Malagasy State as well as supplies of teaching aids. Private school teachers are also
        entitled to the same continuous training and refresher courses as their counterparts in
        the public schools.

527.    In 2005, 1458 schools situated in the rural areas whose school fees are below 800
        Ariary per month and the 3572 teachers working in the schools received State
        subsidies. For this year, 2008, another 20,000 Ariary subsidy for each of the 17250
        private teachers is underway.

528.    Private education which has been in existence since the time of the Imerina Kings has
        always collaborated with the State in the education of the citizens. The proportion of
        private schools grows year in year out. One school in four, more than one college in
        two and soon three high schools out of four will be from this very private sector.

                   Table 18      Proportion of private schools

                  Type of           2000/01      %      2002/3      %       2004/5       %


       Primary                       16,262             18,977               20,636

       Public                        12,730             14,637               15,690

       Private                        3,532     21.27     4,340     22.86     4,946      23.96

       College                        1,426               1,596               1,855

       Public                           752                801                  875

       Private                          674     47.25      795      49.81       980      52.83

       High School                      331                336                  415

       Public                           108                106                  114

       Private                          223     67.37      226      87.85       301      72.53

                   Source: MESR Statistics services

529.   From 2002 and 2006, 80 licences were granted to private professional and technical
       training institutions.

530.   As at now there are over 29 private higher education institutions licensed by the State,
       and opened by a Ministerial order.

       g-     Vulnerable groups.

531.   In Madagascar, the children of immigrants, foreign nationals as well linguistic, racial,
       and religious minorities shall enjoy the same right to education as the children of
       Malagasy nationals.

532.   In the case of children living with disabilities, their right to education is enshrined in
       law no 97-044 of 2nd February 1998 on persons with disabilities and application
       decree no 2001-162 of 21st February, 2001 stipulates in article 17: “Children and
       adolescents with disabilities shall enjoy a normal schooling in a normal school

       If necessary and depending of the type and degree of severity of their disability,
       education in a specialised unit may be considered.”

533.   To give effect to this law, the same decree provides for advanced training for
       specialised educators, re designing of schools, establishment of an assistance system,
       and the creation of specialised centres and authorises the use of typewriters or Braille
       machines during examinations.

       h-     Specialised education centres

534.   Madagascar has eleven (11) specialised education centres for disabled persons, one
       public and ten private.

535.   To meet the educational needs of disabled children there is a need to mobilise
       adequate financial and human resources and for collective action especially from our
       international technical and financial partners.

                             RIGHT TO A CULTURAL LIFE

                      I.      Constitutional and legislative measures

536.   Concerning the right to cultural life, Madagascar ratified the African Cultural Charter
       by order no 76/038 of 10th November, 1976.

537.   Further, the UNESCO Convention on the protection of diversity, cultural content, and
       artistic expression is in the ratification stage.

538.   The Malagasy Constitution, in its article 26, paragraph 1, “recognises for all
       individuals the right to participate in the cultural life of the community, scientific
       progress and benefits thereof” and stipulates that “the State shall facilitate the
       promotion and protection of the national cultural heritage and scientific, literary, and
       artistic production.”

539.   The Malagasy State has enacted a law defining the National cultural policy for
       economic development, law no 2005-006 of 22nd August, 2005.

540.   In a bid to promote cultural diversity, this law stipulates in article 2 “which defends
       the fundamental rights of all individuals to the recognition of his culture, identity, on
       condition he himself respects the rights of others, and also lays down the objectives,
       strategies, as well as the Government’s action plan for the promotion of culture.”

                              II-     Administrative measures

541.   In explaining the principle of the above act, the Malagasy Government opines that
       Malagasy culture is a whole with a unique cultural identity which sets it apart from
       other countries but constitutes a treasure to be safeguarded. The Government rises up
       to the challenge by dovetailing the cultural identity and the expression of its
       diversities as key levers to the revival of a society characterised by good governance.

542.   In this light, the Malagasy Government:

       •   Promotes and helps in the organisation and promotion of “leading” cultural events
           at the provincial and regional levels;
       •   Sets up Reading and Cultural activity Centres (CLAC) and Art Centres;
       •   Undertakes promotion of libraries and museums, theatres, cinemas, and handicraft
       •    Rehabilitates important sites for trade;
       •   Registers historic sites for inclusion on the list of world cultural heritage sites.

                            III.    Institutional infrastructure

543.   The Ministry responsible for Culture and that responsible for Education are jointly
       charged with the promotion of culture and participation of all in culture.

544.   The objective of the Culture Ministry is to safeguard Malagasy cultural heritage, to
       promote the development of arts and the promotion of Malagasy culture within the
       country and abroad.

545.   The Ministry of Education mainstreams into its schools programmes traditional
       morals and significant cultural events in Malagasy customs.

              a-      National Academy

546.   To promote artistic creation, Madagascar has had an ‘Academie Nationale des Arts,
       Lettres et Sciences’ (National Arts, Literature and Sciences Academy) for over a

547.   The provisions of decree 93-02 enable the Academy to set up and administer artistic,
       literary, historic or scientific institutions or activity or research centres.

548.   The seat of this institution is in Antananarivo but there are regional academic centres
       made up of four sections including the science of arts and language and moral and
       political sciences.

549.   Every year, the Malagasy Academy organises the “Malagasy language month” to
       promote the national language and culture.

               b-      Information and Communication

550.   The Malagasy State has a television channel and national radio station under the
       purview of the Ministry of Communications. These two entities strive to promote
       culture nationwide.

551.   Madagascar also has print media establishments specialised in the promotion of the
       national culture and many associations and artistic groups involved in the promotion
       and protection of morals, values and traditional culture.

               c-      Safeguarding and preservation of cultural heritage

552.    According to article 4 of law no 048/2004 “the material and immaterial protection of
       the national heritage constitute a national priority”.

553.   Thanks to the efforts of the Ministry of Culture, two historical sites, the
       Manjakamiadana and Ambohimanga Royal Palaces have been identified as world
       cultural heritage sites.

               d-      Moral and cultural instruction.

554.   The main concepts of the traditional morals and values as well as Malagasy cultural
       events are taught at all levels of education.

555.   Cultural and artistic training are free.

556.   The Malagasy State has a National Academy for Music and Dance (CNEMD) and
       several private associations and institutions which are engaged in teaching music,
       dance, kabary (traditional speech), theatre, traditional games and plastic arts.

                                        ARTICLE 18

1.     The family shall be the natural unit and basis of society. It shall be protected by the
       State which shall take care of its physical and moral health.
2.     The State shall have the duty to assist the family which is the custodian of morals
       and traditional values recognized by the community.
3.     The State shall ensure the elimination of every discrimination against women and
       also ensure the protection of the rights of women and the child as stipulated in
       international declarations and conventions.
4.     The aged and the disabled shall also have the right to special measures of
       protection in keeping with their physical or moral needs.

       I.     The family is the natural unit and basis of society. It shall be protected by
              the State which shall take care of its physical and moral health.
557.   The protection of the family is enshrined in the Malagasy Constitution. Article 17
       states that: “The State shall make provision for the exercise of the rights which
       guarantee any individual integrity and dignity of his person, physical, intellectual and
       moral development to the full.”
558.   Article 20 of this Constitution further stipulates that: “the family, the natural unit and
       basis of society shall be protected by the State. Any individual shall have the right to
       start a family and to bequeath his personal assets as an inheritance. ”
559.   Article 19 specifies that: “the State shall recognise and make provision for any
       individual to exercise the right to the protection of his health from conception.”
560.   At the legislative level, order 62-089 of 1st October, 1962 relating to marriage governs
       the conditions of matrimony.
561.   Man and wife shall have equal rights to enter into a marriage when they reach 18
       years, the legal age of consent.
562.   However, a child may enter into a marriage without being over 18 years old should
       his mother and father or the person who has the authority by custom or law to give out
       his/her hand in marriage so decide.
563.   Furthermore, on serious grounds, the President of the Court officiating at the wedding
       may grant a dispensation for a seventeen year old male minor and a female minor
       aged fourteen years to marry in conformity with order 62-089 relating to matrimony.
564.   It is noteworthy that a reform was conducted to establish the legal age of consent once
       and for all, in conformity with the international conventions to which Madagascar is a
       party such as the Convention on the elimination of all forms of Discrimination against
       women (CEDAW) and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. (CRC)
565.   In Madagascar there are two sorts of marriage recognised by law: legal and customary
       marriages. A Registrar shall officiate over legal marriages.
566.   Customary marriages are conducted after the traditional formalities are done.
567.   A representative of the authorities shall draft minutes confirming that the traditional
       ceremonies have been held in accordance with the provisions of the Decree. The
       minutes shall be evidence thereof unless a challenge is lodged.
568.   The couple shall each be given a copy of the minutes signed by the prospective bride
       groom and bride, their parents, witnesses and the representative of the Authorities.
569.   The representative of the Authority shall give the Registrar a copy of the minutes
       within twelve days on pain of a fine ranging from 400 Ariary to 30,000 Ariary
       inclusive and a maximum ten day prison term as stipulated in article 472 of the Penal
570.   The Registrar shall prepare the marriage certificate immediately on the face of the
       minutes and the documents presented to him either by the bride groom or by the
       representative of the authority.
571.   At the time of registering the marriage, the couple shall be given an official family
       record book free of charge.
572.   The marriage shall not injure the legal capacity of the couple.
573.   In accordance with article 62 of order no 62-089 of 1st October, 1962 relating to
       Marriage: “the couple shall jointly accept through mere marriage the obligation to
       feed, care for, raise and educate their children”.

       II-    The State shall have the duty to assist the family which is the custodian of
              morals and traditional values recognized by the community.
574.   Civic education and moral instruction are part of the syllabus of the Ministry of
       Education and Scientific Research. (MENRES) at the primary and secondary levels.
575.   Furthermore, the public and private media (radio, television and written press) help
       organise sensitisation programmes for the communities on civics through periodic
III-   The State shall ensure the elimination of every discrimination against women
       and also ensure the protection of the rights of women and the child as stipulated
       in international declarations and conventions.
576.   As a State Party to the CEDAW, Madagascar is striving to undertake constitutional,
       legislative and regulatory measures, and has adopted a policy aimed at the progressive
       elimination of discrimination against women in all areas including respect for human
       rights and fundamental freedoms.
577.   The protocol ratification process of the Additional Protocol on the Elimination of all
       Forms of Discrimination against Women as well as the Protocol to the African
       Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women is on-going.
578.   As regards policies, according to article 6 paragraph 2 of the Constitution, all
       nationals of the two genders shall enjoy civil and political rights under the conditions
       laid down by law.
579.   In the light of the other areas enumerated in article 1 of the CEDAW, especially in the
       economic, social and cultural fields, article 22 of the revised Constitution states: “The
       State shall undertake to take the necessary measures to ensure the intellectual
       development of all individuals with no limitations whatsoever except their respective
580.   Article 26 states: “All individuals shall have the right to participate in the cultural life
       of the community and to scientific process and the benefits thereof.”
       IV.    The aged and the disabled shall also have the right to special measures of
              protection in keeping with their physical or moral needs.
581.   The objective of law no 97-044 of 2nd February 1998 and its application decree no
       162-2001 of 21st February 2001 concerning disabled persons is to guarantee all
       disabled persons the recognition, enjoyment and exercise for themselves or any other
       person of all the rights recognised for all citizens without distinction.
582.   Disabled persons shall enjoy and exercise either personally or through a third party all
       the rights enshrined for all citizens in the international Conventions ratified by the
       Republic of Madagascar, in the Declaration on the Rights of Disabled Persons
       proclaimed at the General Assembly of the Organisation of the United Nations and by
       the Constitution.
583.   According to Article 5 of decree 2001-162: “disabled persons shall have the right to
       special measures of protection in keeping with their material and psychological
584.   Article 6 stipulates that: “disabled persons shall enjoy their rights fully in their
       interactions with other members of the society.”
585.   Article 7 for its part stipulates that: “the right to health is inherent in the human
       All disabled persons shall have the right to enjoy optimal physical, mental, and
       sensory health.”
586.   Article 17: “Disabled children and adolescents shall undergo normal education
       within the normal schooling system,
       Should the need arise, and based on the type and degree of severity of their disability
       education in a specialised centre may be considered.”
587.    Article 22 states: “All disabled persons shall have the right to decent surroundings
       in keeping with their condition.”
588.   Article 26 states: “Appointment into the civil service through entrance exams
       organised by the State and any other public grouping is governed by the aptitude of
       the candidates to meet the existing material conditions.”
589.   In order to give effect to these rights, the Malagasy Government through the Ministry
       of Population gives a lot of prominence to the eradication of social discrimination
       based on disabilities afflicting part of the population. Among other actions targeted at
       the disabled the Ministry strives to:
• Study and apply a socio-judicial guarantee system for disabled;
• Facilitate their re-adaptation on a communal basis;
• Lend material support to groups of young disabled persons in order to facilitate their
   social reintegration;
• Rehabilitate structures responsible for young disabled persons;
• Provide professional training for disabled groups
• Early detection of potential disabilities in children aged zero to eight years old.

                         ARTICLE 19- Equality of peoples’ rights.

All peoples shall be equal; they shall enjoy the same respect and shall have the same rights.
Nothing shall justify the domination of a people by another.

                                    I.     Constitutional Principles

590.   The revised Constitution of the Republic of Madagascar of 18 September, 1992 in its
       preamble sets forth: “The sovereign people of Madagascar are committed to the
       promotion and development of its legacy: a multi-cultural society respectful of the
       diversity, wealth and dynamism of its ethical, spiritual and socio-cultural values.......”

591.   The Constitution in its preamble speaks of the development of the personality and
       identity of every Malagasy as a pivotal facet of sustainable and integrated
       development under the following conditions:

       •   Preservation of peace and the spirit of solidarity to foster national unity in the
           implementation of a balanced and sound development at all levels;
       •   Judicious and equitable management of natural resources for the development
           needs of human beings;
       •   Protection against injustice, corruption, inequalities and discrimination in all its
       •   Separation and balance of powers exercised through a democratic processes;
       •   The establishment of a Constitutional State wherein the Government and
           Governed are all subjected to the same legal standards within an independent legal
       •   Respect and protection of freedoms and fundamental rights;
       •   Effective decentralisation.

592.   As was indicated in the last Madagascar report on the Convention on the Elimination
       of all forms of racial discrimination considered in Geneva from 2nd to 3rd August,
       2004, in Madagascar, the rights of minorities such as migrants, refugees and persons
       of different national origins are all protected in the same way as for Malagasies.

593.   The example given in this report was that several Members of Parliament enjoy
       Malagasy citizenship despite being of Indo-Pakistani, Chinese, Comorian, and French

594.   Similarly, this socio-ethnic situation is reflected in the socio-political arena.

595.   In effect, law 80-020 of 29th December 1989 stipulates in article 8, paragraph 2 that:
       “No political party or organisation shall continue to exist if its objectives tend directly
       and indirectly to jeopardise the unity of the nation or are underpinned by a
       segregationist platform based on ethnic, tribal, or denominational considerations.”

       The objective is to harmonise the operations of the different entities in existence.

                                            Article 20

      All peoples shall have the right to existence. They shall have the unquestionable and
      inalienable right to self-determination. They shall freely determine their political status
      and shall pursue their economic and social development according to the policy they
      have freely chosen.
      Colonized or oppressed peoples shall have the right to free themselves from the bonds
      of domination by resorting to any means recognized by the international community.
      All peoples shall have the right to the assistance of the State Parties to the present
      Charter in their liberation struggle against foreign domination, be it political, economic
      or cultural.
                              I-     Constitutional Prescriptions.

596.     The new 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Madagascar revised in April 2007 in its
         article 6 stipulates as follows “Sovereignty belongs to the people, is the source of all
         power which is exercised through its representatives duly elected directly or
         indirectly or by referendum. No segment of society or individual shall lay claim to the
         exercise of sovereignty. ”

597.     The duly voted 1992 Constitution is a result of a major popular movement from 1991
         to 1992 which put an end to the socialist regime and ushered Madagascar onto the
         path to Democracy in the present sense of the word i.e. with a parliamentarian

598.     The Constitution was amended twice, in 1995 and in 1998. The 1995 amendment was
         to do with the establishment of a semi-presidential regime and the strengthening of
         the powers of the President and his capacity to appoint the Prime Minister, not the

599      The 1998 amendment essentially confirmed the principle of decentralisation through
         the establishment of new administrative structures comprising autonomous provinces,
         regions, communes, while perpetuating the Fokonolona which has always been the
         traditional grassroots socio-economic and political system of organising Malagasy

600.     All the rights recognised by the Charter are enshrined in the Constitution under the
         title: “Social and cultural rights and duties”:

         •   Right to exercise political rights;
         •   Right to the protection of health as of conception;
         •   Right to the protection of the family;
         •   Free access to public education
         •   The compulsory nature of primary education
       •    The right to equal access for all into the civil service
       •    The right to a fair remuneration;
       •    Press freedom;
       •    Freedom of association;
       •    The recognition of the right to strike
       •    The recognition of individual property, security of capitals and investments.
       •    The political neutrality of the Administration, armed forces, judiciary, teaching
            and education.

                                 II.     Legislative measure

       e-      On the structural level or administrative organisation

601.   The administrative organisation is an illustration of the empowerment of all Malagasy
       citizens to give effect to the principle of self determination. At all levels, the principle
       of separation of powers between the executive and the legislative is evident.
       Furthermore, the freedom availed decentralised communities to implement projects
       bears testimony to their economic self-determination.

               The Fokontany and Commune

602.    In the first instance, let us cite article 35 of the Constitution which states: “The
       Fokonolona is the base for development. The Fokonolona may take the appropriate
       measures to oppose any moves prone to destroy the environment, and to dispossess
       the ward of its lands, seize the areas traditionally earmarked for herds of cattle or its
       ritualistic heritage, as long as such measures do not go against the general interest
       and public order.”

603.   At the base of the administrative organisation is the Fokontany which is an
       administrative sub division of the Commune. Decree no 2004-299 of 3rd March, 2004
       lays down the mode of organisation, functioning, and responsibilities of the
       Fokontany. The residents of the Fokonotany make up the “Fokonolona.” Each
       Fokontany is under the direct supervision of the commune.”

604.   Decree no 96-898 of 25th September, 1996, defining the responsibilities of the mayor,
       gives the mayor the position of Head of the communal administration. The Mayor
       appoints by decree the Head of the Fokontany and the Deputy Head(s) of Fokontany
       as the case may be. The latter shall be selected from a list of five names proposed by
       the members of the Fokonolana aged between 18 years and over to a general assembly
       sitting as a legislative organ, on the convocation of the Mayor, in accordance with
       article 5 of decree no 2004-299 of 3rd March, 2004. The Head of the Fokontany shall
       execute the decisions of the General Assembly.

               The Region

605.    Pursuant to law no 2004- 001 dated 17th June, 2004 relating to the Regions, Regions
       shall be economic and social public bodies. They organise, boost, coordinate and
       harmonise the economic and social development of the area under their purview and
       are responsible for planning, land use management and the implementation of
       development programmes.

606.   Regions are both decentralised territorial authorities and local units of administration.

607.   As decentralised territorial authorities, these entities shall be endowed with a legal
       personality, financial independence and are freely administered by regional advisers
       appointed according to the conditions and modalities defined by the law and
       regulations. Members of Parliament shall be ex-officio members of the Regional

608.   As local government authorities, the Regions cover all the decentralised services of
       the State at the Regional level.

609.   The Region shall be responsible for:

           Administration of its heritage;
           Establishment of a regional land development plan for regional, industrial,
           artisanal and commercial promotion;
           Erection and management of health, educational road and hydro-electrical
           Environmental management.

             Article 21:    Right of peoples to economic self-determination.

1.     All peoples shall freely dispose of their wealth and natural resources. This right
       shall be exercised in the exclusive interest of the people. In no case shall a people
       be deprived of it.

2      In case of spoliation, the dispossessed people shall have the right to the lawful
       recovery of its property as well as to an adequate compensation.

3.     The free disposal of wealth and natural resources shall be exercised without
       prejudice to the obligation of promoting international economic cooperation based
       on mutual respect, equitable exchange and the principles of international law.

4.     State Parties to the present Charter shall individually and collectively exercise the
       right to free disposal of their wealth and natural resources with a view to
       strengthening African Unity and solidarity.

5.     State Parties to the present Charter shall undertake to eliminate all forms of foreign
       exploitation particularly that practised by international monopolies so as to enable
       their peoples to fully benefit from the advantages derived from their national

610.   Madagascar’s economic history has been marked by the remarkable progress of an
       economic system led by a liberal system.

                             I-      Legislative prescriptions.

611-   Measures have been taken to put in place competent organs to take care of the lives of
       the population.

612.   Consequently, law 90-030 of 19th September, 1990 on the National Population Policy
       for Economic and Social Development (PNPDES) was formulated to give concrete
       expression to the National Population Programme (NPP), a policy which addresses
       the peoples’ problems, exacerbated as they are by the economic crisis besetting them
       since the 80s.

613.   The objective of the 1996-2000 PNP is to control demographic growth components in
       order to achieve sustainable and balanced growth, ensure access to basic social
       services for urban and rural dwellers, protect vulnerable groups i.e. (children, youths,
       women, disabled persons, and destitute families,) promote community participation
       and social dialogue, combat poverty, promote internal resource mobilisation
       capacities for sustainable development.

614.   Six sectors have been targeted :
       •   Health
       •   Food/nutrition
       •   Education
       •   Employment
       •   Migration/ housing/environment
       •   Planning and institutional support.

615.   This action is set forth in the December 1996 Economic Policy Framework Document
       (DCPE) of the Republic of Madagascar. This document prepared by the Government
       of the Republic of Madagascar in collaboration with the International Monetary Fund
       (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) highlights the fundamental socio-economic options
       of the Malagasy authorities to reverse the downward trend of standard of living and
       embark on the path to growth.

616.   The Government has adopted a market economy system by ushering in a conducive
       socio-economic environment for the development of a private sector open to foreign
       investment, with the State withdrawing from the productive sector and espousing a
       more efficient poverty reduction programme.

617.   In the wake of the DCPE (Economic Policy Framework Document), came the Poverty
       Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) spanning from 2003 to 2006. The document was the
       reference framework for all poverty reduction policies and activities.

618.   The basis of the Strategy was to ensure all operational activities carried out within the
       framework of the different Government programmes were aimed at developing the
       economic, social, political and environmental resource, with the ultimate aim of
       alleviating poverty.

619.   In 2006, Madagascar adopted a Plan called MAP (otherwise known as 2007-2012
       Madagascar Plan of Action.) The aim was to make a quantum leap in the development
       process through a five-year plan which would mobilise all Malagasy peoples as well
       as international partners to strive for rapid growth and poverty reduction in order to
       develop the country in this era of globalisation, in line with the measures laid down in
       the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

                              II     Administrative measures

620.   Under all these programmes formulated by the Malagasy authorities, concrete actions
       have been carried out.

621.   The same applies to the main reforms adopted under the Structural Adjustment
       Programmes (SAP):

       •   Budgetary reforms such as the application of the Value added tax (VAT) (1994-
           2001), strengthening tax and customs administration (1997/2001). Civil service
           reform, (1996-2001), improved monitoring of budget implementation (2000);
       •   Reforms in the monetary and financial sector: such as privatisation of public
           banks (1996-1999), independence of the Central Bank. (1994).
       •   Privatisation of public companies:
               o Establishment of legislative basis for privatisation;
               o Privatisation of State companies;
       •   Foreign exchange and payment policies such as the liberalisation of current
           account transactions (1996).
       •   Trade policy:
       •   Liberalisation of production and marketing of farm produce (coffee, cloves,
           vanilla: 1987-2001)
       •   Abolition of price control (1996);
       •   Abolition of export taxes(1988);
       •   Elimination of import restrictions and licences from 1988-2001
       •   Lowering regional taxes (1987-2001);

622.   Thus, the Government adopted a development strategy based on the liberalisation of
       the economy, opening up to other countries, and involvement of the private sector and
       civil society.

623.   Concerning the possibility to freely enjoy the proceeds of mining, a ministerial
       committee has been set up to regulate the requisite norms.

624.   The same applies to fish products where measures are based on the provisions of the
       preamble of the 1992 Constitution which opines:

       “the judicious and equitable management of fish stocks to meet the development
       needs of human beings............”

625.   Indeed, there is no basic discrimination in the progressive enjoyment of the rights
       enshrined in the Charter.

626.   Madagascar has always benefitted from the financial and technical assistance of multi
       lateral, regional and bilateral donors.

627.   The United Nations system, UNDP, FAO,WHO, UNICEF, WFP, UNCTAD UNFPA
       and the World Bank and many other organisations active in the different areas of
       development: African Union, ADB, COI, COMESA, SADC, the Western European
       countries, Asia, North America, Africa and the Indian Ocean also lend support to

628.   These partnership mechanisms are based on cooperation agreements.

       For example:

       The cumulative effect of the Structural Adjustment programmes launched since 1985
       led to a more open and market-oriented economy. To better articulate the structural
       adjustment policy, a project entitled MAG/97/007 on “Governance and Public
       Policies for Sustainable Human Development in Madagascar” was launched for a
       three year period in collaboration with the United Nation Development Programme

Article 22:    Rights of people to economic, social and cultural development as well as
              equal enjoyment of the common heritage of mankind.

 1.    All peoples shall have the right to their economic, social and cultural development
 with due regard to their freedom and identity and in the equal enjoyment of the common
                                   heritage of mankind.

2.     States shall have the duty, individually or collectively, to ensure the exercise of the
       right to development.

                              I-         Constitutional measures

629.   The respect and protection of fundamental freedoms of individuals and communities
       are enshrined in the Malagasy Constitution.

630.   Article 26 paragraph 2 of the Constitution: “The State shall guarantee the promotion
       and protection of the natural cultural heritage as well as scientific, literary and
       artistic accomplishments in collaboration with the decentralised local government

631.   Article 9:     “The exercise and the protection of individual rights and fundamental
       freedoms shall be ensured by the law.”

632.   Article 34:    “The State shall guarantee the right to individual property. Nobody
       shall be deprived of the latter except through expropriation in the interest of public
       need where a fair compensation shall be paid in advance.”

633.   Article 33:   “The State shall guarantee the freedom to engage in business on
       condition the general interest, public order, good morals and the environment are

634.   Article 38:    “The State shall guarantee the security of capital and investments,”

                                   II-    Legislative measures

635.   The Malagasy legislation recognises the right of citizens to individual property,

636.   Law no 2005-019 of 17/10/2005 provides for the status of lands.

637.   Decree no. 2005-111 of 02/03/2005 shall define the establishment of investment land

638.   Order no 9213.2005-111 of 02/13/2005 determines the establishment of the National
       Heritage Committee.

639.   In the area of co-operation, law no 2004-043 of 14/01/2005 authorising the ratification
       of the agreement signed on 23/07/03 between the Government of the Republic of
       Madagascar and the Government of the Republic of France on the promotion and
       reciprocal protection of investments.

640.   Decree no 2005 of 17/10/05 on the ratification of the agreement between the
       Government of the Republic of Madagascar and the Government of the Republic of
       France on the promotion and reciprocal protection of investments.

641.   Law no 2005-001 of 2/08/05 authorising the ratification of the agreement signed on
       06/04/04 between the Government of the Republic of Madagascar and the
       government of Mauritius pertaining to the promotion and reciprocal protection of

642.   Decree 2005-5009 of 02/08/05 provides for the ratification of the agreement signed
       between the Republic of Madagascar and the Republic of Mauritius pertaining to the
       promotion and reciprocal protection of investments.

                                       ARTICLE 23

1.     All peoples shall have the right to national and international peace and security.
       The principles of solidarity and friendly relations implicitly affirmed by the Charter
       of the United Nations and reaffirmed by that of the Organisation of African Unity
       shall govern relations between States.
2.     For the purpose of strengthening peace, solidarity and friendly relations, State
       Parties to the present Charter shall ensure that:
       a)     any individual enjoying the right of asylum under Article 12 of the present
              Charter shall not engage in subversive activities against his country of
              origin or any other State Party to the present Charter;
       b)     their territories shall not be used as bases for subversive or terrorist
              activities against the people of any other State Party to the present Charter.
                               I-      On the national plane.
643.   The Malagasy Constitution recognises the right of every individual to freedom and
       security of his person.
644.   In its preamble, the Constitution sets forth that: “the preservation of peace and the
       spirit of solidarity as a sign of the necessity to preserve national unity, in the
       implementation of a balanced and harmonious national development policy at all
645.   In line with the spirit of the Charter, all individuals shall be informed of the grounds
       for their arrest and shall receive notification of any charges brought against him at the
       earliest convenience.
646.   Law no 97-036 of 30th October, 1997 compels the investigator to notify the suspect of
       the grounds for his arrest and the crimes he is accused of.
647.   Efforts have been made to fast track the processing of cases involving detention to try
       the delinquents within a reasonable period both at Antananarivo and in the provinces.
648.   All physical or moral infringements laid down in article 114 of the Penal Code shall
       henceforth be considered as punishable criminal offences under Malagasy law.

649.   It shall be incumbent on all to guarantee security within the Nation.

650.   Chapter 1 title II volume III deals with crimes and offences against particulars
       whereas section II chapter I title I volume III of the Penal Code deals with crimes
       against State security.

651.   Protection of the population deals with civil defence and military defence.

652.   Article I of law no 94-018 of 28th September 1995 on the general organisation of
       defence in Madagascar stipulates that: “The objective of said defence is to provide at
          all times, under all circumstances, and against all forms of aggression, territorial
          security, safeguard the national heritage and protect the population whose material,
          intellectual, and moral capacities to resist it seeks to develop.”

653.      Three entities provide security within the country: National Gendarmerie, Police, and
          Armed Forces.

654.      The National Gendarmerie provides rural security while the National Police provides
          security in the urban areas and the armed forces deal with the protection of the Nation
          against foreign invasion.

655.      Law no 96-029 of 6th December, 1998, on the General Status of the Military stipulates
          in article 2 that :”the Armed Forces are at the service of the Nation. They are
          expected to use force to:

       • provide at all times, under all circumstances, and against all forms of aggression,
          territorial security, safeguard the national heritage and protect the population whose
          material, intellectual, and moral capacities to resist it seeks to develop.
       • Preserve the life, integrity and potentials of the Nation.”

656.      There is close corporation between these three entities: decree no 84-056 of 8th
          February, 1984 establishing a Joint Conception Organism stipulates in article 1 that:
          “there shall be instituted at the national level and that of the decentralised local
          government authorities, a joint conception organism and a joint operations
          headquarters at all levels responsible, pursuant to the laws and regulations in force
          for the protection of public security as well as public, economic and social order.”

                                I-     At the international level.

657.      Madagascar is a party to several conventions and international, multi-lateral and
          bilateral co-operation agreements.

658.      Further, in the fight against international crime, Madagascar is a member of the
          International Criminal Police Organisation (Interpol).

659.      As a member of the African Centre for Research on Terrorism, Madagascar is
          involved in activities aimed at stemming subversive or terrorist activities against the
          citizens of any other State Party to the present Charter and other international

660.      At this level, a Central Counter-Terrorism Department was established within the
          National Police Force.

661.      Madagascar is party to 13 Counter-terrorism Conventions.

               Table 19       Status: ratification of multilateral conventions

                 International instruments                      Status of           Date of
                                                               ratification       ratification

Convention on offences and other acts perpetuated on board         Yes           2 December,
aircrafts (1963)                                                                 1969

Status: 179 Parties

Convention on the suppression of unlawful capture of               Yes           18th
aircraft (The Hague, 1970)                                                       November,

Status: 178 Parties

                                                                   Yes           18 November,
Convention on the suppression of unlawful acts perpetrated
against the security of Civil Aviation (Montreal)

Status: 180 Parties

                                                                   Yes           24th
Convention on the prevention and suppression of offences                         2003
against persons enjoying international protection, including
diplomats (New York, 1973)

Status: 157 Parties

                                                               Yes   24th
International Convention against hostage taking (New York,           2003
1979 )

Status: 150 Parties

                                                               Yes   28 October,
Convention on the physical protection of nuclear products
(Vienna, 1979)

Status: 112 Parties

Protocol on the suppression of unlawful acts against the       Yes   30 March,
safety of International Civil aviation (Montreal, 1988)              1998

Status: 149 Parties


Convention on the suppression of unlawful acts against the
safety of maritime navigation (Rome 1988)

Status: 121 Parties


Protocol for the suppression of unlawful acts against the
safety of platforms situated on the continental shelf (Rome,

Status: 110 Parties

Convention on the marking of plastic explosives for the          Yes        23rd
purposes of detection (Montreal 1991)                                       December,

Status: 115 Parties

International Instruments                                      Status       Date of

International Convention on the suppression of terrorist         Yes        24 September,
bombing attacks. (New York 1997)                                            2003

Status: 140 Parties

International convention on the suppression of the funding       Yes        2005
of terrorism (New York 1999)

Status: 138 Parties

United Nations Convention against organised transnational        Yes        2005
criminality (New York, 15th November, 2000)

Status: 107 Parties

Protocol aimed at preventing, suppressing and punishing
trafficking in human beings especially women and children       Yes   2005

(New York 15th November, 2000)

Status 87 Parties

Protocol against the unlawful trafficking of migrants by        No
land, air and sea (New York, 15th November, 2000)

Status: 78 Parties


Protocol against the fabrication, and unlawful trafficking of
firearms, spare parts and ammunitions (New York 31 May

Status: 43 Parties

                                                                Yes   22 September,
United Nations Convention against corruption (New York

Status: 29 Parties

Law no. 2004-011 of 28 July, 2004 authorising the
ratification of the Convention establishing the African
Gendarmerie Organisation

Convention on the elimination of Mercenarism in Africa,           Yes        30 August,
signed by Madagascar on 17th march, 2004 during the                          2005
Ordinary Session of the Executive Council of The African
Union, in Addis Ababa

Status: 179 Parties

Law no. 2004-002 of 24th June 2004 authorising the
ratification of the protocol establishing the Peace and
Security Council of the African Union                             Yes        24th June,

662.   The Republic of Madagascar has already ratified the twelve universal instruments
       against terrorism and is in the process of domesticating them in the national

663.   At the bilateral level, solidarity and friendly relations in the area of security are
       translated into concrete action through the signing of Framework Agreements for
       Cooperation between the Republic of Madagascar and other African countries such as

664.   Furthermore, Madagascar participates in different peace keeping missions in different
       African countries within the ambit of the African Union and United Nations
       interventions in Burundi, Cote D’Ivoire, Congo, Comoros, and Haiti for example.

ARTICLE 24:            Right of people to a satisfactory and global environment

All peoples shall have the right to a general satisfactory environment favourable to their

                              I- Constitutional prescriptions.

665.   The Constitution of Madagascar in its preamble highlights the sheer riches of the

666.   In this light, article 35 of the Constitution sets forth that: “the “Fokonolana” may take
       appropriate steps to counter any activities detrimental to the environment, likely to
       dispossess them of their lands, seize pastures traditionally allocated to herds of cattle
       or their ritual heritage without such steps undermining the general interest and public

667.   Article 67 in turn lays down that: “All individuals must respect cultural values, public
       property and the environment. The State and decentralised local government
       authorities shall provide protection, conservation, and environmental development
       through the appropriate means.”

                              II-     Legislative prescriptions

668.   To give effect to this constitutional prescription, laws and regulations have been put in

669.   The Malagasy Environmental Charter sets forth the general principles and provisions
       which translate into operational terms the national environmental policy within the
       context of the global development of Madagascar.

670,   The Charter’s points of reference are: human beings, land and underground,
       ecosystems and endemism.

671.   Law no 90-033 of 21st December, 1990 on the Malagasy Environmental Charter
       defines in its article 2 the environment as all the natural and artificial environments
       including human environments and socio-cultural factors which touch on national

672.   Article 3 of this law confirms the primary concern of the State as regards the
       environment, and article 4 states: “The protection and respect of the environment are
       in the interest of all. It is incumbent on all to protect the surroundings they live in.”

673.   To this effect, all physical and moral persons shall be in a position to receive
       information on decisions which could impact somewhat on the environment, directly
       or through groupings or associations. Such persons shall also be able to participate in
       the decision-making process.
674.   According to Article 6, the primary objective is to make people feel at peace within
       their surroundings to achieve sustainable development.

675.   Thus, the Government’s action plan in the area of environmental protection has the
       following objectives:

       •   Human resources development;
       •   Promotion of sustainable development through sound natural resource
           management practices;
       •   Rehabilitation, conservation and management of the Malagasy biodiversity
       •   Improvement of the living conditions of the rural and urban populations;
       •   Maintaining a balance between population growth and resource development;
       •   Assistance in settling land disputes.

       The DURBAN Conference

676.   The adoption of the following texts by Government attests to the importance of the
       environment protection policy in Madagascar.

       •   Law no 2004-037 authorising the ratification of the 1973 International Convention
           for the prevention of pollution by ships (MARPOL 73/78) and its annexes.
       •   Law no 2004-019 implementing the international conventions governing marine
           and coastal environmental protection against pollution from oil dumping;
       •   Law no 2004-008 authorising the ratification of the Rotterdam Convention on the
           Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Procedure for certain hazardous chemicals and
           pesticides in international trade.
       •   Law no 2003-032 authorising the ratification of the Protocol to the Cartagena
           Convention on the prevention of bio-technological risks under the Convention on
           biological diversity;
       •   Law no 2003-012 authorising the membership of Madagascar to the 1979
           Convention on the physical protection of nuclear products;
       •   Law no 2003-009 authorising the ratification of the Kyoto protocol to the United
           Nations Framework agreement on climate change;
       •   Law no 99-021 of 19-08-99 on the management and monitoring policy for
           industrial pollution;
       •   Law no 97-017 revising the forestry laws;
       •   Law no 96-025 of 30th September, 1996 relating to the local management of
           renewable natural resources;
       •   Law no. 95-035 on organisations charged with urban sanitation and royalties;
       •   Law no. 2001-005 of 11/02/03 on the management code for protected areas;
       •   Order no. 86-013 on phytosanitary legislation;
       •   Decree no. 2005-013 organising the application of law no. 2001 of 11 February
           2003 on the Management code for protected areas;
       •   Decree no. 2004-994 on the establishment, organisation, and operations of the
           body to combat marine oil pollution incidents “O.L.E.P”;
       •   Decree no. 2004-842 establishing and organising the Coordination Unit of the
           Environmental Programme (CELCO);
       •   Decree no. 2004-771 ratifying the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed
           Consent (PIC) Procedure for certain hazardous chemicals and pesticides in
           international trade.;
       •   Decree 2004-167 modifying certain provisions of decree no. 99-954 of 15th
           December, 1999 relating to the environmental friendliness of investments;
       •   Decree 2003-1157 endorsing the Initial National Communication within the
           framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ;
       •   Decree no.2003-1095 ratifying the Cartagena Convention on the prevention of
           bio-technological risks under the Convention on biological diversity;
       •   Decree no. 2003-984 adopting the National Biodiversity Sustainable Management
       •   Decree no. 2003-909 ratifying the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations
           Framework Convention on Climate Change;
       •   Decree no. 2003-439 establishing an environmental unit within each Ministry;
       •   Decree no. 2000-027 of 13/01/2000 pertaining to grassroots communities
           responsible for local management of renewable natural resources;
       •   Decree no. 2000-028 of 13/01/2000 relating to environmental mediators;
       •   Decree no. 99-954 of 15/12/99 making investments environmentally friendly;
       •   Decree no. 98-610 on modalities for the implementation of land security
       •   Decree 99-798 biological and pest control agents
       •   Decree 99-022 PADR elaboration process
       •   Decree 97-1200 Malagasy forestry policy
       •   Decree 62-253 Phytosanitary convention for South Africa
       •   Decree 21/10/1924 pertaining to dangerous, unhealthy and uncomfortable
           establishments in Madagascar
       •   Order 6830-2001 modalities and procedures for public participation in
       •   Order 7802-2000 types of permit PRE, R, E, AERP;
       •   Order 4355-97 defining and delineating sensitive areas;
       •   Ministerial order no. 12032/2000 regulating the mining sector and environmental
       •   Order no. 9334/99 of 10th September, 1999 on the renewal of accreditation of a
           monitoring and licensing body in the area of biological agriculture;

677.   The environment is not the business of the Government alone. Consequently, article
       7 of the Environmental Charter stipulates that “the environment shall be co-managed
       by the State, decentralised local government authorities, duly constituted non-
       government authorities, economic operators as well as citizens.”

                               Provisions of the Penal Code

678.   Article (Ord. 72-051 of 26.12.72) “Any public officer within the administrative and
       judicial cadre, any police officer, commander or officer of the law enforcement
       authority who while acting in his said capacity enters the residence of a citizen
       forcibly, excepting in the cases provided for by the law and in the absence of the
       formalities laid down by the latter, shall be punishable by imprisonment for a term of
       six months to five years and a fine of 25,000 to 150,000francs without prejudice to the
       application of the second paragraph of article 114;

       Any individual who enters the residence of a citizen using false pretences, assault or
       duress shall be penalised in the same manner.

679.   Article 187. “where a civil servant or public officer, administrator, Government
       officer or civil servant executor of a warrant or judgements, a commander in chief or
       under the command of the police force, without any legitimate reason uses force or
       engineers the use of force, on individuals in the execution of his duties shall be
       punished according to the nature and severity of the violence, and the sentenced shall
       be increased based on the rule contained in article 198 hereunder. ”

680.   Article 187- “Any suppression, tampering with mail in the post committed or
       facilitated by a civil servant or an officer of the Government or post office, shall be
       liable to a fine of 25,000 to 150,000 francs and a prison term ranging from three
       months to five years. Further, the culprit shall be prohibited from holding public
       office for five years at least and ten years at most. Apart from the cases provided for
       in paragraph one of the present article, any suppression, tampering with mail
       addressed to third parties , committed in bad faith shall be punishable by
       imprisonment for a six-day to one-year term , and a fine of 25,000 to 150,000 francs
       or either of the two penalties.

681.   Article 75.    “Shall be guilty of treason and punishable by death:

       1. Any Malagasy who takes up arms against the Republic of Madagascar;
       2. Any Malagasy who shares intelligence with a foreign power to enable the latter
          mete out hostilities on Madagascar, or provide them the means either by
          facilitating entry for foreign troops onto Malagasy territory, either by
          undermining the loyalty of the army navy or air force, or in any other manner;
       3. Any Malagasy who hands over to a foreign power or its agents, either Malagasy
          troops, territory, cities, fortresses, structures, post offices, shops, arsenals,
          materials, munitions, vessels, aircraft and aviation equipment belonging to the
          Madagascar or any countries under the control of Madagascar.”

       4. Any Malagasy who in times of war entices soldiers or sailors to swear allegiance
          to a foreign power, connives with the latter to that end, or recruits persons on
          behalf of a power at war with Madagascar.
       5. Any Malagasy who in times of war shares intelligence with a foreign power or its
          agents to aid and abet said power in its activities against Madagascar.

682-   Article 76-    “Shall be guilty of treason and punishable by death:”

       1. Any Malagasy who provides a foreign power or its agents in any form
          whatsoever, and in any manner whatsoever, a national defence secret, or who
          acquires such a secret in any manner with the aim of handing it over to a foreign
          power or its agents;
       2. Any Malagasy who destroys or voluntarily damages a vessel, an aircraft
          equipment, supplies, building, or facility likely to be used for national defence, or
          knowingly before or after the completion of the latter causes a malfunction to stop
          them from working and creates an accident;
       3. Any Malagasy who knowingly participates in an attempt to demoralise the army
          or the nation in a bid to undermine national defence.

          However in times of peace, any Malagasy or foreigner found guilty of the
          following deeds shall be punishable by imprisonment:

              a. Voluntarily defective work in the manufacture of arms of war, where this
                 defective work cannot cause accidents;
              b. Damage or voluntary destruction of equipment or supplies meant for
                 national defence or used for the purposes of the latter;
              c. Violent obstruction of the movement of the equipment;
              d. Knowingly participating in an attempt to demoralise the army in a bid to
                 undermine national defence.

.      Shall also be punished by imprisonment any wilful participation in acts perpetrated
       by a gang using brute force with the aim of and resulting in one of the crimes
       provided for in paragraphs a, b, c, of the present article, as well as the planning of
       such an action;

683.   Article 296. Any murder committed with premeditation or by luring victims into an
       ambush shall be construed as assassination

684.   Article 297 “Premeditation consists in a plot hatched before the commission of the
       act of injuring a person or given individual or even those who are found or met even
       where this plot is contingent on given circumstances and conditions”

685.   Article 298: “Laying in wait for a victim means waiting for some time in one or
       several locations for an individual either to kill him or perpetrate acts of violence on
       his person.”

686,   Article 299: “Shall be construed as patricide, murder of the legitimate, natural, or
       adoptive fathers and mothers, or any other legitimate descendant;

687.   Article 300- “Infanticide shall be the murder or assassination of a new born baby.”

688.   Article 301- “Shall be construed as poisoning any attempt on the life of person
       through the use of substances capable of leading to more or less instantaneous death
       irrespective of the manner in which these substances were used or administered or the

689.   Article 302- (Ord, 62-013 of 10/08/62).” Any person found guilty of assassination,
       patricide, and poisoning shall be punishable by death;

       The mother, the principal in the first degree or accomplice in the assassination or
       murder of her new-born baby, shall be sentenced to hard labour however, the same
       punishment shall not be meted out on her accomplices or co-conspirators.”

690.   Article 316 of the Penal Code

691.   Article 303 “shall be punished as guilty of assassination, all wrongdoers
       whatsoever their designation who, in the perpetration of their crimes, use torture or
       commit acts of barbarism.”

692.   Article 304. “Murder shall be punishable by death should it be preceded, coupled
       with or followed by another crime.

       Murder shall be punishable by death where the objective is to prepare, facilitate, or
       carry out an offence or to help authors or their accomplices evade justice or
       guarantee the latter total impunity.”

       In any case, the person guilty of murder shall be sentenced to life in prison with hard

693.   Article 381. (Law 69-013 of 16/12/69) “Shall be punishable by the death penalty
       any individual or individuals guilty of robbery, where such culprits or one of them
       was openly or covertly in possession of a weapon, even where the robbery is
       committed by a single person in broad daylight. The punishment shall be the same
       even where the culprits or one of them had a weapon in a motor vehicle which
       transported them to the scene of the crime or was used for their getaway.”

694.   Article 344- “In each of these two cases:

       1. Should the arrest be carried out under false pretences, under a false name or
          using a false order from the public authority
       2. Should an individual be arrested, detained or confined illegally or receive death
          threats, the culprits shall be sentenced to life in prison with hard labour;

3. However, the sentence shall be death where the arrested, detained or illegally
   confined individuals were subjected to corporal torture.


To top