Progress Report for the period 9/1/06 to 1/31/08.
Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Table of Contents
Southern Illinois University Carbondale Report ……………………………………………...5
Purdue University Report ……………………………………….………………………..…... 8
Ohio State University Report …………………………………….……………………………11
Virginia State University Report …….…………………………….………………………….17
Michigan State University Report …………………………….………………………………21
Michigan State University
Dr. Russell Freed
Crop and Soil Science Department
Michigan State University
384C Plant and Soil Science Bld.
East Lansing, MI 48824-1325
Phone: 517.355.0271 Fax: 517.353.3955
Ohio State University
Dr. Edwin Lentz
1219 W. Main Cross St.
Findlay, OH 45840
Dr. Tony Vyn
Department of Agronomy
1150 Lilly Hall
West Lafayette, IN 47907-1150
Phone: 765.496.3575 Fax: 765.496.2926
Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Dr. Michael Schmidt
Department of Plant, Soil, and Agricultural Systems
Southern Illinois University Carbondale,
Carbondale, IL 62901
Phone: 618.453.1784 Fax: 618.453.7457
Virginia State University
Dr. Harbans Bhardwaj Dr. David Starner
Agricultural Research Station Northern Piedmont Agri. Res. & Extension
Box 9061 Virginia Tech
Virginia State University 14471 Research Rd.
Petersburg, VA 23806 PO Box 448
Phone: 804.524.6723 Fax: 804.524.5950 Orange, VA 22960-0263
Phone: 540.672.2660 Fax: 540.672.5161
The U.S. demand for canola oil is increasing rapidly due to its low content of saturated fatty
acids, and moderate content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. This healthy perception of canola oil
for human nutrition has resulted in a consumption increase from 16,000 tons in 1987 to over one
half million tons in 2002. Most of this demand is met via imports from Canada. While canola
production in the U. S. has tripled over recent years, domestic consumption still outpaces
production by a 3:1 margin.
Canola production in the U. S. is primarily limited to spring type varieties grown in the northern
Great Plains states of North Dakota, Montana, and Minnesota. With the advent of better winter
type varieties suitable for the Great Plains area, acreage is on an increase in Kansas and
Oklahoma. The Midwest grain producer is in need of winter type varieties that will produce a
profitable yield and that provide a quality ground cover thus preventing soil erosion over winter.
Winter planting of canola was first introduced to the Midwest during the 1984/85 season. Planted
acreage peaked in the 1988/89 growing season at approximately 50,000 and 13,000 in Kentucky
and Illinois, respectively. Since this initial increase in acres sown, severe winter kill of the these
varieties have plagued canola production ih of the states of IL, KY, IN, VA, and OH.
Research to identify winter-hardy, high yielding varieties continues to be a high priority in the
Midwest. The availability of proven varieties is a prerequisite to the establishment of canola as a
Midwestern crop. Thus, researchers in our region believe that variety development is a priority
and have shifted efforts in this direction. We have initiated a national winter canola breeding
program that focuses on the development of varieties suited for the Midwest region. This
program takes advantage of the existing breeding programs at the University of Idaho and
Kansas State University. Michigan State University, Purdue University, Southern Illinois
University, and Virginia State University/Virginia Tech programs have taken responsibility for
additional population development, population testing, and line extraction and testing.. In order
to measure variety responses across several years, we will expand our variety testing programs
and continue to participate in the National Canola Variety Trial.
The efforts of the Midwest Regional Canola Research program are categorized under the
1) To develop winter canola varieties adapted to the Midwest in cooperation with
breeding programs within the other regional programs.
2) To evaluate winter canola varieties in cooperation with seed companies and the
National Winter Canola Variety Trial (NWCVT) to identify current varieties and
advanced lines that possess high yield potential, winter hardiness, resistance to shattering,
standability, and resistance to diseases and insect pests.
3) To determine the appropriate cultural practices including planting date, seeding rates,
pest control strategies, and fertility requirements for canola production in the Midwest
4) To conduct studies to evaluate the impact that the inclusion of canola might have on
the ecological and economic sustainability of our current Midwest cropping systems.
5) To develop on-farm demonstrations, field day presentations, seminars, and other
venues as a means of transferring technology to producers.
Key accomplishments through this period:
Nine locations were provided the NWCVT for 2006/07 and 2007/08 seasons. Fifty
one entries were included in 206/07 and 60 entries were included in 2007/08. The
2006/07 results were compiled in the annual report published by Kansas State
University. This information is critical for the final evaluation of variety performance
prior to release. Data from the NWCVT indicates that the yield of the better varieties
makes canola a profitable crop for the Midwest region. Yields of over 3000 lbs./acre
(60 bushels) have been reported for several varieties as tested under several
environments in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan and Virginia. The yield potential of
the newer varieties has been proven to exceed that of older ones.
Collaborative breeding efforts continue based on population development programs at
Kansas State University, Michigan State University and the University of Idaho.
Populations are tested throughout the Midwest region in collaboration with Southern
Illinois University, Ohio State University, Michigan State University, Virginia State
University, and Purdue University.
Several agronomic studies are underway to provide information on optimal planting
dates, efficient fertility rates, pest control practices, and rotational posibilities for
Individual institutional reports follow.
Southern Illinois University Carbondale Report
Principal Investigators: Michael Schmidt, Plant Breeder;
Jason Bond, Plant Pathologist
Jarrett Nehring, Agronomist
Jim Klein, Plant Breeder
Cathy Schmidt, Researcher
Researchers at Southern Illinois University Carbondale (SIUC) have been involved in canola
variety testing since 1985. Between 1985 and 1993 numerous varieties were tested and only a
single variety exhibited better than 50% over-winter survival. In 1991/92 season almost
complete winter kill occurred and testing was aborted. In 1994 we became involved with the
Midwest Regional Canola Research Program. Under this program new canola varieties bred for
improved winter hardiness have been tested at two southern Illinois locations each season. Over
all seasons, for most locations, healthy plant stands were established prior to the onset of winter.
Though the winter survival of the best varieties has greatly improved, survival still varies greatly
with environment. In those environments where winter kill was not a problem, seed yields were
high enough (40 to over 60 bu/acre) to support canola as a profitable Midwestern crop.
Researchers need to continue breeding efforts for the genetic improvement of winter hardiness
and yield in winter canola. Additional new varieties need to be tested in southern Illinois.
The production research objectives of our program are:
1) To identify winter hardy canola varieties suitable for production in the southern Illinois
2) To collaborate on a winter canola breeding program utilizing populations developed at
Kansas State University, Michigan State University, and the University of Idaho, and other
3) To conduct agronomic studies to evaluate the best management practices for canola
production in our region and to determine how canola might best fit into our current cropping
PROGRESS TOWARD OBJECTIVES
Objective 1. To identify winter hardy canola varieties suitable for production in the
southern Illinois region.
All canola varieties entered in the 2006/07 National Winter Rapeseed Variety Trials (NWRVT)
were tested at two Southern Illinois University supported locations, the Agronomy Research
Center at Carbondale IL, and the Belleville Research Center, Belleville IL. This test included 51
entries. Each of the field trials consisted of 3 replications arranged in a completely randomized
design. Individual plots consisted of 6 rows on 7 inch centers planted to a length of 20 feet.
Characteristics evaluated were:
1) Fall stand - percentage plot cover after full emergence.
2) Spring stand - percentage plot cover after spring re-growth occurs.
3) Plant height.
4) Bloom date - date to 50% bloom.
5) Standability – a lodging score of 1 - 5 is assigned (1 = no lodging).
6) Harvest maturity date.
7) Shattering - percentage pre-harvest seed loss.
8) Seed yield at 9% moisture.
Plots were observed for the occurrence of disease and insect damage. Particular concern was
directed toward Sclerotinia white mold and Phoma stem canker (black leg), two diseases of
rapeseed known to have damaged canola in the Midwest. No evidence of these diseases was
detected at either location.
Planting dates were September20 at Carbondale and September 21 at Belleville. Fields were
maintained to insure 60+ lbs/acre Phosphorus and 260+ lbs/acre Potassium were available.
Nitrogen was applied at the rate of 27 lbs/acre pre-plant and 120 lbs/acre after spring re-growth
began (late February). Weed control was facilitated through use of trifluralin pre plant
incorporated at the labeled rate, followed by hand cultivation when necessary. All rows were
harvested. Harvest dates were June 12 for Carbondale and June 14 for Belleville.
At Carbondale, entries survived the winter very well with average survival of 90%. The southern
Illinois region experienced a severe (50 year) frost in April that damaged growing points and
aborted development of early flowers. This translated to a delayed maturity and reduced yield for
all trials. The mean yield was 1655 lbs/acre (33 bu/acre) due to several entries having low yields.
The best varieties provided a yield of 52 bu/acre. Plots were not harvested at Belleville. Stand
establishment was poor with most plots experiencing stunted plants going into winter. Winter
survival therefore was diminished. All data was provided to Kansas State University for
inclusion in the 2005 NWCVT report.
The Great Plains Winter Canola Test (GPWCVT), consisting of 42 entries was also planted at
Carbondale. This trial was managed much as the NWCVT, planted and harvested on the same
dates.. The mean yield of this trial was 33 bu/acre with the best entry yielding 47 bu/acre.
The NWCVT (60 entries) and the GPWCVT (36 entries) were again planted for the 2007/2008
season. The NWCVT was planted at Belleville on September 22. Both tests were planted at
Carbondale on September 9. In addition a trial in cooperation with Blue Sun Biodiesel (36
entries) was planted at Carbondale. Fall stands look adequate at both locations with most plots
exhibiting 90% stands. Plots will be evaluated for winter survival early March.
Objective 2. To collaborate on a canola breeding program utilizing populations developed
at Kansas State University, Michigan State University and the University of Idaho.
Over 360 F3 derived lines, representing many single crosses, were obtained from the canola
breeding program at Kansas State University in 2003. These lines were tested with selection each
year over the 2003/04, 2004/05, 2005/06, seasons in cooperation with Purdue University, Ohio
Stae University, Michigan State university, and Virginia State University researchers. Based on
these results 13 were selected and planted at Kansas State and Southern Illinois for purification
and further testing in anticipation of release as cultivars. Two of these are now under testing in
the NWCVT for 2007/08, four others continue to be tested by SIUC, MSU, KSU and VSU.
Another set of 467 F3 derived populations were provided by Kansas State University in 2004.
These have been tested with selection over the 2004/05, and 2005/06 seasons. A total of 94 of
these were selected for multiple location testing in southern Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan,
and Virginia over the 2006/07 season. The mean of these at Carbondale was 29 bu/acre and the
best variety yielded 42 bu/acre. Thirty of these populations were selected for testing by MSU,
VSU, KSU, and SIUC in 2007/08.
Thirty advanced populations from the University of Idaho program were tested in 2005/06 at
Carbondale. Twenty of these were further evaluated in 2006/2007. These lines did not perform as
well as the Kansas lines under either season of testing none were selected for further testing in
This year (2006/07) represents the first season for the testing of populations coming out of the
breeding program at Michigan State University. Thirty populations were tested at Carbondale.
The mean was 26 bu/acre and the best entry yielded 39 bu/acre.
Objective 3. To conduct agronomic studies to evaluate the best management practices for
canola production in our region and to determine how canola might best fit into our
current cropping systems.
We have initiated a study to compare winter canola vs. winter wheat grown in rotation with corn
and soybean under conventional and no-till conditions. We also evaluated the production of
soybean as a double crop behind canola and wheat. Results from 2005/2006 season were that
canola and wheat yields were the same at 3200 lbs./acre. The canola yields were the same for
tillage system. Canola yields were 10% better after corn, however this difference was not
statistically significant. In 2006 the double crop soybean yields were the same behind either
canola or wheat, at 28 bu/acre. In the 2006/07 season a rain of 3.5” occurred shortly after
planting (September 20th). The canola had to be replanted October 12 along with the wheat. The
later planting date favored wheat production and therefore the wheat yielded 60 bu/acre while
canola yielded 19 bu/acre. The double crop soybean yields were 36 bu/acre behind wheat and 32
bu/acre behind canola. This study is continuing for the 2007/08 season. The stands for both
canola and wheat look good to this date.
An experiment to evaluate the benefits of canola as a cover crop and as a green manure crop, to
improve the health of soybean as influenced by soybean cyst nematode (SCN) and Fusarium
solani f. sp. glycines the causal agent of soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) was initiated in
the 2005/06 season. As reported in last year‟s report, the impact of both diseases was reduced in
soybean after canola. This study was continued for the 2006/2007 and 2007/08 seasons. A full
report will be provided after the 2008 soybean harvest.
Purdue University Report
Principal Investigators: Shawn Conley, Ellsworth Christmas and Tony Vyn
This report provides a brief summary of the Indiana canola research and demonstration efforts
conducted at the Southwest Purdue Agricultural Center (SWPAC), the Northeast Purdue
Agricultural Center (NEPAC) and the Agronomic Center for Research and Education (ACRE)
The SWPAC is located just north of Vincennes in Knox County. The dominant soil type in the
area selected for canola plots is a Lomax Loam (Coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic
Cumulic Hapludolls). The NEPAC is located southeast of Columbia City in Whitley County.
The dominant soil type in the canola plot area is a Rawson sandy loam (Fine-loamy, mixed,
mesic Oxyaquic Hapludolls). The ACRE is located about 7 miles northwest of West Lafayette.
Raub-Benton Complex (Fine-silty mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Argudolls) is the dominant
soil type in the seed treatment plot area and Toronto-Millbrook Complex (Fine-silty mixed,
superactive, mesic Udollic Epiaqualfs) is the dominate soil type in the state variety plot area.
The previous crop on the plot area selected was either winter wheat at ACRE and NEPAC or
watermelons at SWPAC. The plot area was prepared conventionally with a plow or chisel plow
and a disk or field cultivator. Prior to planting, 60 lbs/ac of P2O5 and K2O was applied and
incorporated. Twenty-five to 30 lbs/ac of N was applied in the fall at NEPAC and ACRE prior
to planting with an additional 120 lbs/ac of N (top-dress) applied in the spring at all three sites.
Past experience indicated that significant residual nitrogen is present following the vegetable
crops at SWPAC. Therefore, the fall application of nitrogen was omitted at SWPAC on all plots
to prevent excessive fall growth. Monthly rainfall and mean high and low temperatures are
given for each of the three sites in Tables 2 through 4 in the Appendix.
September rainfall was less than normal at all three locations, but would be considered adequate
for stimulating emergence of the newly planted canola. Rainfall, however, dropped off
significantly at SWPAC in November and December to less than one-half of normal while it was
normal at ACRE and nearly twice normal at NEPAC. Total rainfall for the growing season at
SWPAC was 27 inches while the 30 year average is 42 inches. Most of this reduction in rainfall
occurred from March through June with April and May rainfall at less than one-third of normal.
Rainfall at NEPAC was near normal through March but less than 1/3 of normal for the period of
April through June. ACRE had near normal rainfall through April but less than one-third of
normal in May and June. Temperatures during September and October averaged slightly less
than normal at all three locations. November, December and January temperatures at all three
locations averaged about 6 degrees above normal while the February temperatures at ACRE and
NEPAC were 13 degrees below normal. During the coldest period in February, ACRE and
NEPAC had good snow cover which should have protected the plants form the extreme
temperatures. March temperatures were approximately 5 degrees above normal while mean April
temperatures were slightly below normal.
On balance, the weather conditions were poor for good canola production and temperature
fluctuations in late winter and early spring were probably the major cause for the plot failures at
NEPAC and ACRE. The extremely dry soil conditions at SWPAC was the cause for the low
yields experienced at that location.
NATIONAL AND REGIONAL SELECTION AND EVALUATION TRIALS
Purdue University provided two independent sites, the first at ACRE to evaluate F2 to F4
material from the Kansas State and SIU breeding programs and the second at NEPAC for the
„National Winter Canola Variety Trial‟. The stands following the initial spring green-up were
very erratic with a pattern of loss that was rather unique. The field plot areas with living plants
tended to be slightly higher than the dead areas. This could have been the result of either a soil
moisture or a temperature relationship (or perhaps both). As a result of the poor stands, only
certain plots were harvested but in neither case were the number of plots adequate for analysis of
the yield data. The plots using the SIU selections were planted on September 26, which is at
least two weeks late for best results at Lafayette. The late planting further complicated the
situation since the plants did not get sufficient fall growth and that may have been the major
factor contributing to the failure of this set of plots. Therefore, the plots or data from both sets of
studies were abandoned and no results are being presented.
SEEDING RATE BY SEED TREATMENT
The objective of this experiment was to quantify the impact of canola seeding rate and seed
treatment on canola yield. The experiment was implemented at ACRE. The treatments
consisted of Wichita planted at three seeding rates, 6, 9 and 12 pounds per acre, and both treated
(Helix Xtra) versus untreated seed. The experiment was a randomized complete block factorial
design with four replications. The experiment was planted utilizing a plot drill equipped with a
belted cone. Both locations were abandoned as a result of excessive stand loss in late winter-
early spring. The pattern of loss was rather unique. Areas of the experiment with surviving
plants tended to be one to two feet higher than the dead areas. This could have been the result of
either a moisture or a temperature relationship (or perhaps both).
STATE VARIETY PERFORMANCE TRIAL
The objective of the state variety performance trial is to evaluate commercially available winter
canola varieties, advanced breeding lines, and a number of older varieties that are no longer
available, for yield potential, winter survival, lodging susceptibility, and potential insect and
disease problems when grown under Indiana conditions. Entries into the state variety
performance trial were obtained by inviting commercial seed companies to submit commercially
available varieties and advanced breeding lines to be included in the Indiana trials. Twenty-
seven varieties were included in the variety trial. The varieties were randomly assigned to each
of four replications at each site. Plots 54 inches wide and 50 feet long were planted 5 feet on
center. The plots were seeded at a rate of 12 seeds per square foot with a Hege Plot Drill
equipped with a belted cone.
At maturity, the plots were end trimmed to a length of approximately 40 feet and harvested with
a Kincaid 8-SP plot combine equipped with a 5 foot head, giving a harvest area of approximately
200 square feet. The combine was equipped with a Harvestmaster HM-400 weighing system
which provided an electronic copy of the plot weight, moisture and test weight for each plot. The
data were analyzed utilizing analysis of variance.
The results of the variety trial at SWPAC are given in Table 1 below. The yields ranged from a
high of 42.1 to a low of 20.6 bushels per acre and a mean of 26.6. The quality of the seed as
determined by test weight is considered to be good for all varieties with a mean test weight of
46.8 pounds per bushel. The variety trial at NEPAC suffered the same fate as the seed treatment
study and was abandoned. At ACRE, the variety trial was also abandoned as a result of severe
winter kill. However, a few of the plots were harvested with only one entry having survived in
each of the four replications. This entry was KS4022 with a mean yield of 29.4 bushels per acre.
Three other entries ( SIU entry 182 from the 2005 study, KS3074 and KS3077) were harvested
in three of the four replication and gave similar yields when averaged over the three harvested
The results of these experiments continue to demonstrate that canola can be successfully grown
in Southern Indiana. Canola survival in Northern Indiana is still problematic in certain growing
seasons, and most or all varieties seeded did not survive the late winter and early spring
conditions in 2007. We acknowledge that an earlier planting date might have improved the
survival of the Regional Selection Trial at ACRE, but seed availability, rain events and other
field work delayed the seeding in September of 2006. Small fluctuations in plot elevation
seemed to be associated with substantial differences in canola survival. With the recent
emphasis on renewable energy and biodiesel, this research provides growers with a viable
alternative to winter wheat and provides the opportunity to increase biodiesel yield per acre
substantially (perhaps by 200%) when double-crop soybean follows canola.
This research was made possible by the USDA grant award to Southern Illinois University (P.I.
Dr. Michael Schmidt) and the contract of Purdue University with the collaborating group of state
universities. Niki De Armond was the technician who seeded, evaluated, and harvested all plots
which were not abandoned due to poor stands and consequent excessive weed growth.
Ohio State University Report
Principal Investigator: Edwin Lentz
On-going research has been investigating the feasibility of winter canola for Ohio agriculture.
Areas that have been identified as potential obstacles for the adoption of the crop by local
producers are 1) varieties adapted to Ohio 2) unknown nutrient requirements for Ohio production
and 3) management practices for a new crop. To address these questions studies were established
to 1) evaluate performance of existing varieties available to producers as well as new
experimental varieties, 2) establish a long term N rate study to establish an optimal and
economical N rate under Ohio conditions, 3) determine if supplemental S or B benefit
production, 4) determine benefits of seed treated with fungicides for diseases commonly found in
Ohio soils, and 5) establish seeding rates for optimal production on Ohio soils. Results from
these studies are given in the following report.
Studies were planted at two sites: Ohio Agricultural and Research Development Center‟s North
Central Research Station (Fremont) and Northwest Research Station (Hoytville) of The Ohio
State University. Stand losses were severe at the Hoytville location and the site was abandoned
in 2007. Background information for the Fremont location is given in Table 1.
Experimental design was a randomized complete block with 31 varieties replicated three times.
Plots were established by seeding 6.7 lb/A. Seed was obtained as part of the Winter Canola
National Performance Trials. Urea was spring applied on all plots at a N rate of 100 lb/A.
Agronomic characteristics were evaluated as follows:
1. Fall establishment was determined by a visual estimate of the plot that contained plants
prior to winter freezing.
2. Winter injury was determined by a visual estimate of the plot that contained dead plants
several weeks after growth resumed in early spring.
3. Flowering date was determined when 50% of the plants in the plot were estimated to
have at least one flower.
4. Plant height was determined by one measurement that typified the maximum height of
the plot canopy.
Soil Fertility Studies
The variety Wichita was established in a randomized complete block design with treatments
replicated four times. Seeding rate was 9 lb/A. Eight of the treatments were N rates applied at 20
lb increments from 0 to 140 lb/A. Sulfur and boron were applied at two rates, 20 and 40 lb/A and
0.75 and 1.50 lb/A, respectively.
Spring N was surface applied as urea in March. Sulfur and boron were applied the same day on
plots that had a N rate of 100 lb/A. Gypsum (calcium sulfate) was broadcast applied for sulfur
treatments as a sequential application following urea. Boron was applied as a foliar spray.
Fifty leaves were collected from each plot at full flower (first part of May) to determine nutrient
composition. Laboratory analysis was completed by Spectrum Analytic, Inc., Washington
Fungicide Seed Treatments/Seeding Rate Study
Experimental design was a two-factor randomized complete block with treatments replicated
four times. Three seeding rates (6, 9, 12 lbs of seed/A) were established with seeds treated with
or without HELIX XTRA. The variety Wichita was used in all plots. Stand counts were taken at
initial stem elongation.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Temperature and rainfall data are given in Tables 2.
Results for the variety evaluations are given in Table 3. Grain yields were significantly different
among varieties. Yields ranged between 522.5 and 3175.6 lb/A, with a site average of 1890.7.
Fall establishment was affected by excessive rainfall in October and below normal temperatures
in September and October, but not significantly different among entries. Very few plots had
canopy closure between rows. Winter injury was moderate and not significant among entries.
Soil Fertility Studies
Grain yield responses to N are given in Table 4. Yields responded to larger rates of N. Leaf N
content increased for each incremental rate. Rate curves suggest that at least 100 lb/A of spring
N should be applied for winter canola production.
Grain yields did not respond to S or foliar B (Table 5). Leaf N, S, and B were similar among
An increased seeding rate and/or added fungicide to the seed did not improve grain yields
(Tables 6 and 7). Also, there was not a significant interaction between these two main effects.
Actual populations were significantly different between the high and low seeding rate. However,
populations were not different between seeds treated with or without a fungicide (Table 7).
SUMMARIES AND CONCLUSIONS
In 2007, variety yields were below the average for the area. Cool and wet growing conditions
during the first two months of establishment affected stands and probably yields. Several
entries had evidence of excessive water (stunted plants). In general, many of the plots would
have been evaluated subjectively as fair going into the winter. Varieties need to be
developed that emerge and establish quickly under variable environmental conditions prior to
cold temperatures. Present canola varieties (genetics) may not be well adapted to semi-
saturated to saturated soil conditions. At this time it is not known whether poor plant
development occurs under these conditions because of soil-borne diseases, genetics, or a
combination of both. Earlier planting date in the northern Corn Belt may improve the success
of establishment under these conditions but may have other problems, i.e., late summer dry
weather or the removal date of the previous crop.
Under Ohio conditions, winter canola responds to nitrogen. Data at this time suggest that the
N requirement may be larger than winter wheat. Several years of N rate studies will be
required to establish an optimum and economic N rate.
In 2007, winter canola did not respond to S or B applications. Earlier studies that suggested
a possible S benefit may have actually been from the nitrogen form in the fertilizer (less
potential for N loss) than from the S component, since ammonium sulfate was used as the S
source in these studies.
Increased seeding rate and/or added fungicides to the seed did not improve yields. If the cost
of canola seed continues to increase studies may be needed to see if seeding rates lower than
6 lb/A would be adequate for winter canola production.
Table 1. Background information for the North Central OARDC Research Station, Fremont, OH
Soil Type: Hoytville silty clay loam Plot size: 4 x 30 ft
Drainage: Systematically tiled Row Width: 7-inch
Tillage: Chisel plowed, disked/packed, Planting Date: September 11, 2006
cultivated, cultivated/packed, Planter: Hege 80 drill
cultipacked after planting Seeding rate: 6.7 lb/acre
Soil Test: P=68 ppm, K=192 ppm Harvest Date: July 11, 2007
pH=6.6, CEC=9.1, OM=2.1% Harvest area: Whole plot
Fall NPK: 150 lb/A 18-46-60 Grain Moisture: Dickey John Tester
Previous Crop: Wheat
Table 2. Monthly temperature and rainfall averages for 2006/07 growing season and long-term
average (normal), North Central OARDC Research Station, Fremont, OH.
Date Temperature Rainfall
Season Normal Season Normal
August 70.0 70.6 5.0 3.4
September 59.2 63.7 3.1 3.0
October 48.0 52.2 4.8 2.5
November 41.5 40.7 2.4 3.0
December 35.4 29.2 4.3 2.7
January 28.2 23.9 3.2 2.4
February 15.6 26.7 1.1 2.0
March 38.2 37.4 3.4 2.9
April 47.6 48.4 3.4 3.4
May 63.5 59.2 1.9 3.6
June 71.3 69.1 0.8 4.0
July 1-11 73 72.4 0.4 1.3
Total --- --- 33.8 34.2
Table 3. Grain yield and other agronomic trait means for winter canola varieties, North Central
OARDC Research Station Fremont, OH -- 2007.
Variety Grain Grain Winter Fall Date Plant
Yield Moisture Survival Establishment @ 50% Height
@ 9% Flower
--lb/A-- ---------------------%----------------- --in--
Abilene* 1141.3 8.9 56 68 May 2 31.3
Baldur 1828.4 8.8 77 74 Apr 27 34.7
Baros* 1652.8 8.9 62 75 Apr 29 30.0
Ceres* 1941.2 8.6 63 77 May 1 33.0
DSV 05100 2784.5 9.5 85 77 May 1 38.7
DSV 05101 2947.1 9.4 87 82 May 1 36.3
DSV 05102 2272.7 9.5 82 80 May 3 34.7
DSV 6200 2372.6 9.6 78 71 May 2 33.3
DSV 6201* 2013.7 9.8 79 82 May 2 34.0
Falstaff 1864.9 9.1 80 69 May 6 32.0
Gospel 2100.0 8.7 76 73 Apr 30 28.7
Hybridstar* 1906.4 9.4 69 80 May 1 31.0
Kadore 2075.1 9.1 86 77 May 2 35.0
Kalif 1907.3 8.7 74 82 May 1 29.0
Kronos 1951.8 8.7 85 84 Apr 30 39.3
KS3018* 1762.3 8.7 72 72 May 1 38.3
KS3074 1727.2 8.6 76 75 May 3 36.7
KS3302 1701.2 8.7 78 75 Apr 30 34.0
KS9135 1730.1 9.0 81 73 May 5 34.3
MOM604001* 1941.9 8.7 77 75 Apr 30 34.7
NPZ0391RR 2014.7 9.0 80 76 May 1 34.7
NPZ0591RR 1508.4 9.3 72 72 May 2 35.0
Ovation* 1891.9 9.1 84 82 May 3 28.7
Plainsman* 1456.5 9.4 68 79 May 2 34.3
Satori 1778.4 8.4 84 76 May 2 30.3
SLM0402 2291.6 8.3 82 77 Apr 27 33.0
Sumner* 1379.3 9.3 58 68 --- 33.1
Taurus 1495.0 8.9 85 78 May 1 34.0
Viking* 1134.8 9.4 57 74 May 1 27.0
Virginia 2035.9 8.8 80 74 May 2 29.7
Wichita 2002.0 8.6 80 73 Apr 30 36.3
Average 1890.7 9.0 76 76 May 1 33.4
lsd (0.05) 647.3 0.8 NS NS 3.2 5.2
c.v. (%) 21.0 5.2 20.3 10.7 6.2 9.5
*evidence of damage by excessive surface water in at least one replication
Table 4. Main effect of N rate on canola grain yield and leaf N content North Central OARDC
Research Stations, Fremont, OH -- 2007.
N Rate Grain Yield Leaf N Content
---lb/A--- ---lb/A--- ---%---
0 662.6 3.2
20 1081.8 3.1
40 1449.6 3.7
60 1568.1 3.9
80 1893.0 4.4
100 1958.8 4.6
120 2267.3 4.8
140 2474.8 5.0
***, **, *, NS – significant at the 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 probability level and non-significant
Table 5. Supplemental S and B effects on winter canola grain yield and leaf nutrient content at
the North Central OARDC Research Stations, Fremont, OH -- 2007.
Sulfur/Boron Rate Grain Yield Leaf Nutrient Analysis
N S B
lb/A ---lb/A--- % ---ppm---
0 1958.8 4.6 0.51 20.5
20 S 1892.0 4.8 0.55 20.9
40 S 2066.0 4.7 0.53 21.3
1.5 B 1826.2 4.7 0.51 21.5
3.0 B 1885.7 4.7 0.52 22.8
lsd (0.05) NS NS NS NS
Table 6. Main effect of seeding rate on winter canola grain yield and population at the North
Central OARDC Research Stations, Fremont, OH -- 2007.
Seeding Rate Grain Yield Population
---lb/A--- ---lb/A--- ---plants/ft2---
6 2021.3 6.7
9 2102.0 8.2
12 2027.6 9.9
lsd (0.05) NS 1.7
Seed Rate x Seed Treatment NS NS
Table 7. Main effect of seed treated with fungicide on winter canola grain yield and population
at the North Central OARDC Research Stations, Fremont, OH -- 2007.
Seed Treatment Grain Yield Population
Yes 2036.7 8.8
No 2063.9 7.7
lsd (0.05) NS NS
Seed Treatment x Seed Rate NS NS
Virginia State University Report
Harbans L. Bhardwaj, Agronomist-Plant Breeder (Co-PI)
Professor - Research Scientist (New Crops)
Agricultural Research Station, Box 9061
Virginia State University
Petersburg, VA 23806
Phone: 804-524-6723, Fax; 804-524-5950, E-Mail; HBHARDWJ@VSU.EDU
David E. Starner, Agronomist-Soil Scientist (Co-PI)
Superintendent, Northern Piedmont Agri. Res. & Extension Center
Orange, VA 22960
Phone: 540-672-2660, Fax: 540-672-5161; E-Mail: NPAREC@VT.EDU
Canola research, during 2006-07 crop season, was conducted at two locations in Virginia:
Orange (Northern Piedmont, clayey soils) and Petersburg (Southern Piedmont, loamy soils). The
overall goal of this effort is to develop and establish canola as an crop in Virginia. All our
efforts are focused on winter type of canola (Brassica napus L.).
1. Develop a system for canola production in Virginia.
1. Identify/Develop high-yielding, winter-hardy cultivars.
2. Develop alternate uses of canola.
3. Provide canola production information to extension personnel and interested farmers and
support commercial canola production in Virginia.
Objective 1: Development of a Canola Production System
1. A replicated experiment conducted at Orange indicated that up to 1 pint per acre of
PROWL herbicide, applied as pre-emergence treatment, resulted in seed yields
significantly better than when 2, 3, or 4 pints of PROWL herbicide were used per acre.
The seed yields following five PROWL rates (0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 pints/acre) were 2820, 2919,
1228, 1075, and 656 pounds per acre, respectively. Similar results were obtained from
experiment with TREFLAN herbicide applied as pre-plant incorporated. The seed yields
following five TREFLAN rates (0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 pints/acre) were 2636, 2663, 2077, 17231,
and 1600 pounds per acre, respectively. The higher rates of TREFLAN seemed to be less
injurious to the canola plant as compared to the higher rates of PROWL herbicides. On
the other hand, PROWL herbicide has an advantage that it can sprayed on the top after
canola planting and does not need to be incorporated.
2. The results of yield maximization research at both Orange indicated that canola yields
following 100, 200, or 300 pounds of N per acre were similar (2200, 2188, and 2377
pounds per acre, respectively) and superior than seed yield following the control
treatment in which canola received zero N (1318 pounds per acre). These results were
similar to those obtained during the last crop season (2005-06). The results of this
experiment at Petersburg indicated that significant differences existed among four N
treatments. The seed yields at Petersburg varied from 1056, 2530, 3112, and 3400
pounds per acre for 0, 100, 200, and 300 pounds of N per acre, respectively. The results
of this experiment during last crop season (2005-06) had indicated that seed yields
following 200 and 300 pounds of N per acre were similar but both were superior than 100
pounds N per acre. The differences between control plots at both locations indicated that
clayey soils at the Orange research farm were able to supply more nutrients than the
sandy soils at Petersburg.
Objective 2: Germplasm Evaluation and Improvement
During 2006-07 crop season, 51 entries were evaluated at both Orange and Petersburg
locations. The experiments were conducted as randomized complete block designs with three
replications. These evaluations were conducted under the program that is managed by Kansas
State University. At both locations, significant differences existed among the entries.
Similar to last year‟s results, the overall yield level was greater at Orange location as
compared to that at Petersburg location (Overall mean seed yield of 2140 vs. 1183 pounds/acre).
This trend has been holding on for several previous years. We believe that canola production in
clayey soils may be more profitable as compared to sandy soils. However, when considering the
yields of selected high-yielding varieties, the differences between locations were in-
consequential indicating existence of considerable genotype* location effects.
The highest yielding five entries at Orange were DSV-06200, NPZ-0591RR, DSV-
05102, SLM-0402 and Falstaff (2963, 2734, 2718, 2676, and 2568 pounds per acre,
respectively). The yields of these five entries were statistically similar. Seed yield of Virginia
cultivar, developed at Virginia State University, in this experiment was 2351 pounds per acre
which was statistically similar to the five best entries at Orange location. The five highest
yielding entries at Petersburg were: DSV-06201, DSV-05100, KS 7436, Virginia, and DSV-
05102 (2746, 2429, 2205, 2103, and 1976 pounds per acre, respectively. The yields of these
entries were statistically similar. Results from data combined for both locations identified
DSV06201, DSV-05100, DSV-05102, Virginia, and KS 7436 to be the best five entries for 2006-
07 crop season (2604, 2450, 2347, 2227, and 2199 pounds per acre, respectively).
Objective 3: Develop Alternate uses of Canola
Progress is being made towards development of a protocol to utilize locally-produced
canola for production of biodiesel on-farm. A field day to demonstrate this possibility is planned
for summer of 2008 at the field of a cooperating farmer. A medium-scale crusher has been
imported from China for a cost of less than $2,000. A self-contained, automated bio-diesel
manufacturing unit has also been obtained for a cost of about $8,000. This unit uses 50 gallons
of canola oil per run that runs automatically for about 48 hours. A small unit that uses only 15-
20 gallons per run is being considered for purchase for the demonstrations.
Results from previously conducted research have indicated that Brassica napus
accessions contained following fatty acids in descending order C22:1, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3,
C20:1, C16:0, C20:2, C16:1, C18:0, C20:0, C22:2, C14:0, and C22:0 fatty acids. The contents
of fatty acids in rapa oil had similar distribution except that rapa group had higher content of
C18:2 than C18:1 whereas napus group had higher C18:1 than C18:2. Based on desirability of
low viscosity and higher cetane numbers, it was concluded that napus oil may be superior to
rapa oil for biodiesel manufacturing. Selection index, a calculated value based on closeness of
fatty acid profiles of napus and rapa accessions to an optimal fatty acid profile for soybean oil,
also indicated that napus accessions may be more close to the target fatty acid profile than rapa
A manuscript entitled, “Yield and Nutritional Quality of Canola Sprouts” has been
published in HortScience journal. The results published in this manuscript indicated that:
Sprouting of canola seeds increased the weight 5.6 times over the original seed weight. Canola
sprouts, on an average, contained 27.3 % oil, 25.1 % protein, and 10.8 % crude fiber, on dry
weight basis. Fresh yield of canola sprouts, from 20 g seed, averaged 111.1 g whereas moisture
content averaged 80.3 %. Effects of cultivars on fresh sprout yield and moisture content were
not significant. Locations where seeds were grown had significant effects on all traits of canola
sprouts except for fresh sprout yield. Canola sprouts made from seed of Virginia cultivar had the
highest protein content (26.2 %) whereas those made from seeds of KS8227 cultivar had the
highest oil content (28.7 %). Based on traits under study, canola sprouts compared well with
alfalfa, brussels sprouts, mungbean, and radish sprouts for overall nutritional quality.
Additional efforts in this regard are being planned. A new investigator (Dr. Florence
Uruakapa), stationed in North Carolina, is interested in studying the quality of protein in canola
meal. It is planned that some monies from already approved budget for 2006-07 and 2007-08,
from Virginia State University‟s portion of the budget, may be used to support canola meal
quality studies by Dr. Uruakapa. We have so far not paid any attention to the canola meal and
have been ignoring about 60 percent of our product. Dr. Uruakapa is also interested in
developing special protein isolates from canola meal. She has just moved from Canada to North
Carolina. She was researching canola meal in Canada.
Objective 4: Educate Extension Personnel and Interested Farmers
Information about a canola production system, which was developed based on the
research conducted in Virginia with the help of USDA-NCRP funds provided to Virginia
investigators, were distributed potential canola producers at several meetings in the state. Canola
demonstration plots, each about two acres, are being grown at the fields of three farmers in the
central Virginia area.
Activities for 2007-08
During 2007-08 crop season, we are conducting field evaluations related to cultivar
evaluations and agronomic research related to development/fine-tuning of the canola production
system. The National Variety Trial with 60 entries is being conducted at Orange and Petersburg,
The agronomic experiments are also being conducted at Orange and Petersburg. Canola
breeding is being conducted only at Petersburg.
We are also moving ahead with development of a protocol which would involve the use
of a small crusher and a small self-contained bio-diesel manufacturing unit to help local farmers
potentially grow their own canola, crush it at their farms, and make bio-diesel. It is hoped that
this approach would help establishment of canola in Virginia. A field day, related to this effort,
is planned for June/July, 2008.
Bhardwaj, H.L. 2007. Utilizing locally-produced canola to manufacture biodiesel. In J. Janick
and A. Whipkey (ed.) Issues in New Crops and New Uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria,
VA. p. 43-46.
Bhardwaj, H.L. and A.A. Hamama. 2007. Yield and nutritional quality of canola sprouts.
Michigan State University Report
Principal Investigator: Russell Freed
The Kansas State National winter canola nursery had 51 entries. The highest yielding entry was
the hybrid DSV06200 at 28 bushels per acre. Yields in this trial were very low because of
significant bird damage (The trial CV was very high [20%]. Again, the 6 DSV hybrids in the
trial had the highest yields.
In late September, 98 entries from the SIUC and MSU F4 population study were planted. Entry
number 4128 was the highest yielding at 28 bushels per acre. The yields were very low because
there was significant bird damage at the trial site.
A factorial experiment was planted with three reps, three planting dates (mid-September, mid-
October and mid-November), and four varieties (hybrid DSV 5100, hybrid DSV 5101, F2 DSV
5100 and F2 DSV 5101).
The mid-November survived the winter but the plants were stunted and did not yield any grain.
There were significant yield differences with the September plantings having yields that were
24% higher than the October planting. There were no significant differences between the
hybrids and F2 entries.
I am working with Dr. Dennis Miller, Chemical Engineering and Material Science Department,
on a project to produce value-added products from canola. We have contracted with farmers in
Eaton and Oceana Counties to grow 200 acres of canola. Our Ag Experiment Station has given
us $125,000 for this project. This program will be looking at developing training courses in
In August I took four canola farmers and an Extension agent to Germany to see canola and
biodiesel production. We learned that we were probably planting our canola to dense. With the
introduction of hybrid varieties the Germans are planting at a rate of 3.5 pounds per acre. The
Ag Experiment station gave $5,000 for this activity. ( I did not use any money from the grant for
this, but want to show some matching funds for the canola program.)
I gave several presentations on canola production to farmers and business persons around the