human genome by jlhd32


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									human genome project

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                more information:
              new horizons in medicine
Understanding the human genome can be seen as the key to                                                                                       Sequencing the DNA                                                                                                                                    Diagnostic
understanding the mystery of human life itself. The Human Genome
                                                                                                                                           Single stranded DNA to be sequenced
Project set out to identify all of the genes in the human chromosomes
                                                                                                                         A   A    G            C           T           G           A           C       C               T            A       G       C
(around 30,000 of them) and to sequence the billions of base pairs which                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Tests using gene probes are being
                                                                                                                                                                       mixed with
make up human DNA. As a result of advances in the technology used to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 developed to diagnose inherited
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     diseases. As it becomes possible to
sequence DNA, the task of producing the complete human genome                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        identify the genes making people
was completed two years ahead of schedule!                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           susceptible to problems like heart
                                                                                                                                 DNA polymerase                                                 A      T                   Limited number
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     disease or cancer, in the future
                                                                                                                                                                                                C      G                   of dideoxynucleotide
                                                                                                                                           Lots of                                                                         bases which terminate                                                     everyone may be able to plan a
                                                                                                                                 A T       normal                                                                          the DNA chain, each with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     lifestyle to suit their genes.
                                                                                                                                 CG        nucleotide                                                                      a different coloured
                                                                                                                                           bases                                                                           fluorescent tag


                                                                                                                                                                                               G       G       A            T       C       G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Right drug,
                                                                                                                                       T       G           G       A       T           C        G                                                                                                    right place
                           The Human Genome Project has                                                                                                                                                                    G
                           been an example of successful                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Some of the new treatments

                           international cooperation, with                                                                                                             G                           G
                                                                                                                                                               C                                           G                                                                                         developed using knowledge from the
                           scientists in 18 countries all                                                                                  A                                                                           A                                                                             Human Genome Project hit precise
                           working on sequencing the DNA.                                                                                                                                                                               C                                                            targets in the body, such as cancer
                                                                                                                                       C       T           G       G           A       T           C       G                                G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     cells. Others work best in people with a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     particular genetic makeup. In future,
                                                                                                                                 Many DNA fragments made, all of different lengths as
                                                                                                                                 the chain terminating bases are added at random                                                                                                                     medicines may even switch genes on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     or off to control disease.
                                                                                                                                                                                               Fragments separated by electrophoresis –
                                                                                                                                                                                               the shortest fragments travel furthest


                                                                                                                                                                                                                            C       G       T   T       C    G   A   C   T   G   G   A   T   C   G

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   T        C       G       Sequence of new complementary strand
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            of DNA
                           The naked                                                                                                                                                                       A       T        C       G                        gives us
                                                                                                                                                                                                   C       A       T        C       G

                           gene                                                                                                                                                            G       G       A       T        C       G                                                                Gene therapy
                                                                  ‘Human DNA’ by Michael Dunning.                                                                                  T       G       G       A       T        C       G
                                                                  Image from the Novartis and The Daily Telegraph                                                                                                                           A   A       G    C   T   G   A   C   C   T   A   G   C
                           This is what the human genome          Visions of Science Photographic Awards.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               In gene therapy the idea is to
                                                                                                                                                                           C       T       G       G       A       T        C       G       Sequence of original DNA strand
                           looks like – these letters represent                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      overcome genetic diseases by
                                                                                                                                                                   A       C       T       G       G       A       T        C       G
                           a fragment of gene THC1256444                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             modifying the faulty DNA which causes
                           which codes for an insulin-like                                                                                                 G       A       C       T       G       G       A       T        C       G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     diseases such as thalassemia and
                           molecule. Each letter is                                                                                                C       G       A       C       T       G       G       A       T        C       G                                                                cystic fibrosis. Results from the Human
                           equivalent to one nucleotide                                                                                    T       C       G       A       C       T       G       G       A       T        C       G                                                                Genome Project should help scientists
                           base and there are about                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  make progress in this exciting new area
                                                                                                                                   T       T       C       G       A       C       T       G       G       A       T        C       G
                           3 BILLION of them in the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  of treatments.
                           human genome.                                                                                                                           Model sequence

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