VIEWS: 144 PAGES: 61 POSTED ON: 4/15/2009
Today’s Lecture: England and the Colonies Number: 5 Lecture Organization: • Class Announcements • Review: English Revolution • Significance of England • English Government • English Colonies • Colonial Governing Structures • Mercantilism • The English Empire • The Great Quandary Begins Time Class Announcements Class Website -- lectures 1 - 3 are up. Expect 4 & 5 on Wednesday. (Sorry for the delay) -- uploaded some notes (more coming) Latest News Button -- new twitter embed. -- all the stuff about my courses only. Time Class Announcements overwhelmed? -- purpose of the website -- see what escaped you; see what you need more of. (no complaints about not understanding or its too tough or he goes to fast) website Questions? Review the English Revolution Getting Perspective -- why we are doing this (developmentalism) Getting Perspective Rome England The Greeks Hebrews American Government Old World Monarchy Aristocracy Divine Right Great Chain of Being Primogeniture Aristocracy City-dwelling drunks Gentry Peasants, Serfs Feudalism 4/15/2009 Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007 7 Old World Monarchy Aristocracy Government as a personification Subjects, not citizens No branches of government Gentry Peasants, Serfs City-dwelling drunks 4/15/2009 Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007 8 New World Monarchy Aristocracy Inalienable Rights Social Contract Gentry Science and reason; not superstition Peasants, Serfs consent of the governed removal of leaders who misgovern City-dwelling drunks 4/15/2009 Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007 9 New World Monarchy Aristocracy English revolution Beheading the King Then bringing monarchs back again “constitutional monarchy” Peasants, Serfs Gentry City-dwelling drunks 4/15/2009 Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007 10 The Statute constitutional monarchy -- it works like this (a) Parliament names the King (William and Mary) (b) the King is subject to “the law” (e.g., no dispensing power) (c) Parliament is permanent institution that passes the laws (d) The (English) people have some basic rights that cannot be infringed by the King (e) there are elections where middle-class people can meaningfully participate in the lower house of government constitutional monarchy (f) parliament has the right to remove the monarch if he/she violates the liberty of the people (John Locke) -- but the King retains certain powers, such as: (a) commander in chief (b) an absolute veto (c) power to “prorogue” (d) spoils and patronage Compare: if we had an hereditary (e) life-tenured job presidency with an absolute veto (can’t override). Example: Kennedys English Bill of Rights -- When, William and Mary ascended to the throne, they agreed to abide by a declaration of English rights … English Bill of Rights -- When, Rights English Bill ofWilliam and Mary ascended to the throne, they agreed to abide by a declaration of English rights … • -- can’t tax the people without parliament’s approval • -- no detention of citizens without cause shown • -- no military in the private homes • -- limitations on when Martial law could be declared • -- King did not have the power to “suspend law” • -- No excessive bails, cruel-and-unusual punishments • -- jury trials in criminal cases (and other process) Time The Significance Of England The First Modern Country? -- England in early 1700: (a) Permanent Parliament (b) Central role for the House of Commons (c) Party press (Whigs and Tories) (d) “The Rights of an Englishman” (e) Significant amount ofVoting – voting: 1. 40 Shilling Franchise 2. 1722 – 330,000 males (1/5th of adult males) (5.8% of the population) The Significance Of England The rights of Englishmen -- couldn’t say that about other places (e.g., French, Russian) -- other countries in Europe thought that England was crazy. The Significance Of England social, cultural transformation radical ideas -- inalienable liberty, the origins of society (social contract), the right to sack the King if he misbehaves -- religious reformation (democratizing religion) The Significance Of England social, cultural transformation finance capitalism, social mobility -- finance capitalism had created social mobility (some middle ranks became rich and powerful; some lords lost some power) The Financial Revolution Completes the Glorious Revolution – Investors became wealthy very fast, as well as government contractors whose goods were purchased with the money. There was a new investor class. It made a new class of men – moneyed men. They were not land owners. They made money out of money. These people were overwhelmingly Whig and were often dissenters. The Tories saw them as parasites. They were making money from the land tax which was going to fund the national debt. And worse, they were making money just from money. They owned no land yet they were taken into the government’s counsels. [Jonathan Swift, the famous writer, notes that “the country gentlemen are now at the mercy of the scrivener, who is a lawyer that receives half of the rents as interest and a mortgage on the whole.” These new practices seem shady and even conspiratorial. Swift writes, “Through the connivance and cunning of stockjobbers [brokers], there has been brought in such a complication of navary and cousinage, such a mystery of iniquity, and such an unintelligible jargon of terms to involve it in as were never known in any other age or country of the world.” source – Robert Bucholz (paraphrased) Social Mobility Monarchy Something fascinating occurs Tory Aristocracy Gentry Peasants, Serfs City-dwelling drunks Some aristocrats are loosing ground Some Gentry are gaining ground Whig higher-level Lower level Peasants are doing peasants doing better – extreme worse Political Parties! poverty grows. 4/15/2009 Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007 21 The Whigs -- The Tories -- 1. new financial institutions 2. letting the people participate more in picking leaders 3. the sovereign was parliament because it was elected. 4. tolerant of religious dissenters 1. liked the old world. 2. chains of being 3. land as power 4. were against modernity – against the wrong believers; against the expanding the vote 5. they were against the new financial institutions Time 4/15/2009 Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007 22 English Government The power sharing relationship -- out of the turmoil and social change of the 1600s, England had created a power sharing relationship based upon social sectors. Each Institution represents a class or sector having Monarchy power in the society Aristocracy Gentry Peasants, Serfs Power-Sharing Relationship Royal Governance House of Lords House of Commons CONSUL City-dwelling drunks Note the similarity here with Rome 1/18/2007 SENATE Assembly of the Plebeians 24 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. “Virtual Representation” Royal Governance House of Lords House of Commons Peasants, Serfs 1/18/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 25 eligibility = birth selection = operation of law Royal Governance House of Lords House of Commons eligibility = birth selection = election Peasants, Serfs Question: How is one ELIGIBLE to get into the House of Commons? 1/18/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 26 eligibility = birth selection = operation of law Royal Governance House of Lords House of Commons eligibility = birth selection = election Peasants, Serfs Tricky Question. At first, 2nd and 3rd sons After the financial revolution, if you are rich enough “Gentrified” takes on a different meaning. (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. (“exalted” “demarked” “conspicuous”) 27 1. “children of” tended to dominate 2. but they started 1/18/2007 selling titles too CONSUL Royal Governance House of Lords House of Commons SENATE Assembly of the Plebeians Question: Where is the Judicial Branch? In America, it would be like having the Senate be the Court Time 28 1/18/2007 (C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. The English Colonies The New World -- The discovery of the “new world” was an important development for Europe -- Resources that could alter the balance of power -- Columbus had landed in the new world by accident Resources: gold, silver, timbers, resins, forest products, furs, fish – the resources of national power. illustration The English Colonies two strategies to exploit the new world extraction: -- take and extract precious commodities back to the King. -- Spain, France did this. colonization: sent your people to live and expand your territory. You settle the place. • expand your land, your economy, tax revenue, etc. England • expand your culture, your people – like planting seeds. Timeline The Defeat of the Spanish Armada Beheading of Charles Settling America The The GloriousModern Country? The First Revolution 1588 1600 1649 1688 1722 CromwellParliament installs and the Protectorate; Outbreak William and Mary as of Religious Radicalism King and Queen; Constitutional Monarchy Established 4/15/2009 Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007 32 The English Colonies England’s colonization: • send dissenters over here • send paupers over here • send laborers who can’t find work in the countryside or in the cities (population boom -- land-labor problem) -- let’s look at a colonial map … Time Colonial Governing Structures Early Virginia (1600s) What kind of government? • When first settled, it was a corporation not a “state” -- 1608 (Jamestown) was settled by a corporation (Virginia Company) looking to make money. -- when that failed, England had to impose a governing structure Colonial Governing Structures Early Virginia (1600s) What kind of government? -- King sends over a Royal Governor to govern the colony -- no salary is given -- The colonists have to raise money to pay the Governor’s salary -- An assembly of the Burgess is called Colonial Governing Structures Early Georgia Social Experimentation -- founded as a “poor colony” in 1732 by James Oglethorpe -- he wanted to create a colony only for the “deserving poor” (cure them of their flaws) Government: • no legislature! • Oglethorpe and his people rant the colony as “Trustees” Colonial Governing Structures Early New England Puritan settlements -- 1620: puritans in England create a corporation -- Arrive in 1630 in what is Boston Harbor today. Government: -- Company president is the Governor -- The Board of Directors is the “General Court” Supreme Court & Legislature Colonial Governing Structures Early Carolinas Political Experimentation -- interesting mixture between those wanting to make a profit from the territory & political radicals wanting to experiment -- they put together a corporate group called the “Carolina Proprietors” (the “Lord Proprietors”) Colonial Governing Structures Early Carolinas Political Experimentation -- John Locke is asked to draft a constitution for the Carolinas -- He wants to do something radical: • create a society without a monarch … here is what he came up with Elite Body Strange entity (Cabinet?) Palatine Court Supreme Court AND Congress Passes Laws AND Interprets them Composed of the 8 proprietors Corporate Board of Directors? “The People” Grand Council Small in number – (Privy Council) Propose Legislation Assembly Popularly Elected Veto Power! Question: What Power do you think the Assembly had? 41 4/15/2009 Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007 Colonial Governing Structures the “standard” governments -- colonies eventually came to adopt very similar forms of government (that imitated England) The Structure of Colonial Governance Congress or Parliament Royal Governor England! Appointed by Crown; Governor had Veto General Court Supreme Court; Upper House Assembly “the people” (property qualifications) (Males) (Free) 43 Executive Council Cabinet 4/15/2009 Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007 Governance from England THE KING THE PARLIAMENT King’s Veto Privy Council Time Colonial Local Government 4/15/2009 Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007 44 The Colonies of the mid-to-late 1700s Population Growth -- Exponential growth; most of it is internal reproduction • 4 million by 1776 (500,000 African American slaves) compare: • French had 52,000 in all of New France by 1750 The Colonies of the mid-to-late 1700s Population Growth -- most of the growth is internal reproduction Massachusetts study: • Women who married in the late 1700s (1780, 1789) in rural mass usually married at age 23 or 24 and could expect 7 or 8 live births. Broader Emigration -- In the later 1700s, English stop emigrating as much • Germans & Scots Irish The Colonies of the mid-to-late 1700s Economy Income distribution -- more flat than in England -- but there is an elite rich that exists • “Gentrified Americans.” These people would be gentry in status in England (e.g., plantation owners in Virginia -- Jefferson, Washington, etc) -- As a general rule, our gentry were less rich than their gentry, on average Time The Colonies of the mid-to-late 1700s A Frenchman’s Perspective During the Revolutionary War Economy WhatIncome distribution in one country was commonly known as passed for gallantry adultery in the other. The American coffee was undrinkable and the food-- Frenchman’sthe people were overly familiar [cousins mating?]. uneatable. And quote The appetite of the American was matched only by his ignorance concerning the meal before him. Their questions were direct, the children spoiled, the women graceless and unshapely, yet uncommonly clean. American women were aged by 20 and decrepit by 35, whereas a French woman, every one knew, was 29 until she was 60. It was difficult to distinguish the rich from the poor, and as to the very poor, there were none. America was a cultural waste land devoid of conversation. -- Source: Stacy Schiff Mercantilism Population Growth -- Exponential growth; most of it is internal reproduction • 4 million by 1776 (500,000 African American slaves) compare: • French had 52,000 in all of New France by 1750 Mercantilism Mercantilism commercial trading network -- England has a vast merchant marine/superiority on the high seas. (Her ships trade in goods all over the globe) (a central repository for trade and distribution through Europe) -- she needs two things: • more cash crops coming through her ports. • more agricultural produce (land is sparse) Mercantilism Mercantilism commercial trading network -- America is to supply the agricultural goods that England needs and to make her ports have more products -- As a general rule, colonies are only allowed to trade with or through their mother country (key point) Mercantilism Mercantilism Setting up the Mercantile Regime • Shipping Act (1600s) – must use British ships • Navigation Acts – early 1700s. Mercantilism Mercantilism Setting up the Mercantile Regime -- no banks (new institutions) -- no arms industry. -- no manufacturing Otherwise, England left us alone Benign neglect George III will try to change this Time The English Empire England and the French/Indian War -- The war will be an extremely important development for colonial America. It will lay the groundwork for independence -- France tried to challenge England’s claims to certain areas of north America -- Map .. Original claim “Ohio Country” Travel Up the Mississippi Travel Down the Ohio Travel Down the Mississippi Louisiana for King Louie The English Empire England and the French/Indian War -- We don’t have time to go over what happened in this war. Basic Point: -- England is going to kick France out of North America -- Colonists are going to prosper from the war • given comfortable allowances (payments) to fight the war side-by-side with the British • This is the period of time when the colonial economy is doing especially well (ordinary farmers getting luxury items) The English Empire England and the French/Indian War Feelings of Good will toward the British • Colonists had aided their mother country • Psychology -- Felt like they were partners with Britain, not surrogates of it The English Empire England and the French/Indian War The Truth: “Americans” were provincial • The term “American” meant (or connoted) a sort of provincial creature of the realm • compare – the term “democracy” -- Americans were thought of as being lesser to their British superiors and overlords The English Empire Britain’s Great English Empire -- After Britain kicked the French out of North America, her empire was HUGE (map) ENGLAND The English Empire -- England’s imperial domination -- strongest empire on the earth -- their holdings match that of Rome -- they have trading colonies all over the globe -- India, Canada, West Indies, New Zealand -- think of all the places that speak English as a language today Time Note: Some of these possessions arrive later in the 1800s and early 1900s. 4/15/2009 Copyright, Sean Wlson. 2007 61 -- much more than German, France, Russian, etc. (but not Spanish?)
"Why England is Relevant to American Government"