Implications of TFTR D-T Experiments for Burning Plasma Program R. J. Hawryluk IEA Large Tokamak Workshop (W60) Burning Plasma Physics and Simulation Tarragona, Spain July 4-5, 2005 Thanks for Useful Discussions M. Bell, R. Budny, R. Goldston, N. Fisch, N. Gorelenkov., J. Hosea, C. Kessel, D. Meade, S. Medley, C. K. Phillips, R. Nazikian, N. Sauthoff, S. Scott, C. Skinner, J. Strachan, E. Synakowski, J. R. Wilson, K. L. Wong, M. Zarnstorff, and S. Zweben Presentation reflects my personal perspectives. ITER Must Demonstrate Fusion Power Production and Make Critical Scientific Contributions Today: ~10 MW for ~1 second, gain of < 1 ITER: 500 MW for 400 seconds, gain > 10 Power Plant: 2500 MW, continuous, gain > 25 • Transport and Turbulence: Extend the study of turbulent plasma transport to much larger plasmas • Stability: Extend the understanding of pressure limits to much larger plasmas. • Energetic particles: Study strong heating by fusion products, in new regimes where multiple instabilities can overlap. • Plasma-boundary interface: Extend the study of plasma-materials interactions to much greater power and pulse length. What Should be the Goals for Research Prior to ITER? Enable ITER to demonstrate fusion power production. Enable ITER to make the scientific contributions needed for Demo. and • Continue to develop the scientific basis for an attractive power plant Together with the ITER results, this will enable us to move forward with Demo What are the Implications of the TFTR D-T Experiments for ITER and Research Prior to ITER? • Transport and Turbulence – Isotope Effects • Stability • ICRF Heating • Alpha-particle Physics • Plasma-boundary Interface Global Ethermal Increased, I Decreased in Core of DT Supershots Compared to D 7 2 / s) (including convection) (m D D-T 1 factor of 2 P NBI = 18MW I p= 1.6MA tot i 0.1 0.0 0.5 Minor Radius / a Ethermal <A>0.89±0.1 itot <A>-1.8 ±0.2 • ni(0)ET i(0) increased by ~55% from D to DT – Some cases up to 80% increase • Enhanced confinement critical for fusion power production. S. Scott, M. Zarnstorff ITG Model with Radial Electric Field Reproduced the Ion Temperature • Maximum linear growth rate decreases with ion mass. • Er shearing rate increases with T i. • Radial electric field shear reproduces strong isotope effect in supershots. D. Ernst Isotope Effect on Confinement Varied Widely Depending on Operating Regime JET H-Mode TFTR <A> 0.85 30 <A>0.5 EDT - EDD 20 EDD <A>0.3-0.5 <A>0.3-0.5 (% ) 10 <A>0.16±.06 0 Elmy OH ICRF NBI Supershot/ L-mode L-mode High l i Reverse -10 Shear <A>-0.25±.22 Elm-free • Challenge to theory and to gyro-Bohm scaling: <A>-0.2 • Recent ITER scaling for ELMy H-mode: Ethermal <A>+0.19 S. Scott, S. Sabbagh, C. K. Phillips Understanding of Isotope Scaling Remains Incomplete • Depends on operating regime – Not consistent with naive turbulence theory scaling – What is the role of radial electric field shear in the different regimes? – What are the implications for advanced operating modes? • Power threshold for internal barrier formation increased with <A>. – Was this a transport effect or a consequence of the beam deposition profile being different? Operational Implications: • Though TRANSP was used extensively for experimental planning, – Existing transport models were inadequate to predict both the isotope effect as well as variations in confinement. • Occurrence of internal transport barriers or unforeseen improvements in core confinement occasionally resulted in disruptions. Implications of Transport Studies • Implications for ITER: – Burn control will require controlling the pressure and current profile in the presence of dominant alpha heating. • Are the required profiles consistent with the underlying transport rates? • Enhanced confinement at high density is key to optimizing performance. – Measure turbulence in ITER low r* regime and comprehensive profile and edge diagnostics. • Needed to apply the results to different configurations. • Implications for research prior to ITER: – Develop predictive capability beyond empirical scaling that has been experimentally established. – Develop fluctuation diagnostics for ITER. – Develop a deeper understanding of the relationship of “wall conditioning” and “plasma performance.” – Aggressive goal: control the transport locally???? TFTR Stability was Limited by Kink-Ballooning Mode and Neoclassical Tearing Modes Experimental Data MH3D code simulation 3.4 5 Magnetic 3.2 ballooning 4 MAJOR RADIUS (m) mode Theory W (cm) 5 keV 3 3.0 2 ECE 2.8 10 keV Magnetic Axis 2.6 1 24MW NBI 0 2.4 3.0 3.5 4.0 180 sec W. Park, PRL 75 1763 (1995) Time (s) Nonlinear numerical simulations found Theory predicted observed n=1 kink excited local ballooning modes amplitudes and growth rates for neoclassical Kink-ballooning mode limited fusion tearing modes (NTM). power performance. - NTM were observed to occur without a seed. E. Fredrickson, Y. Nagayama, W. Park Z. Why? E. Fredricskon Chang. Implications of Stability Studies • Implications for ITER: – Control tools will be used to both establish and control a burning plasma. • Are they sufficient? – Performance optimization entails increased likelihood of disruption. – Disruption mitigation and avoidance is very important. – Study of extended MHD effects at low r* will be a major scientific contribution. • For example NTM, RWM and sawteeth • Implications for research prior to ITER: – Perform assessment of heating and current drive options to optimize research and performance capabilities. – Develop techniques to modify the pressure and current profile. – Develop and test three dimensional nonlinear MHD codes with extended physics. – Develop techniques to stabilize sawteeth, NTM and RWM that can be applied to ITER. – Establish reliable disruption mitigation and avoidance techniques. ICRF Successfully Heated D-T Supershot Plasmas in TFTR D Ti due to 2nd harmonic D Te due to direct electron tritium heating and 3He minority ion heating • Power deposition calculations in good agreement with experiment. G. Taylor, J. R. Wilson, J. Hosea, R. Majeski, C. K. Phillips Implications of ICRF Heating and Current Drive Studies • ITER Implications: – Fundamental heating and current drive physics for ICRF has largely been established for D-He3 minority and second harmonic tritium heating experiments. – Outstanding technology and coupling issues remain. • Implications for research prior to ITER: – Need to develop predictive tools to design antennae and obtain good power coupling. – Need to improve performance of couplers and matching circuits. – Application of mode conversion or IBW to drive currents, induce flows or alpha channeling requires further research. Confined Alpha-particle Studies on TFTR were Confirmatory in Normal Shear (Supershot) Discharges Chordal DT neutron emission 3.0 Measured 30 90° detector Total Alpha collection fraction (x10-9) (neutron Escaping Alpha collimator) Detectors 2.0 beam-beam (1017/m2/sec) Normalized B here beam-thermal 10 20° 8 45° 1.0 Thermal 6 CL 90 60° ° 4 First-orbit loss model 0.0 2.0 2.5 3.0 2 Radius (m) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Plasma current (MA) • Alpha birth rate and profile • Escaping alpha flux at 90o were adequately modeled. detector was consistent with - Neutron flux in good classical first orbit losses agreement with calculations based on plasma profile in normal shear discharges. R. Budny, L. Johnson S. Zweben, D. Darrow Confined Alpha-particle Studies Relied on New Diagnostics Developed for D-T Experiments Double Charge Exchange 106 n Technique n r-0 dn/dE (a.u.) n He ++ + Li+ He 0 + Li3+ n 105 normalization n n Vpellet n n 104 TRANSP/FPPT Double Charge Exchange Li 103 Technique He0 r-0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Cloud He ++ + Li+ He 0 + Li3+ Alpha energy (MeV) He++ Alpha Particles Vpellet Li Rapid ash transported He0 from the core to the 4 5 Cloud V) He++ edge in supershots. Alpha Particles (CHERS) Confined alphas in the Alpha particles were DHe/D ~ 1 plasma core showed well confined. E. Synakowski classical slowing down 0 D 0.03 m2/s spectrum . R. Fisher, S. Medley, M. Petrov R. Fonck, G. McKee, B. Stratton Initial Evidence of Alpha-particle Heating • Alpha heating ~15% of power through electron channel Te(R) (keV) • Plasmas matched for dominant Te scaling in D only plasmas. - Te(0) E0.5 Te(DT) - Te(D) (keV) - account for the isotope effect on confinement G. Taylor, J. Strachan MHD Activity can Cause Enhanced Transport of Alpha Particles • Strong toroidal anisotropic loss • Sawteeth caused a large radial apparent as NTM mode was rotating. redistribution of alpha particles • Enhanced loss also observed due to: - disruptions - kinetic ballooning modes, sawteeth D. Darrow, S. Zweben S. Medley, M. Petrov, R. Fisher TAEs Driven by Neutral Beam or ICRF Fast Ions Caused Substantial Fast Ion Losses 100.0 10 -5 - NBI driven TAE - ICRF driven TAE Mode Amplitude [B/B0] 10.00 10 -6 Loss Fraction (%) ~ 1.00 10 -7 D-T experiments 0.10 10 -8 0.01 10 -9 1 5 10 20 Input Power (MW) • ICRF induced TAE with ripple trapping damaged • In normal shear D-T the vessel during D-T discharges, TAE was stable. operations. E. Fredrickson, K. L. Wong, D. Darrow R. White Alpha-particle Physics Studies in Reversed Shear Discharges Resulted in New Discoveries. • TAEs redistributed deeply • Stochastic ripple • Alpha-driven TAE trapped alpha-particles diffusion affected (subsequently –Further work required confinement of identified as Cascade to benchmark models. deeply trapped Modes) were observed. particles • Neutron emission in D-T enhanced reverse shear discharges disagreed with TRANSP analysis in some shots by factors of 2-3 –Source of discrepancy was not identified. R. Nazikian, Z. Chang, G. Fu S. Medley, M. Petrov, R. Fisher, M. Redi Implications of Alpha-particle Physics Studies • Implications for ITER: – Nonlinear consequences of alpha heating will be studied for the first time. – Comprehensive measurements of confined and lost alpha particles are critical. – Scientific research is paced by diagnostic capabilities as well as operating regimes. • ITER needs to be flexible to adjust to scientific developments. • Implications for research prior to ITER: – Nonlinear consequences of alpha-particle driven modes need to be put on a quantitative basis. – Interaction of ripple and alpha-particle driven modes needs to be addressed. – Develop alpha-particle diagnostics for ITER. – Can alpha-particle channeling be experimentally established? (See N. Fisch at this meeting and K. L. Wong’s DIII-D papers.) Experience with Plasma-Boundary Interface • “Wall conditioning” and wall coatings were critical for enhanced performance in TFTR. – Li coatings were crucial for supershot performance. – Other experiments exhibit strong dependence of performance on wall conditions. • Design of plasma facing components underwent several design iterations prior to D-T. – Carbon fiber composite tiles were reliable and effective. • Tritium retention in graphite is a serious concern. – TFTR tiles 16% retention – JET 12% retention – One year after extensive removal efforts C. Skinner Implications of Experience with Plasma-Boundary Interface • Implications for ITER: – If a reliable technique is not developed to remove the tritium from the graphite tiles and coatings, it will have devastating operational consequences. – Need to qualify plasma facing components prior to D-D/D-T operation. • Will H operation be sufficient? Are we prepared to resolve this in D-D? What should the balance be between H and D operation? – What can ITER do to establish the basis for Demo with ~5 times the heat exhaust? • Implications for research prior to ITER: – Develop technique to remove the tritium from the plasma facing components. • Increase removal rate by four orders of magnitude. – Ascertain whether high-Z materials (with and without coatings) can survive the high heat fluxes and long pulses in ITER. – Are the E projections for ITER affected by the extensive use of wall coatings in present experiments? – Develop backup strategy • Li divertor??? What else?? Developing the Scientific Basis for a Power Plant is the Common Focus of both the Ongoing Research Program and ITER • Current research program will enhance the prospects for ITER: – Achieving a burning plasma and meeting its programmatic goals. – Developing the science and technology that will also impact a power plant. • ITER’s success will be measured by: – Meetings its programmatic goals. – Developing the scientific understanding and making the discoveries required to make an attractive power plant.