The W3C Role

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					                                                            2. World Wide Web Consortium
                            W3C:                                                     3    Trust and Confidence: Web is useful medium
                                                                                          for social transactions. W3C goal is to promote
                            The World Wide Web Cconsortium (W3C) is a
                                                                                          technologies that enable a more collaborative
                            vendor-neutral, non-profit international organization.
                                                                                          environment, a Web where accountability,
                            Organizations from allover the world, join W3C to
                                                                                          security, confidence, and confidentiality are all
                            participate in the creation of Web standards. W3C             possible.
                            Members, staff and invited experts work together to
                            design technologies to ensure that the Web will          W3C Process:
                            continue to thrive in the face of an growing diversity
                                                                                     3    Activity/WG creation: Member review
                            of people, hardware, and software.
                                                                                     3    WG Working Drafts (regular public version)
                            Mr. Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide
                            Web and others created W3C as an industry                3    Last Call (public)
                            consortium dedicated to building consensus around        3    Candidate Recommendation: Implementation
                            Web technologies.                                             experience
                            The W3C activities are being co-ordinated by MIT         3    Proposed Recommendation: Member review
                            (Cambridge, MA, USA), INRIA (France) and Keio
                            University (Japan). There are Around 73 full time        3    W3C Recommendation
                            team members in Europe, Japan & US and about             3    Other documents
                            400 members all over the world.
                                                                                     3    W3C Notes
                            The W3C Role:
                                                                                     3    Includes: Submissions
                            3    Pre-competitive venue
                                                                                     W3C Groups:
                            3    Work and specification coordination
                            3    Pre-competitive joint projects                      W3C Activities are organized into groups:
                            3    Sample implementations.                             3    Working Groups (for technical developments),
                            3    Reference code                                      3    Interest Groups (for more general work),
                            3    Education
World Wide Web Consortium

                                                                                     3    Coordination Groups (for communication
                            W3C has four long-term goals for the World Wide               among related groups).
                            Web:                                                     These groups, made up of participants from Member
                            3    Web For Everyone: Access the Web to work            organizations. Team and Invited Experts, produce the
                                 together, whatever their hardware, software,        draft standards, technical reports, open source
                                 network infrastructure, native language, culture,   software, and services. Currently 23 W3C Activities
                                 geographical location, or physical or mental        containing 54 groups. The details of these activities
                                 ability.                                            available at Annexure-I.
                            3    Web on Everything: W3C s goal is to make Web        W3C Domains:
                                 access from any kind of device (mobile phones,
                                 smart phones, personal digital assistants,          W3C Activities are grouped by domain . There are
                                 interactive television systems, voice response      four domains Architecture, Interaction, Technology
                                 systems, etc) as simple, easy and convenient as     & Society and Web Accessibility Initiative.
                                 Web access from a desktop.
                                                                                     3    Architecture:The various activities in the
                            3    Knowledge Base: Web is a vast database, W3C              architecture domain include formation of
                                 aims at developing a Web that holds information          specifications for DOM (Document Object
                                 for both human and machine processing.                   Model), Internationalization, URI (Uniform

     Resource Identifier), Web Services, XML               receiving early access to Member-confidential
     (Extensible Markup Language) etc.                     information, assisting with driving work efforts,
                                                           generating new ideas, and developing future guidelines
3    Interaction:The various activities in the
                                                           for inter-operable web technologies. W3C members
     architecture domain are to evolve standards for
                                                           can have seat on W3C Advisory Committee,
     Device Independence, Graphics, HTML
                                                           participate in W3C working group and W3C Internet
     (Hypertext Markup Language), Math,
                                                           Groups have right to use W3C Member logo, access
     Multimodal Interaction, Style, Synchronized
                                                           to W3C information.
     Multimedia, Voice Browser, XForms etc.
3    Technology & Society: The areas covered under         W3C Members help pioneer the growth process as
     this domain are the developments related to           the W3C member participate in the Standards
                                                           building process for global commerce and

                                                                                                                     World Wide Web Consortium
     Patent Policy, Privacy, Semantic Web, XML Key
     Management etc.                                       information exchange.

3    Web Accessibility Initiative: WAI International       The benefits of becoming W3C member are as given:
     Program Office focuses on education and               3    W3C Members get upto date information about
     outreach and research and development. Web                 the Web technologies which helps in taking
     accessibility guidelines are essential for Web site        strategic decision. This information is
     development and for Web-related applications               exclusively available to members only.
                                                           3    W3C Members are actively involved in evolving
Major achievements of W3C:                                      the Web and its services. Members participate
In its first ten years, W3C has published more than             in W3C Working Groups, where specifications
80 web technology related recommendations. A                    and guidelines are developed, and in W3C
W3C Recommendation is considered a Web standard.                Interest Groups, where discussions are
Some of the web standards developed by W3C
include CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) separating            3    W3C Members send engineers to work in W3C
content from structure; WAI (Web Accessibility                  Working Groups, together with W3C technical
Initiative) guidelines for web content, HTML 4.0                staff, to produce technical specifications for Web
that adds tables, scripting, style sheets,                      technologies. With this participation we may
internationalization and accessibility features to web          ensure the adequate standards of web
publishing; XML 1.0 that promotes interoperability              technologies for Indic languages.
and domain-specific mark up, it is emerging as lingua      3    There is a need to involve local developer in
franca of web; SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) for               Standards evolvement so that Cultural, regional
next generation mobile applications; Web Services               and linguistics aspects can be addressed and
Activity to provide a standard means of inter-operating         correct inputs are provided to W3C
between different software applications, running on             committees.
a variety of platforms/ frameworks; RDF (Resource
Description Framework) and OWL (Web Ontology               3    W3C members can participate in the various
Language) are Semantic Web standards that provide               Workshops, Symposia and other events
framework asset management, enterprise integration              organized by W3C apart from working group
and reuse of data; Voice XML 2.0 for content delivery           meetings.
in interactive voice response applications etc.
                                                           Annexure I
W3C member and benefits of becoming W3C
Member:                                                    1.   Architecture Domain:

Membership benefits of W3C cover its involvement           3    Document Object Model (DOM) Activity:
from simply associating with W3C endeavors,                     DOM is a standard Application Programming

                                Interface (API) to the structure of documents.             interoperating between different software
                                DOM makes it possible for programmers to                   applications, running on a variety of platforms
                                write applications which work properly on all              and/or frameworks.
                                browsers and servers and on all platforms.
                                                                                           There are six groups in this activity, named:
                                There is one group in this activity, named:
                                                                                           Semantic Web Services Interest Group
                                DOM Interest Group                                         Web Services Addressing Working Group
                            3   Extensible Markup Language (XML) Activity:                 Web Services Coordination Group
                                XML is a simple, flexible text format derived              Web Services Choreography Working Group
                                from SGML.
                                                                                           Web Services Description Working Group
                                There are seven groups in this activity, named:            XML Protocol Working Group
                                XML Coordination Group                                2.   Interaction Domain:
                                XML Core Working Group                                3    Compound document formats Activity:
                                XML Plenary Interest Group                                 Compound document is a document that
                                XML Query Working Group                                    combines multiple formats, such as XHTML,
                                XML Schema Interest Group                                  SVG, SMIL and XForms. The W3C
                                                                                           Compound Document Formats (CDF)
                                XML Schema Working Group                                   Working Group will specify the behavior of
                                XSL Working Group                                          some format combinations, addressing the needs
                                                                                           for an extensible and interoperable Web.
                            3   Internationalization Activity:
                                                                                           There is one group in this activity, named:
                                This Activity is ensure that W3C s formats and
                                protocols are open to all of the world s languages,        Compound Document Formats Working
                                writing systems, character codes and local                 Group
                                                                                      3    Device Independence Activity:
                                There are four groups in this activity, named:
                                                                                           The W3C Device Independence Activity is
World Wide Web Consortium

                                Internationalization (I18n) Core Working                   working to ensure seamless Web access with all
                                Group                                                      kinds of devices, and worldwide standards for
                                Internationalization (I18n) Guidelines,                    the benefit of Web users and content providers
                                Education & Outreach Working Group                         alike. A threat we face is that only parts of the
                                                                                           Web will be accessible from cellular phones, TV,
                                Internationalization (I18n) Interest Group
                                                                                           digital cameras, and in-car computers.
                                Internationalization (I18n) Tag Set Working
                                                                                           There is one group in this activity, named:
                                                                                           Device Independence Working Group
                            3   URI Activity: Uniform Resource Identifiers
                                                                                      3    Graphics Activity:
                                The URI is a single global identification system
                                to build a global community in which any party             Graphics play a critical role in Web, from
                                can share information with any other party.                decorative graphics through advertising to
                                There is one group in this activity, named:                diagrams and interactive user interfaces. Scalable
                                                                                           Vector Graphics (SVG), the current effort of the
                                URI Interest Group                                         Activity, brings the powerful combination of
                            3   Web services Activity:                                     interactive, animated two-dimensional vector
                                                                                           graphics and Extensible Markup Language
                                Web services provide a standard means of                   (XML).

    There is one group in this activity, named:            Mobile Web Best Practice Working Group
    SVG Working Group                                      MWI Device Description Working Group

3   HTML Activity:                                     3   Multimodal Interaction Activity:

    The HTML Working Group is chartered to                 Web to allow users to dynamically select the most
    evolve HTML into an XML-based markup,                  appropriate mode of interaction for their current
    modularize it to make it easier to combine it          needs. Benefits over uni-modal interaction when
                                                           hands-free operation is needed, for mobile
    with other markup languages, and correct the
                                                           devices with limited keypads, and for controlling
    problems known still to exist, in areas such as
                                                           other devices. Users can provide input via speech,
    internationalization, accessibility, device
                                                           handwriting, and keystrokes, with output
    independence and forms processing.

                                                                                                                World Wide Web Consortium
                                                           presented via displays, pre-recorded and synthetic
    There are two groups in this activity, named:          speech, audio, and tactile mechanisms such as
                                                           mobile phone vibrators and Braille strips.
    HTML Working Group
                                                           There is one group in this activity, named:
    Hypertext Coordination Group
                                                           Multimodal Interaction Working Group
3   Math Activity:
                                                       3   Style Activity:
    Mathematics is an essential aspect of scientific
    communication and education. Mathematical              CSS is playing an increasingly important role in
    expressions must move seamlessly between the           styling not just HTML, but also many kinds of
                                                           XML documents. It is also an important means
    Web and a wide range of related environments
                                                           of adapting pages to different devices, such as
    including authoring tools and content
                                                           mobile phones or printers.
    management systems, XML-based publishing
    work flows, e-learning environments, and               There is one group in this activity, named:
    scientific computing software. The Math Activity       Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) Working Group
    created the Mathematical Markup Language
    (MathML), a highly-structured, information-        3   Synchronized Multimedia Activity:
    rich, XML encoding for mathematical
                                                           This Activity designed the Synchronized
    expressions, and is chartered to maintain it.          Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL,
    There is one group in this activity, named:            pronounced smile ) for choreographing
                                                           multimedia presentations where audio, video,
    Math Interest Group                                    text and graphics are combined in real time.
3   Mobile Web Initiative Activity:                        There are two groups in this activity, named:
    Mobile Web access suffers from interoperability        SYMM Working Group
    and usability problems that make the Web
    difficult to use for most mobile phone                 Timed Text Working Group
    subscribers. W3C s Mobile Web Initiative           3   Voice Browser Activity:
    (W3C MWI) proposes to address these issues
    through a concerted effort of key players in the       The convergence of telecommunications and the
    mobile production chain, including authoring           Web is now bringing the benefits of Web
    tool vendors, content providers, handset               technology to the telephone, enabling Web
    manufacturers, browser vendors and mobile              developers to create applications that can be
    operators.                                             accessed via any telephone, and allowing people
                                                           to interact with these applications via speech and
    There are two groups in this activity, named:
                                                           telephone keypads.

                                 There is one group in this activity, named:              Semantic Web Coordination Group
                                 Voice Browser Working Group                         4.   Web Accessibility Initiative:
                            3    XForms Activity:                                    3    WAI International Program Office Activity:
                                 XForms is a markup language that addresses the           It is essential to ensure that the Web is accessible
                                 modern needs of electronic forms. It is based on         to people with disabilities. The WAI
                                 XML, it addresses questions of authorability,            International Program Office helps create a forum
                                 usability, accessibility, device independence,
                                                                                          where representatives of industry, the disability
                                 internationalization, integration into different
                                                                                          community, research, and government work
                                 host languages, and reducing the need for
                                                                                          together to identify accessibility requirements
                                                                                          and develop solutions under W3C Process.
                                 There is one group in this activity, named:
                                                                                          There are four groups in this activity, named:
                                 XForms Working Group
                                                                                          Education and Outreach Working Group
                            3.   Technology and Society Domain:
                                                                                          Research and Development Interest Group
                            3    Patent Policy Activity:
                                                                                          WAI Coordination Group
                                 Patent Policy Activity s goal is to enable W3C to
                                 implement and successfully operate the W3C               WAI Interest Group
                                 Patent Policy.                                      3    WAI Technical Activity:
                                 There is one group in this activity, named:              The WAI Technical Activity addresses barriers
                                 Patents and Standards Interest Group                     to Web accessibility on several levels. First, it seeks
                            3    Privacy Activity:                                        to ensure that the full range of core technologies
                                                                                          of the Web, from HTML to the Semantic Web,
                                 P3P allows people to define and publish their            is accessible. The WAI Technical Activity also
                                 Web site privacy policies, and helps automate how        promotes implementation of accessibility
                                 those policies are read.
                                                                                          improvements in Web technologies through
                                 There are four groups in this activity, named:           development of a set of three WAI guidelines as
World Wide Web Consortium

                                 P3P Coordination Group                                   Recommendations: Web Content Accessibility
                                                                                          Guidelines; User Agent Accessibility Guidelines;
                                 P3P Interest Group
                                                                                          and Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines.
                                 P3P Policy and Outreach Working Group
                                                                                          There are five groups in this activity, named:
                                 P3P Specification Working Group
                                                                                          Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines
                            3    Semantic Web Activity:                                   Working Group
                                 Goal of the Semantic Web initiative is to create         Evaluation and Repair Tools Working Group
                                 a universal medium for the exchange of data
                                 where data can be shared and processed by                Protocols and Formats Working Group
                                 automated tools as well as by people.                    User Agent Accessibility Guidelines Working
                                 There are four groups in this activity, named:           Group
                                                                                          Web Content Accessibility Guidelines Working
                                 RDF Data Access Working Group
                                 Semantic Web Interest Group
                                 Semantic Web Best Practices and Deployment
                                 Working Group