Conceptual Teaching Unit Design by vnc74534

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									Conceptual Teaching
&
Unit Design
Supporting Background

   Wiggins & McTighe (Understanding by
    Design)
   Marzano (What works in Schools)
   Carol Ann Tomlinson (Differentiation)
   Max Thompson (LFS)
   Stephen Covey (7 Habits)
   National Research Council: How Students
    Learn History in the Classroom
Stephen Covey Quote

   “To begin with the end in mind means to
    start with a clear understanding of your
    destination. It means to know where you’re
    going so that better understand where you
    are now so that the steps you take are
    always in the right direction.”
The Key

   Conceptual based teaching
       Need schema to learn
       Must relate to what already know
       Need to see in context
       Develop concepts to help students learn
   What doesn’t work
       Worksheets
       Drill
       Memorization of discrete facts.
Unit Design
&
Conceptual Teaching
   Unit design focuses on learning through
    teaching concepts
   Knowledge and skills are learned as they
    relate to concepts
   Provides schema or scaffolding for students
    to place knowledge
   Should develop from students previous
    knowledge
       The Process of Instructional Planning
      Traditional Practice               Standards-based Practice
Select a topic from the curriculum   Determine concepts, enduring
                                     understandings related to standard(s)
                  ↓
                                                           ↓
Design instructional activities      Design assessment (task) through which
                  ↓                  students will have an opportunity to
                                     demonstrate their understanding of
Design and give an assessment        standard(s) & concepts
                  ↓                                        ↓
Give grade or feedback               Decide what learning opportunities
                  ↓                  students will need so they can demonstrate
                                     understanding of standards and concepts;
Move onto new topic                  plan appropriate instruction to assure each
                                     student has adequate opportunities to
                                     learn
                                                           ↓
                                     Use data from assessment to give
                                     feedback, re-teach or move to next level
Where to Begin?

   Social Studies professionals work with big
    questions, so to engage students teachers
    should do the same thing
   Problems
       Teachers are to teach what others have written
       Students are tested for accountability
       Teachers are provided with a list of information
        the student is to know
Where to Begin?

   Curriculum does not provide nor is it
    organized by big picture ideas (connections)
   Necessary for students to build connections
       Schema theory
       Brain based learning
       Learning Focused Schools
       Understanding by Design
       All use idea of essential questions, conceptual
        learning
Where to Begin?

   Identify larger concept that are answered by
    the curriculum objectives
   Work backwards (unpack the standards)
       Develop historiographic problems that cross
        standards (enduring understandings)
       Provide students with concepts upon which to
        hang the knowledge and skills required by
        curricular objectives
A Conceptual Model
   Principle #1: existing understandings &
    knowledge foundation for new learning
       Positive and negative
       Need to know what student already knows
   Principle #2: role of factual knowledge and
    conceptual frameworks
       Must develop depth of knowledge
       Learn as related to concepts enhances recall
   Principle #3: rich in self-monitoring
Goal

   Teach students the facts, stories, while at the same
    time providing a background against which to place
    the facts.
   Develop in students the ability to read, criticize, and
    evaluate the information and the use of facts
   Educate students to be literate in social studies
       Ability to evaluate arguments, and make decisions given
        evidence regarding those arguments which is the most
        plausible
How the Model Works


   US History (high school)
   4th grade US History
Help with concepts

   National Standards
       Civics and government (Center for Civic
        Education)
       Economic (National Council on Economic
        Education)
       Themes of Geography (National Geographic)
       Social Studies (National Council for the Social
        Studies
   Bradley commission (National Council on
    History Education)
Standards and Elements
 SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between
 growing north-south divisions and westward expansion.
      a. explain how slavery became a significant issue in
 American politics including the slave of Nat Turner, and the rise
 of abolitionism (William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglas and
 the Grimke sisters)
      b. explain the Missouri Compromise and the issue of slavery
 in western states and territories
      c. describe the Nullification Crisis and the emergence of
 states’ rights ideology, including the role of John C. Calhoun and
 development of sectionalism
      d. describe war with Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso
      e. explain the Compromise of 1850
Standards Based Education Model
                          Stage 1:
                                      Identify Desired Results
        Standards                       What do I want my students
                                        to know and be able to do?
                                 Big Ideas  Enduring Understandings 
                                           Essential Questions
 GPS
        Above, plus
                                      ---------------------------------------
        Elements                          Skills and Knowledge
                          Stage 2:
        All Above, plus          Determine Acceptable Evidence
                                (Design Balanced Assessments)
        Tasks                          How will I know if my students
                                         know it and/or can do it?
        Student Work
                                     (to assess student progress toward
        Teacher                                desired results)
        Commentary
                          Stage 3:
                           Plan Learning Experiences and Instruction
                          What will need to be done to help my students learn the
        All Above                      required knowledge and skills?
                               (to support student success on assessments,
                                        leading to desired results)
    Stage 1: What do I want my
students to know and be able to ?
   What are the big ideas and core processes at the
    heart of this standard?
       Compromise and Conflict
           States rights & nullification
           Compromise 1820 & 1850
           slavery
       Migration
           Expansion of US territory (compromises and war with
            Mexico)
           States Rights
           Sectionalism
           slavery
   How do I want to focus this unit?
Enduring Understandings
   Overarching: More abstract and general; relate to many
    units of study
       Students will understand that migration of people into a new
        area produces a need for compromise on the part of all
        groups and when that compromise is not possible conflict
        occurs

   Topical: More specific; related to a single unit
       EX: Students will understand that expansion of the United
        States (migration) between 1830 and 1850 and the failure of
        compromise over that expansion contributed to the Civil
        War (conflict)
       EX: Students will understand that the Civil War (conflict)
        occurred when compromise over states rights and slavery
        was no longer an option between north and south as the
        United States expanded Westward (migration)
From Understandings to Questions

   Students will understand that the Civil War (conflict) occurred
    when compromise over states rights and slavery was no
    longer an option between north and south as the United
    States expanded Westward (migration)
     ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS

         What issues led to a need to compromise to admit new states
          to the Union?
         What factors contributed to the failure of compromise during
          the period 1830-1850?
         How did the migration of Americans westward contribute to
          the need for compromise?
    Knowledge & Skills

   Knowledge is taken from the standard and
    elements
       Example: Compromise 1820, 1850, abolitionism
       For QCC use content descriptions
   Skills
       Select those skills wish to emphasize from skills
        matrix
       Include both map & globe and info processing
       For QCC use core skills
Stage 2:
What is acceptable evidence?
   How will my students demonstrate the
    understanding of the concept(s), knowledge,
    and skills?
   Use a variety of assessments
       Tasks are one form
       Should be designed as culminating activity (LFS)
Role of Tasks in Conceptual Teaching

   What is a task?
       Defined: Way for students to demonstrate understanding
        of concept through use of knowledge and skills
       Does not have to encompass all aspects of concept
       Can be a culminating activity.
   Key: demonstrate conceptual understanding
   Not the only form of assessment
   Tasks are not assessable on state tests (CRCT,
    EOCT, GHSGT)
Brainstorm: What evidence would be
sufficient?
   Understanding of
      the concept of states’ rights views as held by John C.
       Calhoun
      the position as presented by Daniel Webster as an
       American
      the compromised proposed by Henry Clay and the
       rationale for the compromise
      the relationship between states’ rights and the

       admission of California as a state
   Explain the concerns of southerners and northerners
    regarding the admission of California
               Example task

   You are a member of the U.S. Senate from a
    northern state. John C. Calhoun was brought
    into the Senate to hear his speech read, Henry
    Clay spoke for two days, and Daniel Webster
    has also spoken. You have been asked by your
    constituents to summarize what transpired and
    provide your opinion on the issue facing the
    United States. Write an explanation of your
    stance on states’ rights your opinion of the
    Compromise plan and John C. Calhoun’s
    prediction.
Standards and Elements
   SS4H4 The student will explain the causes, events, and results of
    the American Revolution.

           a. trace the events that shaped the revolutionary movement in America, including
    the French and Indian War, British Imperial Policy that led to the 1765 Stamp Act, the
    slogan “no taxation without representation,” the activities of the Sons of Liberty, and the
    Boston Tea Party
           b. explain the writing of the Declaration of Independence, including who wrote it,
    how it was written, why it was necessary, and how it was a response to tyranny and the
    abuse of power
           c. describe the major events of the Revolution and explain the factors leading to
    American victory and British defeat, including the Battles of Lexington and Concord and
    Yorktown
           d. describe key individuals in the American Revolution with emphasis on King
    George III, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Benedict Arnold,
    Patrick Henry, and John Adams
     Stage 1: What do I want my students to know
and be able to ?
   What are the big ideas and core processes at the heart of this
    standard?
       Conflict and compromise
          Political developments and relations with Great
           Britain
              French and Indian War & British Imperial Policy
              Taxation and representation

       Tory and Loyalist
          Sons of Liberty

          Boston Tea Party

   Authority and abuse of authority
   Standing up for what you believe in
    Enduring Understandings

   Overarching: abstract relate to several units
   Teacher
      Students will understand that when there is a problem
       and compromise on the part of all groups is not possible
       conflict often occurs.
      Students will understand that when authority by one
       individual or group is perceived as being abused, revolt
       against that authority can occur.
   Student
      Students will understand that when two groups of
       people cannot compromise on things, a conflict (fight) is
       very possible.
      Students will understand that when someone uses
       their authority and seems to hurt (abuse) other people,
       those hurt may strike back.
Enduring Understandings

   Topical: specific; related to a single unit
       The student will understand that the American
        Revolution (conflict) occurred when the English
        government and American colonial leaders could not
        agree (compromise) on several important issues.
       The student will understand that when King George III
        (authority) did not listen to the colonists concerns, but
        did what he wanted (abuse), the colonists struck back
        by declaring independence from him.
From Understandings to Questions

   Students will understand that when two groups of people
    cannot compromise on things, a conflict (fight) is very possible.
        Broad
           Is compromise on issues always the correct answer?

           If you cannot compromise, is the result always a fight?

        Specific
           What types of things happened that led the colonists to
            revolt against England?
           What were the major things England and the colonists
            could not agree on?
    Knowledge & Skills

   Knowledge is taken from the standard and
    elements
       Example: French & Indian War, Sons of Liberty,
        Battle of Lexington, John Adams
   Skills
       Select those skills wish to emphasize from skills
        matrix
       Include both map & globe and info processing
    Stage 2:
    What is acceptable evidence?
   How will my students demonstrate the
    understanding of the concept(s), knowledge,
    and skills?
   Use a variety of assessments
       Tasks are one form
       Should be designed as culminating activity (LFS)
Brainstorm: What evidence would be
sufficient?
   Understanding of
       French and Indian War and its relationship to American
        Revolution
       Reasons for British taxation
       Reasons for colonists anger at taxation
       Why King and Parliament were seen as abusing their power
       How all of the above led to American Revolution
   Explain the roles of King George III, Parliament,
    Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John
    Adams
    Example task

   After studying the American Revolution, develop
    a graphic organizer to show how the events from
    the French and Indian War led to the American
    Revolution. On your graphic organizer briefly
    explain how the inability to compromise at each
    stage was important in leading to the American
    Revolution. On your graphic organizer, indicate
    the role played for each part by King George III,
    Parliament, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas
    Jefferson, and John Adams.
Concepts and Tasks

   Concepts
       Should stretch across grade levels
       May encompass multiple standards and
        disciplines of Social Studies
   Tasks
       Vary according to grade level
       May build from grade to grade
Stage 3:
How do I prepare my students?
   Final step is the development of instructional
    activities
       Meaningful learning experiences that help students place
        discrete facts in appropriate context
       Provide insight into Enduring Understandings and Essential
        Questions
       Not sage on the stage
       Not drill and kill
       Not memorizing factoids
   Questions??
What’s next?
Plains:
   Task Writing Workshop I
    June 19-24, ’05 Middle & High School
        wrote draft Enduring Understandings and
         tasks
        Presently revising and editing
        05-06, teachers who wrote to pilot some tasks
    June 2006 will finalize and prepare for
     training
    Plains:
       Task Writing Workshop II
   June 25-30, 2006 (K-5)
       Develop sample Enduring Understandings and sample
        tasks
       Refine and try during 06-07 school year
       Reconvene June 2007
   Applications available by email
       Closing date mid-March
       Notification 1st week of April
       wcransha@doe.k12.ga.us
WHAT IF WE…
What if we …

   Shared concepts with students?
       Purpose of concept is to help students understand
        the relationship of historical, geographic,
        economic, or governmental ideas
       Schema theory, need scaffolding to hang
        information on
       Concepts provide scaffolding
What if we …

   Gave students major concepts at beginning
    of a course?
       Spent short amount of time teaching major
        concepts for the entire course
       Provide limited examples to expand the concept
   Organized remainder of year around these
    concepts?
       Enriched concepts with examples and facts
What if we …

   Made concepts broad enough to encompass
    multiple courses/grade levels?
       Used concepts from other courses or grade levels
       The student will understand that constitutions are
        written to define the purpose, functions,
        organization, and requirements of a government
What would
happen to student
achievement?

								
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