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Conceptual Teaching & Unit Design Supporting Background Wiggins & McTighe (Understanding by Design) Marzano (What works in Schools) Carol Ann Tomlinson (Differentiation) Max Thompson (LFS) Stephen Covey (7 Habits) National Research Council: How Students Learn History in the Classroom Stephen Covey Quote “To begin with the end in mind means to start with a clear understanding of your destination. It means to know where you’re going so that better understand where you are now so that the steps you take are always in the right direction.” The Key Conceptual based teaching Need schema to learn Must relate to what already know Need to see in context Develop concepts to help students learn What doesn’t work Worksheets Drill Memorization of discrete facts. Unit Design & Conceptual Teaching Unit design focuses on learning through teaching concepts Knowledge and skills are learned as they relate to concepts Provides schema or scaffolding for students to place knowledge Should develop from students previous knowledge The Process of Instructional Planning Traditional Practice Standards-based Practice Select a topic from the curriculum Determine concepts, enduring understandings related to standard(s) ↓ ↓ Design instructional activities Design assessment (task) through which ↓ students will have an opportunity to demonstrate their understanding of Design and give an assessment standard(s) & concepts ↓ ↓ Give grade or feedback Decide what learning opportunities ↓ students will need so they can demonstrate understanding of standards and concepts; Move onto new topic plan appropriate instruction to assure each student has adequate opportunities to learn ↓ Use data from assessment to give feedback, re-teach or move to next level Where to Begin? Social Studies professionals work with big questions, so to engage students teachers should do the same thing Problems Teachers are to teach what others have written Students are tested for accountability Teachers are provided with a list of information the student is to know Where to Begin? Curriculum does not provide nor is it organized by big picture ideas (connections) Necessary for students to build connections Schema theory Brain based learning Learning Focused Schools Understanding by Design All use idea of essential questions, conceptual learning Where to Begin? Identify larger concept that are answered by the curriculum objectives Work backwards (unpack the standards) Develop historiographic problems that cross standards (enduring understandings) Provide students with concepts upon which to hang the knowledge and skills required by curricular objectives A Conceptual Model Principle #1: existing understandings & knowledge foundation for new learning Positive and negative Need to know what student already knows Principle #2: role of factual knowledge and conceptual frameworks Must develop depth of knowledge Learn as related to concepts enhances recall Principle #3: rich in self-monitoring Goal Teach students the facts, stories, while at the same time providing a background against which to place the facts. Develop in students the ability to read, criticize, and evaluate the information and the use of facts Educate students to be literate in social studies Ability to evaluate arguments, and make decisions given evidence regarding those arguments which is the most plausible How the Model Works US History (high school) 4th grade US History Help with concepts National Standards Civics and government (Center for Civic Education) Economic (National Council on Economic Education) Themes of Geography (National Geographic) Social Studies (National Council for the Social Studies Bradley commission (National Council on History Education) Standards and Elements SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion. a. explain how slavery became a significant issue in American politics including the slave of Nat Turner, and the rise of abolitionism (William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglas and the Grimke sisters) b. explain the Missouri Compromise and the issue of slavery in western states and territories c. describe the Nullification Crisis and the emergence of states’ rights ideology, including the role of John C. Calhoun and development of sectionalism d. describe war with Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso e. explain the Compromise of 1850 Standards Based Education Model Stage 1: Identify Desired Results Standards What do I want my students to know and be able to do? Big Ideas Enduring Understandings Essential Questions GPS Above, plus --------------------------------------- Elements Skills and Knowledge Stage 2: All Above, plus Determine Acceptable Evidence (Design Balanced Assessments) Tasks How will I know if my students know it and/or can do it? Student Work (to assess student progress toward Teacher desired results) Commentary Stage 3: Plan Learning Experiences and Instruction What will need to be done to help my students learn the All Above required knowledge and skills? (to support student success on assessments, leading to desired results) Stage 1: What do I want my students to know and be able to ? What are the big ideas and core processes at the heart of this standard? Compromise and Conflict States rights & nullification Compromise 1820 & 1850 slavery Migration Expansion of US territory (compromises and war with Mexico) States Rights Sectionalism slavery How do I want to focus this unit? Enduring Understandings Overarching: More abstract and general; relate to many units of study Students will understand that migration of people into a new area produces a need for compromise on the part of all groups and when that compromise is not possible conflict occurs Topical: More specific; related to a single unit EX: Students will understand that expansion of the United States (migration) between 1830 and 1850 and the failure of compromise over that expansion contributed to the Civil War (conflict) EX: Students will understand that the Civil War (conflict) occurred when compromise over states rights and slavery was no longer an option between north and south as the United States expanded Westward (migration) From Understandings to Questions Students will understand that the Civil War (conflict) occurred when compromise over states rights and slavery was no longer an option between north and south as the United States expanded Westward (migration) ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS What issues led to a need to compromise to admit new states to the Union? What factors contributed to the failure of compromise during the period 1830-1850? How did the migration of Americans westward contribute to the need for compromise? Knowledge & Skills Knowledge is taken from the standard and elements Example: Compromise 1820, 1850, abolitionism For QCC use content descriptions Skills Select those skills wish to emphasize from skills matrix Include both map & globe and info processing For QCC use core skills Stage 2: What is acceptable evidence? How will my students demonstrate the understanding of the concept(s), knowledge, and skills? Use a variety of assessments Tasks are one form Should be designed as culminating activity (LFS) Role of Tasks in Conceptual Teaching What is a task? Defined: Way for students to demonstrate understanding of concept through use of knowledge and skills Does not have to encompass all aspects of concept Can be a culminating activity. Key: demonstrate conceptual understanding Not the only form of assessment Tasks are not assessable on state tests (CRCT, EOCT, GHSGT) Brainstorm: What evidence would be sufficient? Understanding of the concept of states’ rights views as held by John C. Calhoun the position as presented by Daniel Webster as an American the compromised proposed by Henry Clay and the rationale for the compromise the relationship between states’ rights and the admission of California as a state Explain the concerns of southerners and northerners regarding the admission of California Example task You are a member of the U.S. Senate from a northern state. John C. Calhoun was brought into the Senate to hear his speech read, Henry Clay spoke for two days, and Daniel Webster has also spoken. You have been asked by your constituents to summarize what transpired and provide your opinion on the issue facing the United States. Write an explanation of your stance on states’ rights your opinion of the Compromise plan and John C. Calhoun’s prediction. Standards and Elements SS4H4 The student will explain the causes, events, and results of the American Revolution. a. trace the events that shaped the revolutionary movement in America, including the French and Indian War, British Imperial Policy that led to the 1765 Stamp Act, the slogan “no taxation without representation,” the activities of the Sons of Liberty, and the Boston Tea Party b. explain the writing of the Declaration of Independence, including who wrote it, how it was written, why it was necessary, and how it was a response to tyranny and the abuse of power c. describe the major events of the Revolution and explain the factors leading to American victory and British defeat, including the Battles of Lexington and Concord and Yorktown d. describe key individuals in the American Revolution with emphasis on King George III, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Benedict Arnold, Patrick Henry, and John Adams Stage 1: What do I want my students to know and be able to ? What are the big ideas and core processes at the heart of this standard? Conflict and compromise Political developments and relations with Great Britain French and Indian War & British Imperial Policy Taxation and representation Tory and Loyalist Sons of Liberty Boston Tea Party Authority and abuse of authority Standing up for what you believe in Enduring Understandings Overarching: abstract relate to several units Teacher Students will understand that when there is a problem and compromise on the part of all groups is not possible conflict often occurs. Students will understand that when authority by one individual or group is perceived as being abused, revolt against that authority can occur. Student Students will understand that when two groups of people cannot compromise on things, a conflict (fight) is very possible. Students will understand that when someone uses their authority and seems to hurt (abuse) other people, those hurt may strike back. Enduring Understandings Topical: specific; related to a single unit The student will understand that the American Revolution (conflict) occurred when the English government and American colonial leaders could not agree (compromise) on several important issues. The student will understand that when King George III (authority) did not listen to the colonists concerns, but did what he wanted (abuse), the colonists struck back by declaring independence from him. From Understandings to Questions Students will understand that when two groups of people cannot compromise on things, a conflict (fight) is very possible. Broad Is compromise on issues always the correct answer? If you cannot compromise, is the result always a fight? Specific What types of things happened that led the colonists to revolt against England? What were the major things England and the colonists could not agree on? Knowledge & Skills Knowledge is taken from the standard and elements Example: French & Indian War, Sons of Liberty, Battle of Lexington, John Adams Skills Select those skills wish to emphasize from skills matrix Include both map & globe and info processing Stage 2: What is acceptable evidence? How will my students demonstrate the understanding of the concept(s), knowledge, and skills? Use a variety of assessments Tasks are one form Should be designed as culminating activity (LFS) Brainstorm: What evidence would be sufficient? Understanding of French and Indian War and its relationship to American Revolution Reasons for British taxation Reasons for colonists anger at taxation Why King and Parliament were seen as abusing their power How all of the above led to American Revolution Explain the roles of King George III, Parliament, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams Example task After studying the American Revolution, develop a graphic organizer to show how the events from the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution. On your graphic organizer briefly explain how the inability to compromise at each stage was important in leading to the American Revolution. On your graphic organizer, indicate the role played for each part by King George III, Parliament, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and John Adams. Concepts and Tasks Concepts Should stretch across grade levels May encompass multiple standards and disciplines of Social Studies Tasks Vary according to grade level May build from grade to grade Stage 3: How do I prepare my students? Final step is the development of instructional activities Meaningful learning experiences that help students place discrete facts in appropriate context Provide insight into Enduring Understandings and Essential Questions Not sage on the stage Not drill and kill Not memorizing factoids Questions?? What’s next? Plains: Task Writing Workshop I June 19-24, ’05 Middle & High School wrote draft Enduring Understandings and tasks Presently revising and editing 05-06, teachers who wrote to pilot some tasks June 2006 will finalize and prepare for training Plains: Task Writing Workshop II June 25-30, 2006 (K-5) Develop sample Enduring Understandings and sample tasks Refine and try during 06-07 school year Reconvene June 2007 Applications available by email Closing date mid-March Notification 1st week of April firstname.lastname@example.org WHAT IF WE… What if we … Shared concepts with students? Purpose of concept is to help students understand the relationship of historical, geographic, economic, or governmental ideas Schema theory, need scaffolding to hang information on Concepts provide scaffolding What if we … Gave students major concepts at beginning of a course? Spent short amount of time teaching major concepts for the entire course Provide limited examples to expand the concept Organized remainder of year around these concepts? Enriched concepts with examples and facts What if we … Made concepts broad enough to encompass multiple courses/grade levels? Used concepts from other courses or grade levels The student will understand that constitutions are written to define the purpose, functions, organization, and requirements of a government What would happen to student achievement?
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