Biophysical-Semeiotic bed-side Evaluation of Adenopectin in by wpk13069

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									Biophysical-Semeiotic bed-side Evaluation of Adiponectin in classic and variant
                  Pre-Metabolic and Metabolic Syndrome.

                                                         (by Sergio Stagnaro)

  INTRODUCTION. ................................................................................................................................ 1
  ADIPONECTIN ACTIONS IN INFLAMMATION AND ATS. ...................................................................... 1
  ADIPONECTIN IN ATHEROGENESIS ..................................................................................................... 2
  BIOPHYSICAL-SEMEIOTICS WORKING HYPOTHESIS : BED-SIDE EVALUATION OF ADIPONECTIN. ..... 3
  REFERENCES. .................................................................................................................................... 4


Introduction.

         Notoriously obesity is associated with pre- metabolic syndrome late stage and metabolic
syndrome as well as increasing risk for hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and
atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In addition, adipose tissue (more than 10% of the body
weight) is considered to be not only an energy reservoir but also an active endocrine tissue. Indeed,
adipose tissue produces numerous proactive cytokines, the so-called “adipocytokines” (1). Among
these, adiponectin, which is derived only from adipose tissue, circulates at concentrations ranging
from 2 to 30 mg/L., showing a level 103 higher than the concentrations of other major hormones
(e.g. leptin: See URL
http://www.semeioticabiofisica.it/semeioticabiofisica/Do cumenti/Eng/Leptina%20Articolo%20eng
doc), and 106 higher than those of most inflammatory cytokines (e.g. tumor necrosis factor -TNF-
and interleukin, IL-6). it belongs to the soluble collagen superfamily, and has structural homology
with collagen VIII, X, complement factor C1q, and TNF family (2).
         All authors agree with the fact that both C1q and TNF family play important roles in
inflammation, immune system, and atherosclerosis.
         From the above remarks derives the importance of bed-side “quantitative” biophysical-
semeiotic evaluation of adiponectin, possible for the first time thanks to Biophysical Semeiotics, in
individuals involved either by pre- metabolic syndrome (in advanced stage) or metabolic syndrome.


Adiponectin actions in inflammation and ATS.

             Adiponectin has been shown to have many anti- inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects
(3):
       1) suppression of adhesion molecule expression of endothelial NF-kB signaling through the
          activation of cAMP protein kinase A,
       2) suppression of foam cell formation through the inhibition of class A macrophage scavenger
          receptor (SR-A),
       3) inhibition on the proliferation of myelomonocytic lineage cells, and on the function of
          matured macrophages, such as phagocytosis and TNF production,
       4) suppression of the proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells induced by platelet-
          derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB through binding with PDGF-BB directly,
       5) inhibition of p42/44 extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in PDGF-
          BB-stimulated smooth muscle cells,
       6) suppression of the expression of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)- like
          growth factor (HB- EGF) in TNF induced activated endothelial cells and the proliferation
       and migration of smooth muscle cells stimulated by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF),
       PDGF, EGF, and HB-EGF.
   Particularly interesting for our purpose of “clinical” adiponectin biophysical-semeiotic
   assessement, is the
   7) stimulation of nitric oxide (NO) production in endothelial cells through the pathway of
       phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) (3).

        Experimental animal models also showed the association between adiponectin and
atherosclerotic disease, accumulation of adiponectin in the injured vessels but not in non- injured
walls, acceleration of neointimal proliferation of smooth muscle cells in response to injury of
adiponectin-deficient mice, improvement of neointimal proliferation supplemented with adenovirus
expressing adiponectin, reduction of atherosclerotic lesions treated with adenovirus- mediated
adiponectin in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (apoE-KO), and suppression of VCAM-1, SR-A,
and TNF in the aorta during the treatment with adenovirus expressing adiponectin (3).


       Adiponectin in atherogenesis

      Now-a-days there is a general agreement among the authors about the fact that vascular
endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, as I
demonstrated clinically for the first time two decades ago, even in very young individual (4, 5, 6)
(See www.semeioticabiofisica.it, Arteriosclerotic Constitution, and Microcirculatory Theory of
Artheriosclerosis).
        A recent report showed that peak forearm blood flow (FBF) was correlated with adiponectin
levels in healthy subjects (7). The intima- media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery is associated
with not only the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, but also an increased risk of cardiovascular
events. Carotid IMT was significantly correlated with insulin resistance and adiponectin (8),
suggesting that adiponectin might be a useful marker of identifying the early stage of
atherosclerosis.
        Personal biophysical-semeiotic data have corroborated the results of a lot of studies,
showing that plasma levels of adiponectin are significantly decreased in: 1) obese patients, 2) type 2
diabetic patients, 3) coronary artery disease (CAD) patients (9, 10, 11). Interestingly, in patients
with type 2 diabetes, plasma adiponectin levels were shown to be lower in patients with CAD than
in patients without CAD (10). A recent study reported that hypoadiponectinemia was significantly
and independently correlated with CAD even after adjustment for several coronary risk factors (9),
especially, male subjects with hypoadiponectinemia (< 4.0 mg/L) had a 2-fold increase in CAD
prevalence, independent of other coronary risk factors (3).
        It was reported that plasma adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with the CRP
levels in patients with CAD (10). This study also showed that not only was CRP mRNA expressed
in human adipocyte, but also the levels of CRP mRNA in human adipose tissue were correlated
negatively with the levels of adiponectin mRNA in that tissue (11). CRP is generally produced in
the liver, however, a recent study showed the presence of CRP mRNA in atherosclerotic plaques
(12). Therefore, the expression of CRP may be negatively regulated by adiponectin in adipose
tissue. Indeed, the reciprocal relationship was found between adiponectin and TNF on their local
production in adipose tissue.
        Unpublished biophysical-semeiotics results, gathered in individuals involved by CAD real
risk (13, 14) corroborate a recent report, which showed that high plasma adiponectin are associated
with lower risk of myocardial infarction in men without cardiovascular disease (15). This ist really
intriguing bacause until now it has not been ascertained whether the decreased level of adiponectin
in patients with CAD is the cause or the consequence of atherosclerosis, and this is an important
question. The possible mechanisms are 1) decreased production in adipocyte, 2) increased
consumption in blood stream, or 3) both (3).
         In my opinion, based on above-referred biophysical-semeiotic results, the first explanation
is right.
         In anyway, body weight reduction increased plasma adiponectin levels in both diabetic and
non-diabetic subjects (10), and in premenopausal obese women (16).
         In addition, the changes in plasma adiponectin levels were significantly correlated with the
changes in BMI (16). However, regular exercise training without reduction of body weight did not
alter the adiponectin levels in healthy subjects, although insulin sensitivity improved significantly
(17). In my opinion, it seems really interesting that thiazolidinediones, which are synthetic ligands
to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), elevated plasma adiponectin levels in mildly
obese subjects and increased adiponectin levels of both plasma and adipose mRNA expression, in
addition to decreasing of TNF mRNA expression in mice (18). In a former p aper, I referred the
paramount actions of Melatonin- Adenosine, according to Di Bella-Ferrari’s formula,                  in
ameliorating both glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity (19). These results suggest that the
increasing adiponectin is not necessarily a simple consequence of improved insulin resistance in the
clinical settings.
          It was reported that treatment of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II
receptor antagonist increased plasma adiponectin levels in insulin-resistant patients with essential
hypertension (21). Several proposed mechanisms by which renin-angiotensin system (RAS)
inhibition leads to an increase of adiponectin are 1) enhanced insulin sensitivity, 2) recruitment and
differentiation of preadipocytes, and 3) increased transcription and/or translation of adiponectin (3).
Indeed, RAS blockades have been reported to enhance insulin sensitivity, suppression of expression
and secretion of TNF-alfa in adipocytes. Moreover, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) and type 2
receptor (AT2) in adipocyte are expressed during its differentiation (3).



  Biophysical-Semeiotics Working Hypothesis: Bed-Side Evaluation of
Adiponectin.

         I hypothesized that, analogously to leptin (See in above- mentioned site, URL
http://www.semeioticabiofisica.it/semeioticabiofisica/Documenti/Eng/Leptina%20Articolo%20eng
doc), hand stimulation of adipose tissue, lasting about 20 sec., causes also adiponectin release from
adipose tissue. Therefore, it could be possible to assess clinically vasodilation effects, induced by
adiponectin-dependent stimulation and secretion of radical eNO (22, 23).
        The rationale for such as original evaluatio n is the immediate secretion of adiponectin by
adipocytes (mammary gland, abdominal tissue, thigh, a.s.o.) in blood, and its binding to relative
receptors, including endothelial receptors. Adiponectin acts consequently on endothelial cells,
stimulating radical eNO production.
        From the above remarks derives the possibility of “clinical” evaluation of adiponectin with
the aid of Biophysical Semeiotics in very different ways, among them in following only those of
easy practical application will be described, to perform in individuals with pre-metabolic syndrome
in both advanced stages and in overweight or obese people, involved by metabolic syndrome,
classic and variant, the later I described in earlier papers (24-27).
        To assess plasma adiponectin levels, doctor can follow two diverse ways, both reliable, but
different in difficulty, refinement and quantity of information:

       A) When subject to be examined is lying down in supine position, and psycho-physically
relaxed with open eyes, doctor evaluates, firstly, basal finger-pulp microcirculation, i.e., local
oxygenation (Fig.1) (4, 5, 26) by means of fingerpulp-gastric aspecific reflex latency time, which is
in healthy, 8 sec. Then, soon thereafter, doctor stimulates adipose tissue of lateral abdomen or
mamma regions or thigh, with the aid of manual pressure or by “large” pinch, to secrete among
other substances the adiponectin for about 20 sec. (= interstitium appears large  1 cm., and
microcirculation is activated, provoking a statistically significant increas ing of reflex latency time:
12 sec. (23). The difference between th two parameter values parallels plasma adiponectin level. In
fact, in case of adiponectin deficiency (e.g., DM with obesity, ATS) the basal value is generally the
same as the second one.




                                                     Fig.1

             Figure indicates the bell-piece right location and linees upon which auscultatory
    percussion, gently and directly, must be applied to ascertain the great curvature of stomach.



        B) An interesting method usefull in evaluating adiponenctin blood le vel is represented by
assessing the basal arterial compliance (e.g., intensity of arterial- gastric aspecific or -ureteral “in
toto” reflex) (23, 28), and soon therafter tha aboved-mentioned manoeuvre: in healthy, arterial
dilation is statistically increased during the second evaluation, due to the production of eNO,
induced by adiponectin.
        On the contrary, in case of adiponectin deficiency, arterial compliance is clearly impaired, in
comparison with basal impaired parameter value.

       In conclusion, our interest it was to describe an original clinical method reliable in assessing
adiponectin blood level, impaired in overweight and sedentary lifestyle, which is leading to a
dramatic increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. It has been clear, however, that
cardiovascular and overall mortality increase in patients with metabolic syndrome, which is closely
associated with obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Various in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies so far
have shown that adiponectin has anti-diabetic, anti- inflammatory, and anti-atherogenic properties
(3).


References.

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