An Analysis of Fatalities and Injuries Related to Tire by wxr16887

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									  An Analysis of Fatalities
  and Injuries Related to
 Tire Safety at U.S. Mining
         Operations

                   Developed by:

          Jami Girard Dwyer, P.E., C.M.S.P.
                    Mining Engineer
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
            Spokane Research Laboratory
               315 E. Montgomery Ave.
                 Spokane, WA 99207
                    (509)354-8000
                   jdwyer@cdc.gov




                                                        NIOSH Spokane Research Laboratory
Hazards to Maintenance Workers:
Frequent heavy lifting
High pressure hoses and
vessels
Work in awkward or confining
spaces
Exposure to potentially
hazardous substances (oil,
gas, engine fluids, welding
fumes, etc.)
Proximity to moving parts,
hand tools, and machinery.
Maintenance work in non-
optimum conditions (i.e.
servicing equipment in the
mine instead of the shop)
And many more...
           Tire-Related Fatalities

                          Tire explosion which resulted in a fatality

Between 1980 and
the 2nd quarter of
2001, there were 31
tire-related fatalities
in the mining industry



                                              Source: www.msha.gov
            Frequency of Tire-Related Fatalities
            (1980-2001.2)

            4


                                          n = 31
            3

Tire-related fatalities account for a relatively low proportion of
Frequency




occupational fatalities in mining. However, focused safety,
   2
training, and other prevention efforts should effectively eliminate
this cause of death.

            1



            0
                1980
                1981
                1982
                1983
                1984
                1985
                1986
                1987
                1988
                1989
                1990
                1991
                1992
                1993
                1994
                1995
                1996
                1997
                1998
                1999
                2000
                2001
Tire-related fatalities 1980-2001.2

Distribution of 31 fatalities by job-type   Mechanic
                                            Repairman

                                            Master Mechanic


                1   1   1
            2                               Welders

        2
                                            Unknown or NEC
                               21

2                                           Truck Driver

    1
                                            Mine Foreman/Mine
                                            Mgr/Owner

                                            Laborer/Utility
        72% of tire-related fatalities      Man/Pumper

        were to mechanics and               Highlft Opr/Frt End
                                            Loader Opr
        repairmen.
Tire-Related Fatalities
Grouped by Accident Type 1980-2001.2

                                       Tire Fell on
           Explosion                      Victim
             42%                           34%




                                           Other
                       Auxiliary
                                            7%
                        Object
                         17%
   Tire Fatalities
Explosions: In many cases, workers were applying heat to
the rim or lugs which caused an expansion in air pressure in
the tire.

          Safety tips1:
               NEVER apply heat to a rim or rim assembly that has an
               inflated (or deflated) tire mounted on it. Even deflated tires
               may explode.
               Rough terrain, and malfunctioning or excessive braking can
               also cause heat to build up on a tire.
               Personnel should stand out of the trajectory of a tire when
               inflating or inspecting the rim assembly.
               The use of barriers or restraining devices is recommended
               where applicable.
               Do not inflate beyond manufacturer-recommended pressure.
1Tire   and Rim Safety Awareness Program, MSHA Instruction Guide No. 60, 1996
Tire Fatalities
 Tire Fell on Victim: Tire was improperly secured and tipped
 over or fell from a height onto the victim.

 Safety tips:
     Fix tires securely when using boom trucks,
     slings, fork lifts, or bead hooks to move tires.
     Set tires flat on ground or far enough away
     from personnel that if a tire does tip over all
     personnel are clear. Warning: watch for
     rolling tires, and do not walk beneath
     suspended loads!
     Lugs, rims, and other accessories on large
     equipment are heavy enough to cause fatal
     or disabling injuries. Use the same
     precautions with these items.
                                                               SRL photo
Tire Fatalities
 Auxiliary Equipment: Worker was fatally injured when tools or
 equipment used in tire-related activities failed, were used
 improperly, or were the primary source of injury (examples include
 items such as jacks, tire irons, hand tools, boom trucks)

 Safety tips:
     Always use tools in the manner for which they
     are intended.
     Inspect jacks, hydraulic lifts, slings, and chains
     before use.
     Do not work beneath suspended loads or
     equipment.
     Secure vehicle with brakes, chocks, etc. to
     avoid rolling.
     Where possible, work on a clean, dry, flat                       SRL photo
     surface. Maintain shop housekeeping.
All of these safety
tips and more
can be found in
Instruction Guide
60, available from
MSHA.
Tire-Related Injuries
     1995-2001.2
About the injury data...

 Only those records directly linked to tire incidents
 causing reportable, lost-time accidents were
 included in this analysis.
 Injury data time period: 1995-2001.2
About this data            (continued)...


 MSHA accident/illness classifications were used to
 categorize data.
 Lost-time, non-fatal tire-related incidents were found
 in all of the following MSHA classifications:
    “Exploding Vessels Under Pressure”
    “Hand Tools”
    “Falling, Rolling, Sliding Rock or Material of Any Kind”
    “Handling Material”
    “Machinery”
    “Powered Haulage”, and
    “Other”
Distribution of Lost Days
as Reported by Accident Category
Tire-related Injuries 1995-2001.2

                                    Handling
                                    Materials
                                    Hand Tools

                            19%
           56%                      Exploding
                                    Vessels
                                    Machinery
                             16%
                                    Powered
                        6%          Haulage

              <1 %                  Falling, Rolling,
                       3%
                                    Sliding Mat'l.
  Lost Days Summary by Accident Category
  Tire-related Injuries 1995-2001.2

                  % Lost   Lost days   Avg days        Median         # of
                  Days      charged      lost                       Accidents
Handling           56%       7656        31              16            87
Material
Hand Tools         19%       2531        29              12           217

                 16%
Exploding Most lost days     2102        49              28            43
Vessels in “Handling
          Material”                               Most accidents
Machinery         6%         770         23              19            10
                                                  in “Hand Tools”
Powered            3% Highest423         38              29            11
Haulage               average lost
                      days in
Falling/Rolling   <1%         91         46              --            2
                      “Exploding
/Sliding Matl.
                      Vessels”
In summary...

 Multiple analyses of tire-related injury data
 are useful for determining which categories
 have the most lost days, highest accident
 frequencies, and for providing information on
 the types of injuries most likely to occur.
 However, more detailed information about
 what REALLY happened is necessary to
 formulate useful safety interventions and
 effective training programs.
      Data Analysis of Tire-Related Injuries
Hand Tools Injuries                                                       Lost Days (total)                              Frequency

            500                                                                                                                            18
            450                                                                                                                            16
            400                                                                                                                            14
            350
Lost Days




                                                                                                                                           12
            300
                                                                                                                                           10
            250
                                                                                                                                           8
            200
            150                                                                                                                            6
            100                                                                                                                            4
             50                                                                                                                            2
              0                                                                                                                            0




                                                                                                                      Trunk, NEC
                                                                   Hips




                                                                                                                                   Wrist
                                                                             Leg, NEC




                                                                                                               Toes
                                                  Fingers
                                   Elbow
                            Back




                                                                                                    Multiple
                                                            Hand
                  Abdomen




                                           Face




                                                                                        Lower Leg
                                                             Body Part
 Questions?

Contact:

Jami (Girard) Dwyer,
Mining Engineer
NIOSH – Spokane Research Lab
315 E. Montgomery Ave.
Spokane, WA 99207
(509)354-8000
Email: JDwyer@cdc.gov

								
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