Natural Gas - PowerPoint by fjwuxn


									M. L. Anderson, 2009
 In its natural form it is
  colorless, shapeless, and
                                     Natural Gas
 Natural gas is very flammable,
  and gives off a great deal of
  energy when lit.
 Unlike fossil fuels, natural gas
  is clean burning and doesn’t
  release harmful byproducts
  into the air.
 Natural gas is an important
  component in the world’s
  supply of energy.
 Being the most useful of all
  energies, it is also one of the
  safest and cleanest.
   Raw gas is a mixture of different
   The main ingredient (70-90%) in
    natural gas is methane: CH4.
   The other components are
    Ethane, Propane, Butane, CO2,
    O2, Nitrogen and more.
   Methane is odorless and colorless.
   So, why does natural gas smell?
                                           Natural Gas Wellhead
    Because the gas company adds a
    chemical called mercaptan, which
    gives natural gas that funny sulfur-
    like or rotten egg odor so that
    escaping gas can be detected.
What is it used for?

           Natural gas is used in furnaces,
           stoves, water heaters, clothes dryers,
           and other appliances.
           The fuel also supplies energy for
           numerous industrial processes and
           provides raw materials for making
           many products that we use every day.
Vital Uses
   Natural Gas, when delivered to a home is almost
    all methane.
   Natural Gas is primarily used to heat homes, cook
    food, and generate electricity.
Environmentally Friendly Uses
 Fewer Emissions than oil
 Reduced Sludge
 Re-burning
 Cogeneration
 Combined Cycle Generation
 Fuel Cells
How Gas Is Formed
How is natural gas formed?
   Natural gas is a fossil fuel
    that has been formed from
    the remains of plants,
    animals, and microorganisms
    that lived millions and
    millions of years ago. There
    are few theories to the origins
    of fossil fuels, the most
    accepted theory states that
    fossil fuels are formed when
    the remains of plants and
    animals are compressed
    under the earth at very high
    pressure for a very long time.
   This is referred to as
    thermogenic methane—it is
    formed from organic particles
    that are covered in mud and
    other sediments which piled
    on top of these particles over
    millions and millions of years.

 Natural gas was a big mystery to early man.
 For example, when lightning strikes it would ignite
  natural gas seeping out of the earth’s crust.
 This would create fire burning from within the earth
  puzzling most early civilizations.
 The most famous of these events occurred in
  Ancient Greece at 1000 B.C.
    History (Continued)

 A goat herdsman saw a flame coming out of a fissure
  in the rock.
 The Greeks believed it was sacred so they built a
  temple over it.
 The temple was home to the Oracle of Delphi, she
  gave prophecies that were inspired by the flame.

 Around 500 B. C the Chinese were the first to discovered the
  potential use of these fires and use it to their advantage. They
  would form pipelines made out of bamboo shoots to transport
  natural gas and use it to boil water, separating the salt and
  making it drinkable.
 1859—Colonel Edwin Drake dug the first well. He hit oil and
  natural gas at 69ft below the surface of the earth
    Natural Gas Firsts

   Britain was the first country to commercialize natural gas
    at around 1785.
   In 1785, it was used to light houses and streets for the
    first time.
    1816—gas was first brought to the United State and it
    was used to light the streets of Baltimore, Maryland.
    1626—gas was discovered and identified in America by
    French explorers around Lake Erie. America natural gas
    industry got its beginnings from this area.
   1821—William Hart dug a 27 foot well in Fredonia, New
    York due to gas bubbles he noticed rising to the surface of
    a creek ―Father of Natural Gas”
 Natural gas usually gets
  through the ground and into
  the atmosphere when the
  ground is loose.
 But natural gas can get
  trapped due to domes of
  sedimentary rock.
 Faults are a common area for
  oil and gas deposits to exist.
 The gas is a by-product of oil
  formation and sits atop the oil
  deposit within a trap, where it
  cannot escape naturally.
               How Is Natural Gas
              Stored and Delivered?

Natural gas is moved by pipelines from the producing fields to
       How Is Natural Gas
      Stored and Delivered?
 Since natural gas demand is
  greater in the winter, gas is stored
  along the way in large
  underground storage systems,
  such as old oil and gas wells or
  caverns formed in old salt beds.
 The gas remains there until it is
  added back into the pipeline when
  people begin to use more gas,
  such as in the winter to heat
 When chilled to very cold
  temperatures, approximately -
  260o F, natural gas changes into a
  liquid and can be stored in this
 What is a pipeline?

One of the most important components of the infrastructure in the
industrialized world is the vast network of pipelines and process
piping—literally millions and millions of miles.
The term “pipelines” generally refers to the network of pipelines
that transport water, sewage, steam, and gaseous and liquid
hydrocarbons from sources for reservoirs, steam plants, oil and ga
wells, and refineries to local distribution centers called transmission
pipelines, and to the network of pipelines that distribute such
products to local markets and end users called distribution
Natural Gas and the Environment
Natural gas burns more cleanly than other fossil fuels. It has
fewer emissions of sulfur, carbon, and nitrogen than coal or oil,
and when it is burned, it leaves almost no ash particles. Being
a clean fuel is one reason that the use of natural gas,
especially for electricity generation, has grown so much and is
expected to grow even more in the future.

 There are environmental concerns with the use of any fuel.
As with other fossil fuels, burning natural gas produces carbon
dioxide which is a very important greenhouse gas.
 Many scientists believe that increasing levels of carbon
dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere
are changing the global climate.
 Because natural gas is made up mostly of methane
(another greenhouse gas), small amounts of methane can
sometimes leak into the atmosphere from wells, storage tanks
and pipelines.
                       Automobiles     Acid Rain

Smokestack Emissions

                                 Types of
 1938 – The U.S. government was first regulated the natural gas
 The Natural Gas Act was established to protect consumers for high
  gas prices.
 The Clean Air Act did much to reduce atmospheric Emissions in the
Pipeline Distribution

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