Voice Response Translator (VRT) Support for Prototype Development by txi18521

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									The author(s) shown below used Federal funds provided by the U.S.
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Document Title:        Voice Response Translator (VRT): Support for
                       Prototype Development and Results of Initial
                       Field Testing

Author(s):             Training Systems Division - Orlando Naval Air
                       System Command

Document No.:          205570

Date Received:         May 2004

Award Number:          2002-LB-R-045 ; 97-IJ-R-042



This report has not been published by the U.S. Department of Justice.
To provide better customer service, NCJRS has made this Federally-
funded grant final report available electronically in addition to
traditional paper copies.


             Opinions or points of view expressed are those
             of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect
               the official position or policies of the U.S.
                         Department of Justice.
                            Voice Response Translator (VRT)

                         Support for Prototype Development
                                        and
                           Results of Initial Field Testing



                                                     Prepared for:

                                      Office of Science & Technology
                                        National Institute of Justice




                                                              By:

                            Naval Air Systems Command
                         Training Systems Division - Orlando
                               12350 Research Parkway
                                Orlando, Florida 32826




                                                    December 2003




This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
                                                         DISCLAIMER

     The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily reflect
     those of the United States Government.

     Reference herein to any specific commercial products, processes, or services by
     trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily
     constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United
     States Government.

     The information and statements contained in this report shall not be used for the
     purposes of advertising, nor to imply the endorsement or recommendation of the
     United States Government.

     With respect to this report, neither the United States Government nor any of its
     employees make any warranty, express or implied, including but not limited to
     the warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Further,
     neither the United States Government nor any of its employees assume any legal
     liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any
     information, apparatus, product or process disclosed; nor do they represent that
     its use would not infringe privately owned rights.

     This research was supported under Interagency Agreements 97-IJ-R-042 and
     2002-LB-R-045 with the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs,
     National Institute of Justice. The products, manufacturers, and organizations
     discussed in this publication are presented for informational purposes only and
     do not constitute product approval or endorsement by the National Institute of
     Justice, or the U.S. Department of Justice.




This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
                                                            TABLE OF CONTENTS
        DISCLAIMER....................................................................................................................................................2
        BACKGROUND................................................................................................................................................4
        NAVAIR ORL TSD ROLE................................................................................................................................4
        TRAINING MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT .....................................................................................................5
        HARDWARE / SOFTWARE IMPROVEMENTS AND MODIFICATIONS ..................................................6
          Initial Observations Related To Hardware ....................................................................................................6
          Laboratory And Field Tests Of Microphones .................................................................................................9
          Modifications Resulting From The Field Tests For Microphones..................................................................9
        FIELD EVALUATIONS BY LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS ................................................................12
        EVALUATION FINDINGS..............................................................................................................................13
        SUMMARY OF IMPROVEMENTS AND MODIFICATIONS ......................................................................15
        ACTIVITIES AND ADDITIONAL RESEARCH ............................................................................................17
          Linguist Analysis Of The Non-Recognition Problem.....................................................................................17
          Potential Solution For Mimicking Prompts Problem ....................................................................................18
          Comparisons With Other Hand Held Translator Devices (Phraselator, Ut-30, Pda’s).................................19
                Phraselator .............................................................................................................................................19
                UT-103 ..................................................................................................................................................20
                PDA/IPAQ.............................................................................................................................................20
          Summary Of Comparisons.............................................................................................................................20
        FLEET/COAST GUARD INTEREST ..............................................................................................................22
        FUTURE WORK/RECOMMENDATIONS.....................................................................................................23

                                                                     LIST OF TABLES

     Table 1.        Summary Analysis of Problem Commands from Crown Microphone Field Test.....10
     Table 2.        Summary of Field Evaluation ....................................................................................................14
     Table 3.        Summary of Problems Encountered and Improvements/Modifications....................16
     Table 4.        A Top Rank Comparison of Hand Held Translators ..........................................................21

                                                                    LIST OF FIGURES

     Figure 1. Second Version of the Prototype VRT Device ............................................................... 7
     Figure 2. Gray VRT with Original Microphone ................................................................................ 7
     Figure 3. Goose Neck Microphone and Bullhorn..........................................................................11
     Figure 4. VRT Mounted on Citation Book .......................................................................................11
     Figure 5. Detail of Added Features on Enhanced VRT ...............................................................21

                                              APPENDICES
     Appendix                                                                                                                           Page
     Appendix A Voice Response Translator.............................................................................................A-1
     Appendix B Law Enforcement Command Card..................................................................................B-1
     Appendix C Lecture Notes on How to Use The VRT .........................................................................C-1
     Appendix D Field Evaluation Questionnaire.......................................................................................D-1
     Appendix E Microphone Test Results ................................................................................................E-1
     Appendix F Linguist Corrected Law Enforcement Commands ..........................................................F-1
     Appendix G Programming the VRT ....................................................................................................G-1
     Appendix H Voice Response Translator Field Assessment Results..................................................H-1
     Appendix I VRT Modification Drawings ..............................................................................................I-1




This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     BACKGROUND

     The Voice Response Translator (VRT) is a speaker-dependent, one-way translator
     designed to assist Law Enforcement Officers in communicating with non-English
     speaking individuals. The prototype device is being developed by Integrated Wave
     Technologies, Inc, (IWT) and Eagan, McAllister Associates (EMA) through funding from
     the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). The VRT uses voice recognition technologies
     developed in the former Soviet Union. The device, on initial operation, requires users to
     “program” or “train” the unit to their voice patterns for specific “trigger” phrases. When
     spoken, the VRT will respond to the trigger phrase with an audio (recorded human voice)
     translation in a complete command or sentence, in the selected language. For example:
     if the user is working in Spanish and says “registration” as the trigger phrase the device’s
     response would be “Puedo ver la registracion del vehiculo?” (May I see the vehicle
     registration?). Because the device uses voice recognition, success in the field is highly
     dependent on the user saying the trigger phrases with the same inflection and volume as
     recorded at the time of programming.

     This report summarizes the activities of the Naval Air Systems Command Orlando
     Training Systems Division (NAVAIR ORL TSD) (formerly the Naval Air Warfare Center
     Training Systems Division – NAWCTSD) related to the evolution of the prototype Voice
     Response Translator. It provides a record of NAVAIR ORL TSD's efforts in support of
     NIJ and documents the results of field evaluations of the VRT conducted in Central
     Florida from May 2001 to May 2002.

     NAVAIR ORL TSD ROLE

     NIJ and NAVAIR ORL TSD signed an Interagency Agreement in 1997, enabling
     collaborative efforts such as those involving the VRT. NAVAIR ORL TSD researchers
     and training experts became involved in NIJ’s VRT project in the Spring of 2000 when
     NIJ requested assistance in the development of training materials for law enforcement
     officers who would be participating in the field evaluations of the VRT. The first device
     tested by NAVAIR ORL TSD included 50 phrases recorded in three languages
     (Cantonese, Vietnamese, and Spanish), and ran on small (286-class) processors (see
     Figure 1). The device could be programmed for a single user at that time. Over the
     four-year period of development and evaluation, the number of users per device has
     grown to eight and the number of phrases has expanded to approximately 200 covering
     a variety of situations/events including:

          •    Initial greetings
          •    Crowd control
          •    Field interviews
          •    Victim interviews
          •    Medical assistance
          •    Domestic issues
          •    Lost children
          •    Traffic stops
          •    Driving Under the Influence (DUI).




This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     During the course of developing the training materials, NAVAIR ORL TSD identified
     hardware and software challenges with the device. NAVAIR ORL TSD worked with IWT
     and NIJ to help resolve the design and engineering issues and assumed the lead role for
     training potential users and conducting field evaluations with law enforcement officers.
     Training requirements and training materials were developed concurrently with
     improvements and modifications of the device. As engineers tested the device and
     developed recommendations for modifications, the areas of training development and
     software engineering began to overlap. Details regarding software/hardware
     improvements and modifications are provided later in this report. During this time, the
     device was also introduced to several military units and to the Coast Guard.

     TRAINING MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT

     In the fall of 2000, NAVAIR ORL TSD was asked to develop training materials that would
     enhance an officer’s ability to operate the VRT device without assistance. At that time,
     the phrases were already categorized into eight situations. IWT provided NAVAIR ORL
     TSD with printed materials (some of which were used by Nashville Metro Police in earlier
     testing) and NIJ requested that IWT provide a device to NAVAIR ORL TSD for use in the
     development of training materials.

     NAVAIR ORL TSD reviewed the initial materials and recommended the refinement of
     performance support materials (in lieu of a training product) designed to help the officers
     quickly access the 200 trigger phrases. There were instructional reasons for this
     approach. As the officers would use some phrases infrequently, retention of the phrases
     could become a major issue. Furthermore, phrases learned and programmed in the
     device under classroom type conditions would have to be recalled and spoken in exactly
     the same manner while the officers were working on the streets. It was determined that
     most officers would be unable to recall all of the exact words/phrases in order to operate
     the VRT properly on the street. For an officer to recall the exact words for a given
     phrase under stressful conditions would be even more difficult (e.g., “Door Open”, or
     “Open Door”?). Phrases used infrequently would be even more difficult or, in many
     cases, impossible to recall under stressful situations.

     NIJ concurred with the recommendation and NAVAIR ORL TSD developed two
     performance support tools for officers to use. The first is the Evaluation Guide
     (Appendix A), which provides user directions for initial voice recordings (programming) of
     trigger phrases, tips for using the device, and a synopsis of situations/events where the
     device could be helpful. All of the directions needed to use the device were developed
     and tested in-house at NAVAIR ORL TSD. This was to ensure user success with
     following the instructions in the Evaluation Guide to record the voice commands and
     subsequent successful operation of the VRT in the operational environment. Color-
     coded Command Cards (Appendix B) were further developed to assist the officer in
     recalling the trigger words and phrases. The color codes arranged commands or trigger
     phrases into four categories:

               Black for the Event (Situation) Command Titles
               Blue for commands having to do with paperwork such as “Warrants,”
                     “Car Registration,” “Insurance,” etc.
               Green for conversational applications such as “Hello,” “Thank you,”
                     “Was the Suspect Bald?” etc.
               Red for emergencies, such as “Hands Up” “Stop Police,”




This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
                         “Does He Have a Weapon?” etc.

     The commands within each event (situation) were arranged into sequential order of use.
     For example, officers ordered the Traffic Stop commands to begin with, “Turn Off
     Engine” followed by “Step out of the Vehicle.” “May I have your Driver’s License please”
     is followed with “Take it Out of Your Wallet Please,” and “Your Vehicle Registration
     Please” is followed with “The Registration is Not Current.” Other arrangements of the
     200 commands, such as alphabetical within each situation/event had been tried but
     proved more difficult to use than the sequential order. Once finalized, the Graphics
     Department at NAVAIR ORL TSD completed the production work for the User’s Guide
     and the Command Cards (Appendices A and B).

     NAVAIR ORL TSD also recommended the development of introductory training for VRT
     users assisting with the field tests. The training is designed for approximately two hours
     duration with an instructor/student ratio of 1-8. The purpose of this session is to
     familiarize officers with the Evaluation Guide, the VRT device, and the Command Cards.
     Officers also receive assistance in programming the trigger phrases and guidance for
     troubleshooting problems in the field. Two additional tools were developed to assist in
     the training and evaluation: Lecture Notes for the Training Session (Appendix C) and a
     field-testing feedback questionnaire for law enforcement officers (Appendix D).

     HARDWARE / SOFTWARE IMPROVEMENTS AND MODIFICATIONS

     Design and production challenges emerged as NAVAIR ORL TSD prepared the VRTs
     for the field evaluations. Improvements made by NAVAIR ORL TSD engineers and
     technicians in the laboratory included a new microphone, improved LED colors and
     wiring, and standardization of the software. Other needed improvements were identified
     during the field tests with law enforcement officers. Throughout this process,
     recommendations were provided to NIJ and IWT and the improvements needed were
     made prior to completion of the field evaluations. The remainder of this section provides
     a detailed history of this process.

     Initial Observations Related To Hardware

     NAVAIR ORL TSD received a VRT from NIJ May 15, of 2000. The device was slightly
     larger than the current pocket-sized version and was blue in color (see Figure 1). (Note:
     This was the second version of the VRT but the first one received at NAVAIR ORL TSD.)
     This unit arrived with a faulty battery circuit. After laboratory trials, it was determined
     that the unit was unable to hold more than two recordings on a battery charge. These
     problems were reported to NIJ and IWT agreed to provide a new battery charger. A
     charger was shipped and arrived within 2 days. However, the new charger did not
     correct the problem. NAVAIR ORL TSD technicians fashioned an AC/DC adapter and
     determined that, even when powered, the unit was still not able to record voice
     commands. NIJ, IWT, and NAVAIR ORL TSD all agreed the unit was dysfunctional.




This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
                             Figure 1. Second Version of the Prototype VRT Device.

     An additional unit was shipped. This VRT was gray in color and had a clip on
     microphone (see Figure 2). The unit had only crowd control and traffic stop
     situations/events recorded. A flash memory card with a more complete set of the
     commands was sent from IWT but a check of the translated phrases revealed some
     translation inaccuracies. In July of 2000, NAVAIR ORL TSD was approved to begin
     recording revisions of the inaccurate Vietnamese, Cantonese, and Spanish translations.




                                   Figure 2. Gray VRT with Original Microphone.

     During in-house testing, the device developed a problem retaining the user’s recorded
     situations/event commands. It was determined that flash memory was the problem, and
     the device was returned to IWT for repair. In August of 2000, a new Project Manager
     was assigned at NIJ. The new Project Manager shipped three VRT units to NAVAIR
     ORL TSD in September 2000. Again, it was discovered that both the software and the




This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     commands were different from earlier versions. IWT used the terms “Nashville version”
     and "IWT version" to differentiate between the two. Apparently, changes had been




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the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     made to the original IWT version after some preliminary field tests with officers in
     Nashville.

     Laboratory And Field Tests Of Microphones

     During laboratory testing the NAVAIR ORL TSD sound engineer identified the need for
     improved microphone performance. Initial comparisons of some off-the-shelf
     microphones with the standard VRT microphone provided confirmation that improved
     performance was achievable. For example, an off-the-shelf, Radio Shack lapel
     microphone priced at $15.00 had better reception and better noise reduction than the
     original VRT microphone. Based on this finding, NIJ approved laboratory and field
     evaluations of several off-the-shelf microphones (Appendix E).

     The laboratory tests were conducted in a sound studio, so the findings included a report
     of the maximum allowable background decibels before a microphone cuts out,
     microphone ranges and modifications needed for each microphone, etc. The Crown
     CM-311A/E microphone had the best noise immunity of those tested and also had fair
     ability to recognize changing voice inflection.

     Field-testing of several microphones followed the laboratory tests. The field tests were
     conducted on a residential street with 25-30 mph traffic passing by as often as every
     eight seconds and up to 90-second intervals without traffic (Appendix E). Decibel ratings
     ranged from very quiet to up to 85 decibels when large trucks passed by. None of the
     microphones tested were able to operate when decibel readings exceeded 90 decibels.
     However, even if the microphones could have operated under these conditions, an
     individual would not have been able to hear the translated phrase (a 85-90 decibel
     output at 36 inches) over the ambient 90-decibel noise.

     One field test involved a patrol car (with the Crown Microphone, CM 311A/E) to
     determine any problems that might result from road noise, wind noise, and general
     abuse. On a busy six-lane highway, commands sometimes had to be repeated several
     times, but no commands were processed incorrectly. Sometimes a command simply
     could not be recognized, i.e., “situation” and "translate.” On a six-lane divided highway
     with heavy traffic, the unit was found to be reliable under typical working conditions of a
     patrol officer. Further tests were conducted to determine if a VRT in an officer's pocket
     would experience interference problems from operational radios. Those test results
     were negative.

     Modifications Resulting From The Field Tests For Microphones

     Field tests of microphones resulted in the identification of several issues that led to
     additional modifications in the hardware, software, and training materials. For example:
     the microphone jack broke off one of the units during the trials. This led to a modification
     in the design of the joints.

     A second example occurred as the result of the VRT's consistent difficulty with long
     phrases. Eighty percent of the failures were multi-word commands (Appendix E). It was
     hypothesized that shorter one-word commands might work better, since there was less
     chance for different speed and inflection of pronunciation. IWT later confirmed this
     hypothesis, explaining that a ¼-second gap between words is discerned as the start of a
     new command by the unit. The Lecture Notes and Evaluation Guide were modified to



This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     include this finding. (Note: Later in the project, additional insight was gained regarding
     the role of voiced and unvoiced sounds from a linguistic viewpoint. See Linguistic
     Review section of report and Appendix F.)

     A portion of the microphone field test results is presented in Table 1. As seen in this
     Table, 95% of the problem commands were made up of multiple words and 66% were
     comprised of unvoiced components (see Linguist Analysis section). All of the problem
     phrases that also subsequently failed in laboratory tests were comprised of unvoiced
     components.

                        Table 1. Summary Analysis of Problem Commands from
                                    Crown Microphone Field Test

          Situation/Event                           Not Recognized                            Repeats Required
     Medical                                   Chest Hurt * **                            She Drugs **
                                               You Shot **
     Traffic Stop                              Driver's License
                                               Write Name
     Field Interview                           Hands Behind* **                           Door Open
                                                                                          Hands Visible **
                                                                                          Arrest Warrant
     Crowd Control                                                                        Tear Gas
     Found Child                               Lost Before                                Police Before
                                               Father Work **                             Mother Coming * **
     Domestic                                  Kids in Danger * **                        He Strike **
                                               File Complaint **                          Hit Before * **
     Greetings                                 Negative
     Interview Victim                          How Tall * **                              Pants Color **

     *        Six Commands not recognized in subsequent laboratory tests, all six
              (100%) later identified as having Unvoiced Components
     **       14 of 21 (66%) Commands were later identified as having Unvoiced components
     Italics: Only single-word Problem Phrase, all others (95%) were Multi-Word Commands

     An additional hardware modification resulting from the microphone field tests was the
     development of the option for a citation book adaptation. During the field-testing period,
     NAVAIR ORL TSD was also conducting interviews with Police Officers for feedback
     regarding the Evaluation Guide and to determine general acceptance for the guide.
     There was little support for a completely hands-free device as most officers preferred not
     to have another piece of equipment on their belts or in their pockets. As an alternative
     the device was mounted onto a citation or modified “ticket-book.” These devices were
     also equipped with adjustable gooseneck microphones. This adaptation ensured the
     microphone would be in place whether the device was used with a bullhorn (Figure 3) or
     a citation book (Figure 4) and would be suitable for the hands-free (wearable) pocket
     version.




This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
                              Figure 3. VRT, Goose Neck Microphone and Bullhorn.




                                       Figure 4. VRT Mounted on Citation Book.

     Another issue that emerged during the early testing period was that of standardization.
     This was due to the fact that improvements and advancements were being incorporated
     as the product evolved. In October 2000, nineteen new units arrived from NIJ. The
     units had three different hardware configurations and required reprogramming to provide
     consistency and reliability with the commands across the units. At that time, NAVAIR
     ORL TSD had received a total of 25 units, with four different versions of the software
     program and three different hardware configurations. Out of 25 units, ten units appeared
     to be identical, but tests revealed that the indicator lights functioned differently during
     use. The 25 units were modified so that they had the same hardware configuration
     (Appendix I), same phrases and trigger cues (Appendix F), the same eight-user option
     executable directory (Appendix G), the same indicator light configuration (see Figure 5),
     the same microphones (CM 311A/E), and the same (minimum 32mb) memory capacity.




This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     NAVAIR ORL TSD ordered a newer version of the 311A/E Crown microphone that had
     reduced the noise reduction circuitry from the size of a small wallet to less than an eighth
     of an inch in diameter on the microphones wire harness. After testing the engineer
     recommended the model with smaller circuitry be used in all subsequent field tests and
     evaluations. The later version incorporated the electronics into the wiring between the
     microphone and the receiving device, eliminating the requirement for the user to wear
     any additional equipment when using the Crown Microphone. The change in
     microphones was approved by NIJ for all devices in December 2000.

     NIJ also approved the evaluation design in December 2000. This included the
     evaluation guide, command cards, lecture notes, and feedback questionnaire for law
     enforcement officers using the VRT (Appendices A-D). At that time, NIJ requested that
     NAVAIR ORL TSD proceed with the field evaluations.

     Subsequent to NIJ's request to initiate field tests, IWT added new commands for two
     new events (Routine, Custody). The decision was made not to include these in the field
     tests since the command cards, evaluation guide, and training literature had already
     been printed. At about the same time IWT introduced a version of the program that
     could support ten languages (with purchase of new 64MB Compact Flash cards).
     Rather than pursue additional translations for six new languages, it was decided to
     proceed with an evaluation of ten units. Then as NAVAIR ORL TSD technicians
     replicated the units; others were to be added to the field evaluation as they became
     available.

     FIELD EVALUATIONS BY LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS

     The first field evaluations were conducted with the West Palm Beach, FL Police
     Department (PD). Five officers received the citation book version of the VRT and three
     officers received a hands-free, wearable version. All eight units were programmed with
     commands in Cantonese, Vietnamese, and Spanish. The translations for all languages
     were complete and had been verified.

     During the initial evaluation period, West Palm Beach PD requested the addition of
     Creole translations. NIJ approved this change as an opportunity to learn and document
     how to make such modifications. At the end of the initial three-week evaluation period,
     NAVAIR ORL TSD personnel returned to West Palm Beach to collect the officers’
     reactions and comments. At that time, NAVAIR ORL TSD technicians recorded and
     reprogrammed the language software (substituting Creole for Cantonese) on three units.
     The time required for recording, editing and loading the Creole onto three units was
     about 12 hours, and a local police officer who spoke Creole provided the translations.
     (Instructions for programming the VRT were documented at this session and are
     provided in Appendix G.) The three units with Creole were left with the officers at West
     Palm Beach PD to complete their evaluation. After the West Palm Beach addition of
     Creole, all units to be used in the field tests were modified to include all four languages.
     Additionally, based on officer feedback from the initial testing period, all units were
     enhanced with low battery indicator lights, “on” indicator lights and bullhorn jacks (See
     Figure 5).

     The VRT was then evaluated at six different Central and Southern Florida law
     enforcement agencies (West Palm Beach Police Department again, Seminole County
     Sheriff’s Office, Oviedo Police Department, Orange County Sheriff’s Office, Pinellas




This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     County Sheriff's Office and the Ocala Police Department). Officers were provided with
     approximately two hours of training, including approximately five to ten minutes of one-
     on-one, on-site coaching by NAVAIR ORL TSD psychologists (see Appendix C, Lecture
     Notes). One-on-one proficiency checks were conducted to help reduce street-related
     problems experienced in earlier stages of the evaluation. Each officer also received the
     Evaluation Guide, Command Cards, and a VRT unit (mounted on a citation book or the
     hands-free, wearable version). A total of 27 VRT units were distributed. Over a period
     of approximately 3 weeks, 23 of the 27 officers were able to use the device. The officers
     generally worked four days per week, depending on their department’s shift schedule.
     Thus, the total field evaluation time was 276 days (23 Officers x 4 days x 3 weeks) of on-
     the-street use of the device. (The remaining four devices were found to be dysfunctional
     by the officers and the NAVAIR ORL TSD technicians confirmed this finding when the
     units were returned.) NAVAIR ORL TSD then conducted interviews with the officers in
     person or via telephone to complete the evaluation questionnaire (Appendix D).


                                                              1.    Microphone (Speak into Foam Side.) *
                                                              2.    Voice Volume Indicator Light
                                                              3.    On Indicator Light *
                                                              4.    On/Off Switch
                                                              5.    Red User ID Button, Push 1 Second for On Standby Mode, 10
                                                                    Seconds for Restart Initial Training



                                                              6.    Bullhorn Jack *
                                                              7.    Low Battery Light *
                                                              8.    Battery Re-Charger Connection (12 Volt Charge) *
                                                              9.    Speaker

                                                              * NAVAIR ORL TSD MODIFICATIONS




                              Figure 5. Detail of Added Features on Enhanced VRT.

     EVALUATION FINDINGS

     During the training sessions for officers participating in the field evaluations, it was noted
     that important tips on using the device were best delivered via modeling the behaviors,
     rather than having the officers read the guide alone. The officers did generally not use
     the written instructions regarding vocal volume levels or how to hold the device. (This
     finding is not unusual as many people skip or skim operating instructions and user
     manuals when first using new appliances, technology, or software.) Communicating
     how closely to hold the microphone to one’s mouth was most effectively conveyed with
     modeled demonstrations. For this reason, consideration should be given to developing
     an instructional video demonstrating how to hold, use, speak into, and control the device
     for potential users who may not have the benefit of one-on-one instruction or who might
     need refresher training.

     The evaluation questionnaire and interviews were conducted to obtain data related to
     engineering issues as well as how the VRT was used in the field. A summary of the




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the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     questionnaire results can be found in Table 2 with detailed results provided at Appendix
     H.

     Table 2. Summary of Field Evaluation

     Question                                Summary Results                              Further Analysis
     1. Problems with                        56 % reported problems                       • 15 % (2 units) confirmed as
        recording voice.                        see breakdown at right                        faulty devices
                                                                                          • 15 % (2 users) attributed to
                                             44 % reported no problems                        failure to follow directions
                                                                                          • 70 % attributed to device
                                                                                              sensitivity to phrasing/
                                                                                              volume/accents
     2. Time required to                     65 % required less than one                  Of the 35% who did not become
        become comfortable                   day                                          proficient with the VRT:
        with VRT.                            35 % did NOT achieve a                       • 2 confirmed faulty devices
                                             “comfort” level                              • 2 failed to follow directions
     3. Clarity of Evaluation                100 % reported guide clear                   • Lecture materials added
        Guide
     4. Where used and                       Most tried to use in multiple                •    11 officers used indoors
        conditions.                          conditions -- indoors,                       •    11 used outdoors
                                             outdoors, traffic, varying                   •    9 officers used in traffic
                                             weather conditions                           •    2 used with crowds
     5. Number of days the                   Varied from 7 to 14 days                     •    Total number of days in field
        officer had the device.                                                                evaluation was 276
     6. Total number of times                Range from 0 – 20                            •    Average three opportunities
        used for police work.                                                                  per officer
     7. Languages used                       Positive tests of all                        •    14 used Spanish
                                             languages in restaurants and                 •    2 used Creole
                                             homes                                        •    1 used Vietnamese
     8. Situations/events                    Device used in all situations                •    Traffic stops 40 %
        where VRT was used.                                                               •    Greetings 9 %
                                                                                          •    Other situations/events 3%
     9. VRT problem areas.                   Problems reported 35 times                   •    Microphone failure to pick up
                                             in 78 uses in the field. Only                     voice most common problem
                                             six of 23 respondents                        •    Unreliable in noise and with
                                             reported no problems                              unvoiced commands
     10. Recommendations for                 Wide range of ideas and                      •    Volume switch most
         VRT                                 recommendations                                   requested feature
                                                                                          •    Others see Appendix H
     11. Recommended                         Most common shortcomings                     •    Driving Under Influence
         Commands                            identified were DUI and Lost                 •    Please Write Date of Birth
                                             Driver’s License situations                  •    Miranda Rights
                                                                                          •    Permission Weapons Search
                                                                                          •    Ability to give directions

     The highest use reported involved traffic stops with the VRT successfully assisting in 31
     cases. The VRTs were also used more than once in each of these situations/events:




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               •    Found child
               •    Medical emergency
               •    Interview victims of crimes
               •    Field interviews
               •    Domestic disputes
               •    Crowd control

     Officer feedback also indicated the need for additional phrases to assist in DUI arrest
     procedures and in searching for a record of a lost driver’s license (DL). Search
     parameters require a birth date and State in which the Drivers License was issued.

     Officers unable to use the device often stated it was too sensitive to voice inflection and
     phrasing (see Table 2, question 9). One officer who was very soft spoken demonstrated
     how his voice changed inflection and tone when on the street. This change in voice tone
     and volume rendered the device unable to recognize the commands he had recorded in
     his normal (off the street) soft-spoken tone of voice. Those with distinctive ethnic
     dialects or varied speech patterns/accents also had considerable trouble getting the
     device to recognize their commands, as they seemingly varied their speech patterns
     somewhat randomly. One officer, who spoke Hebrew as his first language, was unable
     to get the device to work at all using English spoken commands. This may have been
     the result of his tendency to mimic the pre-recorded voice during recording and
     verification. When he recorded the trigger phrases in his native Hebrew, he reported
     that the device worked “extremely well.”

     The tendency to mimic the pre-recorded English voice appeared to be natural during the
     recording and verification phases of training the device. However, when using the
     device, there is no such prompt, and many officers were simply unable to recall exactly
     how they had mimicked a given command. This may be due in part to the fact that some
     of the commands are prompted as a question, with an upward inflection at the end of the
     phrases while others are spoken as statements. When officers were asked to state the
     troublesome key phrase as a question, they were more successful in the operation of the
     device.

     A final finding was that approximately half of the twenty-three officers were interested in
     continuing use of the device. Those that wished to continue using the device reported it
     was useful, user-friendly, and that the device enabled them to handle many situations
     that otherwise would have required a translator. The rest of the officers (again about
     half) had reported that they found it difficult to operate, and consequently opted not to
     use it. In summary: the officers were either strongly positive about the device, or
     extremely negative about it, depending on how user-friendly they found it to be.

     SUMMARY OF IMPROVEMENTS AND MODIFICATIONS

     Table 3 is a summary of the improvements and modifications made to the VRT as a
     result of laboratory and/or field tests. Both hardware and software changes are included
     and detailed in Appendix I.




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        Table 3. Summary of Problems Encountered and Improvements/Modifications

                      PROBLEM                                          IMPROVEMENT / MODIFICATION
     1. Users inadvertently drain battery                           Power On indicator
     2. Loss of power without warning                               Low Battery indicator
     3. Inconsistent Light Emitting Diode (LED)                     Standardized LED colors and wiring
        color and functions
     4. Insufficient volume output                                  Audio output jack and bull horn added
     5. Need to charge unit when not near 120                       12 volt recharging unit on circuit board &
        volt source (i.e., in police vehicle)                       cigarette lighter charger
     6. Poor overall performance -recognition                       Laboratory and field tests of microphones
     7. Microphone tests reveal range of                            Replace original microphones with top
        discrimination & sensitivity                                performing noise rejecting Crown
                                                                    microphones
     8. Varied noise levels in environment                          Optimal gain control Setting (at low) for
        problem in first field evaluation site                      enhanced user recording/reliability
     9. Users mimic pre-recorded voice                              Analysis of numeral-based trigger
                                                                    commands
     10. Users unwilling to wear device                             Ticket/citation book holders developed
     11. User manual technically difficult to read                  Eighth grade level evaluation guide &
                                                                    lecture training materials developed
     12. Commands very similar in nature                            Deletion/correction of redundant/ multi-
         require different prompts (i.e., Write All,                word commands (e.g., Show Hurt, Where
         Telephone)                                                 Hurt)
     13. Device clips end of recorded trigger                       Trimmed phrases to remove dead pause at
         phrase during recordings                                   end of recorded commands
     14. User can’t find or recall commands                         Command Cards task-sequenced,
                                                                    tabulated, color-coded
     15. User reactions to be collected                             Questionnaire developed, approved
     16. Needed lead for field evaluation                           NAVAIR ORL TSD directed initial field
                                                                    evaluation in Central and South Florida
     17. Language recordings need quality                           Creole (new) Cantonese, Spanish, and
         check                                                      Vietnamese (verified and corrected)
     18. Commands that begin with “s”                               Identified command strengths &
                                                                    weaknesses; Linguist analysis of
                                                                    commands and revisions
     19. Need to identify best types of words for                   Linguist review of commands to maximize
         commands                                                   voiced components of speech
     20. Need for Driving Under the Influence                       Standard DUI phrases added and verified
         (DUI) commands and
          “write your birth date”
     21. Need for additional languages                              Chip with 10 language capacity added
     22. Need for lost Drivers License                              Phrases for “write State Drivers License
         commands                                                   was issued in”




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     ACTIVITIES AND ADDITIONAL RESEARCH

     In addition to the field assessments, NAVAIR ORL TSD also provided support to NIJ
     regarding several factors that could influence the commercialization of the VRT. These
     included: 1) an evaluation of the trigger phrases by linguistic experts, 2) a comparison of
     the VRT with other similar devices, and 3) other potential markets for the VRT in Public
     Safety. Therefore, the next sections of the report present linguist’s analyses of the
     trigger phrases used, a comparison analysis of the VRT with other products claiming to
     have similar capabilities, and finally a description of how the device was introduced to
     the Navy and U.S. Coast Guard and modified for testing in those environments. (Note,
     the VRT was also demonstrated to representatives from the Drug Enforcement Agency
     (DEA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and several other public safety
     agencies.)

     Linguist Analysis Of The Non-Recognition Problem

     Throughout the evaluation period, there were ongoing discussions theorizing that some
     of the VRT’s problems with recognizing the trigger phrases might be due to linguistic
     issues. At NIJ’s request, NAVAIR ORL TSD researchers met with two professors from
     the Communicative Disorders Department at the University of Central Florida to explore
     this theory. Discussions included why some commands worked well and others did not.
     The professors were not prompted with pre-identified problem phrases, other than to say
     that commands such as “Hello” did not work reliably on the device. The professors were
     given the list of 200 Law Enforcement commands used on the device for review prior to
     the meeting. NAVAIR ORL TSD personnel gained substantial insight into how linguistics
     could well be a contributing factor to some of the problems encountered. The professors
     explained how speech is composed of two components, voiced and voiceless (AKA
     sound and noise). The voiced components do employ use of the vocal cords and one
     can touch the throat and feel vibrations when making these sounds. A way of
     determining this is to touch the throat while talking and see "if the motor is humming."
     The device we are using is designed to discern using primarily these vibratory voiced
     portions of speech and to match with the pre-recorded phrases within the current
     situation/event. They include:

               B, D, G, V, Z, & A, E, I, O, U, and other blends and consonants.

     The voiceless speech components do not require use of the vocal cords; rather air and
     the shape of the mouth, tongue, and teeth are employed to make voiceless (or noise)
     sounds. These include:

               Ch, F, H, K, P, S, Sh, T, Th, Wh

     For example, a phrase like SIT DOWN (a command in the Medical Situation) is said
     without use of the vocal cords at the onset and ending of the phrase. Therefore, this
     phrase should be avoided on a device like the VRT. Only the "I" in the middle of the
     word “sit” will generate a signal that can be reliably detected by the device, as the "I”



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the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     requires voiced components of speech. Down ends with the nasal consonant “N” that is
     produced with air flowing through the nasal tract and the vocal tract totally constricted by
     the tongue behind the front teeth. Therefore, if a command such as SIT DOWN must be
     used, it should be preceded by a word that is rich in voiced inflections, such as PLEASE.
     So now, the command becomes "Please Sit" which the device should more reliably
     recognize than simply "Sit Down." (The P in Please is acceptable as it is blended with
     an L, the "PL" blend in the sound onset.)

     It was also pointed out that someone with a sore throat or someone who has been
     yelling has a notably different voice quality. After overuse of the vocal cords, nodules
     and swelling can occur on the tissue, and one's voice generates noticeably more
     voiceless sounds (that is, hoarseness results). It had been reported by several of the
     officers during the debriefing that they had to re-train the device because of chest or
     head colds.

     It was learned that the VRT problems can be explained using research findings from the
     late 1970's and early 1980's. Researchers at that time were seeking a method of
     capturing a subject's reaction time more efficiently. Rather than have subjects manually
     push a button, it was thought that using voice activated microphones could simplify the
     gathering of reaction times. What the researchers found was that "voice onset" varied
     as a result of the specific spoken phrase being used by the subject to indicate their
     reaction time. Phrases with more noise (that is: voiceless) components were not
     detected reliably, while phrases with overt voiced components tended to be captured
     more reliably.

     NAVAIR ORL TSD reported the results of the meeting with the linguistic experts to NIJ.
     It was agreed that a modified version of the commands, to make the users voiced
     speech more pronounced was needed. It was recommended and approved that
     improvements be made on 32% of the Law Enforcement command structure (Appendix
     F). The changes were subtle, yet should improve future performance of the trigger
     commands. Examples include "Situation" replaced with "Event,” and "Put Hands"
     replaced with "Place Hands.” "Situation" of course begins and ends with "noise" - as
     does PUT and HANDS.” The command “Put Hands” is compounded with a combined
     "noise" in the middle, so if one does not loudly enunciate the T-H sound in the middle, all
     the device may hear is UU-AAND. Another good example is replace "How Old" (which
     starts with a voiceless/noise based H-W) with "Your Age.” (For a complete list, see
     Appendix F.)

     Potential Solution For Mimicking Prompts Problem

     There is a need to identify an optimal way of cueing the user to state each phrase during
     recording verification. Due to the natural human tendency to mimic another's accent,
     mannerisms, and cadence when repeating words, the linguists recommended the use of
     a flat sounding "computer-generated" voice as the prompt for recording the user's voice.
     The use of a computerized voice might help to prevent the mimicking of the voice prompt
     and avoid any unintended inflections. For example, we could avoid the upward
     questioning inflection that naturally comes from an English speaker’s voice when asking
     a question. It was also suggested that having a woman’s voice provide the English
     commands might lessen the largely male law enforcement population’s tendency to
     mimic the pre-recorded voice. There is one additional factor for consideration. The
     wave file used to prompt the users recording is also used in the operational environment



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the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     to verify the command. This is to assure the user that the device has accurately
     recognized the phrase triggered. The combination of a male officer saying the trigger
     phrase with confirmation of the phrase in a female voice could result in additional
     confusion for non-English speaking personnel.


     Comparisons With Other Hand Held Translator Devices (Phraselator, Ut-30,
     Pda’s)

     At NIJ’s request, NAVAIR ORL TSD conducted an analysis to compare the VRT to three
     other products with similar characteristics or claimed capability. The hand-held
     translators were all about the size of a large pocket calculator. Some of the devices
     included a microphone and speaker, or jacks for attachment to a bullhorn. Others had
     an option for manual or voice-activated operation. The devices all use compact flash
     memory modules that contain pre-recorded phrases in foreign languages. Some of the
     voice-activated devices are speaker independent while others are speaker dependent.
     The user triggers the translated phrases either manually from a menu or by spoken
     words or phrases into the device. The device then “translates” these
     command/words/phrases into corresponding phrases in a pre-recorded foreign
     language. Note that like the VRT, these devices are not true translators: any keystroke,
     word, numeral, or phrase can trigger the output of an existing, pre-recorded foreign
     language phrase. A comparison with several other devices that are currently in
     development or commercially available in the marketplace follows.

     Phraselator

     Marine Acoustics is developing a handheld translator, called the Phraselator, with
     speaker independent speech recognition. This means that an individual can use the
     device without having to record their voice for specific recognition. Unlike the VRT, the
     Phraselator is not a hands-free device to operate. Marine Acoustics completed the
     design in 2001 and expects to be building and delivering the Phraselator prototypes in
     2002. The demonstration model of the Phraselator had the software loaded on a
     COMPAQ IPAQ (Pocket PC). The final product should be a "box" containing a SA1110
     Strong ARM 206MHZ processor running Windows CE and the translator software. The
     software uses SRI's DynaSpeak as its speaker independent speech recognizer. The
     "box" will have a microphone-speaker developed by Marine Acoustics and will be slightly
     larger than an IPAQ. It will have a noise canceling microphone and a 1-watt speaker.
     There will be an option to use lithium ion batteries or off-the-shelf (three AA sized)
     batteries to power the device. The Phraselator will have an audio output jack for
     connection to a bullhorn as well as audio input jacks to supplement the microphone on
     the "Phraselator.” The user will be able to load new phrases and/or languages or edit
     existing phrases and languages using proprietary software and training provided by the
     developer.

     As of January 2002, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) was
     scheduled to deliver 500 units in the next few months (using DARPA plus-up funds).
     The device was to be equipped with the following languages: Eastern Farsi; Pushti; Erdu
     (Hindu); and Gulf Arabic. A copy of the software was sent to NAVAIR ORL TSD in
     January 2002 for review. Based on specifications provided, there are some engineering
     concerns regarding the low performance type microphone, and the fact that it does not
     offer hands-free operation. Reported plans are to produce 1000 units with priority going



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the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     to the Special Operations/Operation Freedom units. Price is estimated at about
     $1200/unit, with all income being invested in the production of additional units.

     UT-103

     The Universal Translator 103 is an off-the-shelf commercial unit that retails for $250.00.
     The unit has over 3,000 phrases and can be voice activated (i.e., in a hands-free mode)
     or hand-held and manually controlled. While the device is speaker independent, the
     device’s ability to discriminate what is being said was found to be poor when tested in
     the NAVAIR ORL TSD laboratory. Additionally, the phrases were very difficult to recall
     or locate by manually navigating the list. The unit operates on AA batteries and
     reportedly has a 20-hour battery life. The speaker on the unit was considered very small
     and underpowered. Although the UT-103 has a volume control, the unit produced
     unintelligible sounds at high volume levels. It does have audio output jacks, intended for
     headphone listening. The unit is housed in a plastic case that appears fragile. The unit
     has a screen with a two-line readout, which is relatively difficult to read. Navigation is
     also considered difficult. Tests repeatedly found the UT-130 to be difficult to learn to
     operate, unreliable in performance, and the user manuals were considered equally low
     in quality. The user cannot modify the device. Additionally, the software is not
     government-owned.

     PDA/IPAQ

     As part of the overall technical evaluation, NAVAIR ORL TSD engineers tested the
     feasibility of using a commercial, off-the-shelf PDA to perform some of the desired
     functions. The IPAQ PDA was selected as a test unit and government owned software
     and sound files were loaded as a modifiable form of translated phrases. The
     commercial PDA’s base cost was less than $500. With upgraded memory cards
     (costing about $1,000) the unit has capacity for delivery of 200+ commands in 12
     languages. The units have volume controls, but the sound quality is considered low.
     The units can run on rechargeable or AA batteries, and can be operated for up to eight
     hours. Inputs are limited to manual operation (i.e., no voiced inputs) but the large touch-
     screen makes it easier to navigate and select phrases than the two-line screen on the
     UT-103. One additional drawback is the fact that these are not hands-free devices; one
     must hold the device in one hand and select commands with the other. The unit,
     however, is considered user-friendly, easy to operate and requires virtually no training
     time for the user to learn to operate.

     Summary Of Comparisons

     The handheld translators all have unique strengths and weaknesses for consideration in
     determining suitability for law enforcement. First, the voice command interfaces provide
     hands-free operation, but were largely unreliable, or speaker dependent, and/or
     untested. While the VRT device requires a “voice training/imprinting” session, it does
     now have the capacity for storing up to eight different users’ voice commands. At the
     time of this evaluation, the other voice-activated devices were either untested by the
     agency (Phraselator) or erratic at best (UT-130) in performance. Second, the voice
     recognition systems tested here were somewhat intolerant of variations in voice
     inflection and volume. Third, three of the devices were configured to take speech inputs;
     three could be manually triggered; and two (the Phraselator-untested and UT-130-




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the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     unreliable) made claims to do both in the field. The lack of manual input on the VRT
     could possibly be overcome by specifying the addition of a miniature keypad or touch-
     screen for manual input, before commercialization. Finally, it was the opinion of the
     NAVAIR ORL TSD research team that there are multiple types of users in Public Safety,
     with each type requiring unique configurations of a hand-held translator device. For this
     reason, no one device would meet all these requirements. This is substantiated by the
     fact that even the Patrol Officers interviewed had contradictory opinions about which
     input method made the most sense for on-the-street use.

     A comparison of the suitability of these four units for Law Enforcement can be found in
     Table 4. Comparisons of the four units find remarkable similarity, with the largest
     differences being 1) ruggedness, 2) quality of speakers and microphones, and 3) voice-
     activation for hands-free operation. In the comparison, the VRT scored as the top
     choice for law enforcement. The second choice is the IPAQ, although it’s lack of hands-
     free operation and speaker output quality were serious shortcomings for street law-
     enforcement applications. The shortcomings of the VRT (lack of a volume control, lack
     of an auto-off feature, and lack of a PC link) could be easily overcome with a
     specification for these features included in the production/manufacturing requirements.

                      Table 4. A Top Rank Comparison of Hand Held Translators

     Criteria                       Phraselator                  VRT                       UT-103                 IPAQ
     Rating
     1. # Phrases                   1500                         200+                     3,000       *           200+
     2. # Languages                 5                            10            *          4                       10/card       *
     3. LE Situations               No                           Yes           *          No                      Yes
     4. Volume Control              Yes          *               No                       Yes         *           Yes           *
     5. Time to Market              Not Tested**                 < 6 months               On the shelf *          < 6 months
     6. Batteries                   Rechargeable *               Rechargeable *           AA                      Rechargeable *
     7. PC Link Jack                USB Jack       *             None                     No                      Yes          *
     8. Auto Off                    Not Tested                   No                       Yes         *           Yes          *
     9. Screen Image                Yes            *             None                     Poor                    Yes          *
     10. Govt. Owned                No                           No                       No                      Yes          *
     11. Speaker Indep.             Yes            *             No (8 Users)             Yes, Poor               N/A
     12. User Friendly              Not Tested                   ½ Time       *           No                      Yes
     13. Hands-Free                 No           *               Yes          *           No                      No 2-Handed
     14. Easy Changes               No                           No                       No                      No
     15. Field Tested               No                           Yes          *           No                      No
     16. Price                      $1,200                       $ 3,000                  $ 250        *          $ 1400***
     17. Battery Life               Not Tested                   9 hours                  20 hours     *          8 hours
     18. Voice Activated            Not Tested                   Excellent    *           Poor                    No
     19. Speaker                    Fair                         Excellent    *           Poor                    Poor
     20. Rugged                     Not Tested                   Yes          *           No                      No
     TOTAL Top Ranks
     Law Enforcement                6                            9                         6                      7
     Criteria

           Rating: * = Best Performer
           Note:     When units were equivalent, both received the same rating.
           **Not Tested in this Study.




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           ***Price includes upgraded memory card. Cost for memory cards has decreased
           since time of this study.
           ---------------------------------------

     FLEET/COAST GUARD INTEREST

     As a direct result of this collaborative effort between NIJ and NAVAIR ORL TSD, a
     variety of Naval Officers and Department of Defense civilians were exposed to the VRT.
     Specifically, the Navy Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS), Coast Guard, and several
     commanding officers of U.S. Navy ships expressed interest in a hand-held translator like
     that developed by IWT, Inc. and EMA, Inc.
     NAVAIR ORL TSD provided funding for device modifications and the development of
     nautical versions of the instruction booklet and command cards. The NIJ sponsor
     approved the temporary conversion of four law enforcement translators for experimental
     use by the Fleet. With that approval, NAVAIR ORL TSD modified the devices and/or
     software to enhance performance at sea. Coast Guard and Navy personnel
     collaborated and agreed on a collection of 200+ nautical commands, which were
     organized into nine situations/events. NAVAIR ORL TSD then arranged for the pilot
     tests onboard the USS Klakring, FFG 42; the USS Samuel B Roberts, FFG 58; and the
     USS The Sullivans, DDG 68.

     FUTURE WORK/RECOMMENDATIONS

     The need for multiple modifications to hardware and software was identified throughout
     this evaluation. Some of those requirements were identified early in the testing period.
     In those cases, the modification was accomplished and incorporated in the remaining
     evaluations. For example, the need for a battery indicator light was identified during the
     first weeks of evaluation at West Palm Beach Police Department. All devices used with
     other participating agencies had the benefit of having this feature already installed at the
     time of their evaluation. The following summary points and lessons learned may be
     useful should a decision be made to proceed with commercialization.

     •    Users will need detailed procedures for adding or editing commands, languages, and
          situations/events. These procedures should be published as well-defined, user-
          friendly instructions for non-technical personnel to follow.

     •    While users need the capability to add or edit the existing database, it is
          recommended that the agencies maintain central control over phrases and
          languages that are used on the devices. The patrol officer (or device user) could
          submit a request for a change. If approved by the agency’s central authority, the
          request would then be processed and the change made to the agency’s central
          database of translated commands. For example, the new command sound files
          might be routed to legal, community relations, and other departments for screening
          purposes. Once approved, the command, and its translation, would be loaded onto
          all of the devices under the agency’s jurisdiction. It is not recommended that
          individual officers have the ability to modify commands. The potential for liability to
          the agency is too great. The proposed procedure would ensure central control. New
          translated phrases would have full approval of the department or agency prior to
          being systematically implemented.




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the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     •    Users should have a choice as to configuration, e.g., mounted on bullhorn, mounted
          on citation book, or hands-free/wearable.

     •    Any new phrases should undergo linguistic analysis before approval.

     •    Consider computerized voice for prompting users when they are initially recording
          and verifying their voice commands.

     •    Consider developing an instructional video, which demonstrates how to hold, use,
          speak into, and control the device. This video would accommodate potential users
          who may not have the benefit of one-on-one instruction or who might need refresher
          training.




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the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
                           APPENDIX A - VOICE RESPONSE TRANSLATOR
                                      EVALUATION GUIDE
     Introduction              User’s Guide for

                                       VRT
                               Voice Response Translator

                               The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is sponsoring the development a
                               communications tool to help better serve non-English speaking people and
                               cultural groups. The Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division
                               (NAWCTSD), Orlando, Florida is assisting NIJ with the evaluation of this tool.
                               The pocket-sized, voice activated, Voice Response Translator (VRT)
                               developed by Integrated Wave Technologies (IWT) will communicate with
                               persons who have difficulty comprehending English. Potential users should
                               be aware that this communications tool is not designed to completely resolve
                               all language problems. For example, the VRT will only translate phrases to
                               predetermined languages (for example, Spanish or Creole) and the person
                               being addressed will be told to nod yes or no, or to write down answers. The
                               VRT will not translate what the individual is saying back into English. Also,
                               the VRT is a user-dependent system, and can only recognize (up to eight
                               different user’s) pre-recorded voice commands. Should an ninth person wish
                               to use a VRT device, that person must record their voice over another users
                               pre-recorded voice commands (recordings take about 20 minutes).

                               Since the inception of this development effort, five generations of the VRT
                               prototype have evolved. NAWCTSD is assisting NIJ in a field assessment of
                               these 5th generation prototype devices in several locations. Based on what is
                               learned from the various individuals participating in this evaluation, NIJ will
                               evaluate the need for improvements to the VRT, prior to pursuing the
                               commercialization and subsequent commercial distribution processes.

                               The manual will assist personnel with initial set-up and training needed to
                               become proficient with the VRT. The device can fit easily within a shirt
                               pocket. The VRT can also be attached to a clipboard if preferred. Users must
                               consistently place the microphone in the same location (that is, very close to
                               the users mouth) when recording and using the VRT. Failure to consistently
                               place the microphone the same location will result in the VRT not responding
                               to the user’s commands. The manual explains how to set-up the VRT, and
                               offers other TIPS! on use of the device. Your participation in this evaluation is
                               greatly appreciated, as your comments and suggestions will help to ensure
                               the commercial device is optimally designed for the 21st Century.




                                                                 A-1
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     Set-up of your            The VRT is designed to recognize your voice, but in order to do this you must
     VRT                       first record all of your voice commands on it in a loud, clear and consistently
                               commanding voice. After turning on the device, press the red button on the
                               top to select your user number (up to eight users can record their voices onto
                               the device). To record commands, simply listen to the VRT command, and
                               then repeat each command into the VRT microphone. After a number of
                               commands are recorded, the VRT will ask you to repeat those commands a
                               second time to ensure that the VRT can recognize your commands. For this
                               to work, you must speak the commands in exactly the same pitch, inflection,
                               volume, speed, and keep the microphone the same distance from your
                               mouth each time you speak them. This ensures that the commands are
                               recorded and verified quickly and easily, before you record another set of
                               commands. Please read the TIP! Sections carefully, and review the
                               instructions before you begin recording (it will save you some headaches and
                               confusion later). It will take you about 20 minutes to record the individual
                               phrase commands for all of the situations supported by the VRT device.
                               These situations and phrases are indicated on the easy-reference cards. The
                               recordings of your commands will not be lost or degraded when you turn off
                               the device. In fact, you may turn it off at any time without worry.

                               TIP! Always watch the light on your VRT

                               The lights on the top of the VRT serve a dual purpose. When you first turn on
                               the VRT, they will briefly illuminate, indicating the unit has power. After it is
                               turned on, the same lights act as sound level indicators, flickering from green
                               to orange during recordings. While recording, project your voice volume and
                               keep the same distance between the microphone and your mouth, so that
                               the light goes into a yellow-orange color. If the light does not come on
                               while you are speaking, or if it flickers in green only, the VRT has not
                               heard you. Simply repeat the command with more volume, clarity, or
                               correct the distance between your mouth and the microphone.

                               TIP! When you hear the recording prompt, wait until the red
                                    light goes off before reciting the command. This allows
                                    the VRT to switch from play to record. Though this
                                    takes only a fraction of a second, do not begin
                                    speaking too quickly or your command may not be
                                    completely recorded.

                               Recordings should be done when you are alone, in a quiet room so that there
                               is no background noise. Make sure there will not be any interruptions from
                               telephones, radios, or other people. Speak loudly, as if you were on a street
                               in heavy traffic. Maintain a consistent distance between the microphone
                               and your mouth, and speak in a fairly loud, commanding voice. Watch
                               the light during recording. If you vary the pitch, tone, or speed of your
                               voice the VRT may not recognize your command. You must speak in a
                               consistent and commanding tone of voice. Up to eight users can record
                               their voices on the VRT, when you turn the unit on, just press the red
                               button twice if you are user number two, three times if you are user
                               number three, etc.

       READ THIS PAGE FIRST!




                                                                 A-2
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
                               The parts of the VRT
             Figure 1.

                                    1. Microphone (sound cancelling)

                                                                                  2. Battery Re-Charger Connection

                                                                                  3. Voice Volume Indicator Light

                                                                                  4. Battery Status Indicator Light

                                                                                  5. On/Off Switch

                                                                                  6. Red Interrupt Button, 1 sec. On
                                                                                  Standby Mode, 10 sec. Initial
                                                                                  Training

                                                                                  7. Speaker

                                                                                  8. Easy Reference Cards

                                                                                  9. Bullhorn Jack

                                                                                  10. Low Battery Indicator




                                                                 A-3
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     VRT                       Purpose of the VRT Recording
     Recording
     Instructions              The purpose of recording is to ensure the VRT can recognize your voice.
                               You must first record ALL of your voice commands on the VRT prior to using
Step 1:                        it.
(Takes 3 Minutes)
                               Phrases emitted from the VRT are in ALL CAPS, while your voice commands
                               are always in “Quotation Marks.”
     Record:
        Initial                TIP! Say it again when the VRT is silent for more than 4
      Commands                      seconds
        Language
      Commands
        Event                  1. Turn the VRT On using the Top Switch
      Commands
                               2. Press the Red Button up to eight times to select your user identification
                                  number.

                               It will say: INITIAL TRAINING, TO TRAIN PLEASE SAY THE FOLLOWING
                               WORDS:

                               MY LOCATION                         you say “My Location”

                               CHANGE LANGUAGE                     you say “Change Language”

                               EVENT                               you say “Event” etc.

                               (See Command Cards for a complete list of all 24 commands to be recorded)

                               TIP! GOOD BYE is one of 12 Initial Commands to be
                                    recorded

                               4. Next the VRT will say:
                               TO VERIFY PLEASE SAY THE FOLLOWING WORDS

                               You simply repeat each word, until VRT says:
                               TRAINING COMPLETE

                               TIP! Don’t rush, wait until the red light has gone out before
                                    repeating each command.


                               TIP! If the VRT does not respond, repeat the command. If
                                    there is no response for 20 or 30 seconds, turn the unit
                                   off and begin again.


                               TIP! The first recordings require the most repeats and
                                    volume. Stand up and use your diaphragm!




                                                                 A-4
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
                                  1. Record ALL of the Initial Commands, then briefly press the Red
                                     Button to put the VRT into ON STANDBY mode. If you don’t say
                                     anything, it will automatically go to STANDBY mode.

Step 2:                           2. Say “Begin Training”
                                     VRT says: WHICH EVENT?
(Takes 20 Minutes)

                                  3. Say “Medical”
                                     VRT says: MEDICAL, TO TRAIN PLEASE SAY THE
        Record                       FOLLOWING WORDS:
        Event
        Commands                  IN PAIN?                            you say: “In Pain?”

                                  WHERE HURT?                         you say: “Where Hurt”

                                  (See complete list of Medical commands on the Medical command list)

                                  4. Continue until all Medical Commands are recorded

                                  5. VRT says: TO VERIFY PLEASE SAY THE FOLLOWING WORDS...

                                  IN PAIN?            you say: “In Pain?”
                                  (Again, repeat each command)

                                  6. Repeat steps 2-5 for each event on the Command Card.

                                  TIP! Watch the LIGHT: When
                                       you hear the recording
                                       prompt, wait until the red
                                       light goes off before
                                       reciting the command.
                                      This allows the VRT to
                                      switch from play to
                                      record. Though this takes
                                      only a fraction of a
                                      second, do not begin
                                      speaking too quickly or
                                      your command may not
                                      be completely recorded.




                                                                    A-5
   This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
   the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
   position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
                                Turn on VRT.

                                1. Try a few of the Initial Commands, these work at all times!
                                   (See Initial Commands Card)
Step 3:
                                2. Say “Different Language”, VRT will say DIFFERENT LANGUAGE?

                                3. Say “Creole”, VRT will say CREOLE
      Using Your
      VRT                       4. Say “Begin Directions” (You’ll use the command “Begin Directions”
                                   every time you use the device. “Begin Directions” tells the person
                                   being addressed how the VRT will help you communicate with
          SELECT
        LANGUAGE                   him/her.), VRT will say in the selected language:
        “Different
        Language”                   I AM SPEAKING THROUGH A DEVICE THAT TRANSLATES
          TELL                     SELECTED PHRASES INTO
        CITIZEN                    (Spanish/Cantonese/Creole/Vietnamese). PLEASE RESPOND
        HOW VRT                    WITH HAND SIGNALS OR BY WRITING ANSWERS FOR ME.
        WORKS with                 PLEASE NOD YOUR HEAD FOR YES AND SHAKE YOUR HEAD
        “Begin                     FOR NO.
        Directions”
          SELECT                5. Say “Event”, VRT will say WHICH EVENT?
        “EVENT”
        Eight to                6. Say selected situation, for example “Medical,” VRT will say
        choose from!               MEDICAL.
          USE
        COMMANDS                7. Proceed to give Medical Commands listed on the Command Card.
        Listed on
                                8. At any time, you may “Different Language” or change “Event” ...
        Card
        “DIFFERENT
        LANGUAGE”               Try it!
        or “EVENT”
        whenever
        necessary




                                                                  A-6
 This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
 the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
 position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     Command                        “Begin Directions” Plays the following:
     Reference
     List                           I AM SPEAKING THROUGH A DEVICE THAT TRANSLATES
                                    SELECTED PHRASES INTO (Spanish/Creole/Cantonese/Vietnamese).
                                    PLEASE RESPOND WITH HAND SIGNALS OR BY WRITING
                                    ANSWERS FOR ME. PLEASE NOD YOUR HEAD FOR YES AND
                                    SHAKE YOUR HEAD FOR NO.

                                    “Go to Standby”: Resets the VRT to the ON STANDBY position.
                                    Accessible at all times.

                                    “Use VRT”: Starts the translation sequence and the WHICH
                                    LANGUAGE? prompt. Only accessible in the ON STANDBY position.

                                    “Begin Training”: Starts the training sequence and the WHICH EVENT?
                                    prompt. Only accessible in the ON STANDBY position.

                                    “My Location”: This command orders the VRT to tell where it is in the
                                    program, such as, WHICH EVENT or WHICH LANGUAGE. This
                                    command is accessible within all events.

                                    “Different Language”: Orders the VRT to change language and leads to
                                    the WHICH LANGUAGE? prompt. The VRT remains in the current event.
                                    Accessible in all events and after the WHICH LANGUAGE? prompt.

                                    “Event”: Orders the VRT to change events and leads to the WHICH
                                    EVENT? prompt. The VRT remains in the language in which it was
                                    located in the previous event. This command is accessible in all events.

                                    “Hello”: Plays the word HELLO in the selected language. Accessible in
                                    all events.

                                    “My Name”: Plays the phrase, MY NAME IS … in the selected language.
                                    Accessible within all events.

                                    “Speak English”: Plays the phrase, DO YOU SPEAK ENGLISH? in the
                                    selected language. Accessible within all events.

                                    “Don’t Move”: Plays the phrase, DON’T MOVE. Accessible in all events.

                                    “Calm Down”: Plays the phrase, CALM DOWN. Accessible within all
                                    events.




                                                                 A-7
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
Contacts

Dr. John Hall
Integrated Wave Technologies, Inc.
4042 Clipper Court
Fremont, CA 94538
(510) 490-9160
(510) 353-0261 FAX
i-w-t@pacbell.net
http://www.i-w-t.com

Mr. Timothy McCune
Eagan, McAllister Associates, Inc.
1500 N. Beauregard Street
Alexandria, VA 22311
(703) 820-0605
(703) 820-7710 FAX
tim_mccune@emainc.con
http://www.emainc.com

Dr. Thomas M. Franz
Code 4973
Advanced Instructional Systems Branch
NAWCTSD
12350 Research Parkway
Orlando, Florida 32826
(407) 380-4631 (fax and phone)
FranzTm@navair.navy.mil




                                                                 A-8
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
                                       APPENDIX B –LAW ENFORCEMENT COMMAND CARD
       INITIAL                                                                                                   TRAFFIC STOP
You’re Under Arrest .................................YOU’RE UNDER ARREST                                 “Turn Off Engine” .......................................TURN OFF THE ENGINE
 “Put Hands .............................................................. PUT HANDS UP                  “Step Out”........................................... STEP OUT OF THE VEHICLE
“Calm Down” .................................................................CALM DOWN                   “You’re Arrested”...................................... YOU’RE UNDER ARREST
“Start Directions” ......................................Start Directions Paragraph                      “Vehicle Search?”.......PERMISSION TO DO A VEHICLE SEARCH?
“Hello”.......................................................................................HELLO      “Car Taken” ............YOUR CAR IS BEING TAKEN BY THE POLICE
“Good bye” ....................................................................... GOOD BYE              “How Fast?”.................................. HOW FAST WERE YOU GOING?
“My Name” ..........................................................................MY NAME                   “Too Fast”............. YOU WERE EXCEEDING THE SPEED LIMIT
“Change Language” ........................................WHICH LANGUAGE?                                “Red Light” .................... YOU DROVE THROUGH THE RED LIGHT
“Situation” .........................................................WHICH SITUATION?                    “Stop Sign” .................... YOU DROVE THROUGH THE STOP SIGN
“Translate” .................................................................... TRANSLATE               “Illegal Turn” .................................... YOU MADE AN ILLEGAL TURN
 “My Location” .............................................. CURRENT LOCATION                           “Car Headlights” ...... THE CAR HEADLIGHTS ARE NOT WORKING
“Go To Standby” ..........................................................ON STANDBY                          “Tail lights”............THE CAR TAIL LIGHTS ARE NOT WORKING
“Start Training” ..................................................... START TRAINING                    “Driver’s License” .............. MAY I SEE YOUR DRIVER'S LICENSE?
                                                                                                             “Take It Out” .............................................................. TAKE IT OUT
START LANGUAGE COMMANDS                                                                                      “Current Address?” ..........IS THIS YOUR CURRENT ADDRESS?
“Start Viet” ..................................................... START VIETNAMESE                      “Registration”.............. MAY I SEE THE VEHICLE REGISTRATION?
“Start Spanish” .......................................................START SPANISH                          “Not Current” ...............THE REGISTRATION IS NOT CURRENT
“Start Cantonese” ............................................START CANTONESE                            “Insurance” .........................................DO YOU HAVE INSURANCE?
                                                                                                         “Citation”.........................................I AM ISSUING YOU A CITATION
EIGHT SITUATION COMMANDS                                                                                      “Write Name”................................................WRITE YOUR NAME
“Greetings” ..................................................................... GREETINGS                   “Other Name?” .....................DO YOU USE ANY OTHER NAME?
“Medical”.............................................................................. MEDICAL               “Write Address” .....................................WRITE YOUR ADDRESS
“Interview Victim”...................................................INTEVIEW VICTIM                          “Name Address”............... WRITE YOUR NAME AND ADDRESS
“Found Child” ..............................................................FOUND CHILD                  “Car Owner” .............................. ARE YOU THE VEHICLE OWNER?
“Field Interview”....................................................FIELD INTERVIEW                     “No Guilt”.....WHEN YOU SIGN YOU ARE NOT ADMITTING GUILT
“Traffic Stop” ............................................................ TRAFFIC STOP                 “Pay Fine”....... YOU PAY THE FINE (BY MAIL) AT THIS ADDRESS
“Crowd Control” ................................................. CROWD CONTROL
“Domestic”........................................................................ DOMESTIC              FIELD INTERVIEW
                                                                                                         “Police” ................................................................................... POLICE
GREETINGS                                                                                                   “Stop”..................................................................... STOP, POLICE
“Did You See?”..................................DID YOU SEE THIS HAPPEN?                                    “Door Open” ............................POLICE, OPEN THE DOOR NOW
“Show Me”..................................SHOW ME WHERE IT HAPPENED                                        “Weapons?”..............DO YOU HAVE ANY WEAPONS ON YOU?
“Write When” ..........................WRITE DOWN WHEN IT HAPPENED                                       “Show Hands” .......................................... SHOW ME YOUR HANDS
“Good Morning” ......................................................GOOD MORNING                           “Hands Visible”KEEP YOUR HANDS WHERE I CAN SEE THEM
   “Good Day”..................................................................GOOD DAY                     “Hands in Front” ...........................KEEP YOU HANDS IN FRONT
   “Good Afternoon” ........................................ GOOD AFTERNOON                                 “Hands Behind” .........PUT YOUR HANDS BEHIND YOUR BACK
   “Good Evening”.................................................. GOOD EVENING                         “Arrest Mrs.” ........................................I’M GOING TO ARREST HER
   “How Are You?” ................................................. HOW ARE YOU?                             “Arrest Lady” ......................I’M GOING TO ARREST THIS LADY
   “Goodbye” ...................................................................GOOD-BYE                 “Drugs on You?”................. DO YOU HAVE ANY DRUGS ON YOU?
“Speak English?”...................................DO YOU SPEAK ENGLISH?                                 “Probation?” ...................ARE YOU ON PROBATION OR PAROLE?
  “Understand?” .......................................DO YOU UNDERSTAND?                                “Identification?”... DO YOU HAVE ANY IDENTIFICATION ON YOU?
  “Don’t Understand”................................... I DON’T UNDERSTAND                                  “Search Warrant”..... POLICE, WE HAVE A SEARCH WARRANT
  “Slower”............................................... PLEASE SPEAK SLOWER                                “Arrest Warrant” ... POLICE, WE HAVE AN ARREST WARRANT
  “Repeat” ...............................PLEASE REPEAT WHAT YOU SAID
“Thank You” ................................................................... THANK YOU                CROWD CONTROL
   “You’re Welcome” .........................................YOU’RE WELCOME                              “Keep Moving”............................................................ KEEP MOVING
“Yes”............................................................................................. YES   “Break Up Now”....................... FAILURE TO BREAK UP NOW WILL
   “Negative”..................................................................... NEGATIVE                   ........................................................ RESULT IN YOUR ARREST
“Sign Name” ......................................... PLEASE SIGN YOUR NAME                              “Tear Gas”.......FAILURE TO LEAVE IMMEDIATELY WILL RESULT
  “Name Called ...................................... WRITE DOWN THE NAME                                    .........................................................IN OUR USE OF TEAR GAS
    ........................................................... THAT PEOPLE CALL YOU                     “Barricades”................................ STAY BEHIND THE BARRICADES
  “Family” ........................WHICH NAME IS YOUR FAMILY NAME?                                       “Against the law” ...........WHAT ARE DOING IS AGAINST THE LAW
“Address”.................................... PLEASE WRITE YOUR ADDRESS                                  “Group Leader”.................................WHO IS THE GROUP LEADER
“Telephone”.....................WHAT IS YOUR TELEPHONE NUMBER?
“How Old?” ......................................................HOW OLD ARE YOU?
“You Married?” ................................................ ARE YOU MARRIED?




                                                                                                         B-1
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
                                                    APPENDIX B (CONT’D)
                                              LAW ENFORCEMENT COMMAND CARD
                                             FOUND CHILD                                    DOMESTIC
“Your Name”..........................................................WHAT IS YOUR NAME           “You Injured?” ...................................... ARE YOU INJURED?
How Long?”.................................HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN HERE?                          “He Strike?” .............DID HE STRIKE YOU? DID HE STRIKE YOU?
“Someone Come?”.............. WHEN WILL SOMEONE COME FOR YOU?                                    “She Strike?” ...............................................DID SHE STRIKE YOU?
    “Someone Coming?”.....................................IS SOMEONE COMING?                     “No Hit”................. IT IS AGAINST THE LAW IN CALIFORNIA FOR
    “Mother Coming?” ................................ IS YOUR MOTHER COMING?                        ...................................... A PERSON TO HIT ANOTHER PERSON
    “Father Coming?”.................................. IS YOUR FATHER COMING?                    “Hit Before?”................... HAS THIS PERSON HIT YOU BEFORE ?
“How Here?”................................................. HOW DID YOU GET HERE?          “He Weapon?”........................................ DOES HE HAVE A WEAPON?
    “Stranger” ............................. DID A STRANGER BRING YOU HERE?                      “She Weapon?”.............................. DOES SHE HAVE A WEAPON?
“Lost Before?” ........................HAVE YOU EVER BEEN LOST BEFORE?                           “Gun” .....................................................................................A GUN?
“Police Before?” .... POLICE EVER HAD TO LOOK FOR YOU BEFORE?                                    “Knife?”............................................................................... A KNIFE?
“Show Hurt” ........... ARE YOU HURT? IF YOU ARE, SHOW ME WHERE                                  “Go To Jail” .......................... I AM TAKING THIS PERSON TO JAIL
“Live with Who?” ........................................... WHO DO YOU LIVE WITH?           “Who Called?” .........................................WHO CALLED THE POLICE?
“Where Parents?”.................................. WHERE ARE YOUR PARENTS?                       “Your Name”............................................... WHAT IS YOUR NAME?
“Brother/Sister?”.................. DO YOU HAVE BROTHERS OR SISTERS?                             “Live Here” ..................................................... DO YOU LIVE HERE?
    “Brother’s School?” .................. WHERE DO THEY GO TO SCHOOL?                           “Another Room”...........................LET'S TALK IN ANOTHER ROOM
“Parents’ Work” ...........................WHERE DO YOUR PARENTS WORK?                      “Together”...................................................DO YOU LIVE TOGETHER?
    “Father Work?” .....................WHERE DOES YOUR FATHER WORK?                             “Your Husband”.....................IS THIS PERSON YOUR HUSBAND?
    “Mother Work?” .................. WHERE DOES YOUR MOTHER WORK?                               “Your Wife?” .....................................IS THIS PERSON YOUR WIFE
“Dad’s Name” ..........................................WHAT IS YOUR DAD’S NAME?              “Children?” ................................................DO YOU HAVE CHILDREN?
    “Mom’s Name”...................................WHAT IS YOUR MOM’S NAME?                     Children There? ........................... ARE THE CHILDREN IN THERE?
“Telephone”...................PLEASE WRITE YOUR TELEPHONE NUMBER                                “Kids In Danger”........................ARE THE CHILDREN IN DANGER?
    “Address”......................... DO YOU KNOW YOUR HOME ADDRESS?                           “Your Children?”.............DO YOU HAVE CHILDREN IN COMMON?
    “How Old” .......................................................... HOW OLD ARE YOU?       “Who Custody?” .......... WHO HAS CUSTODY OF THE CHILDREN?
    “Work Telephone” ....... DO YOU KNOW THEIR WORK PHONE NO’S                              “File Complaint?”.................. DO YOU WISH TO FILE A COMPLAINT ?
                                                                                                “Temporary Shelter”.............. YOU WISH TO STAY TEMPORARILY
INTRV. VICTIUM                                                                                     ........................................................IN A SHELTER FOR WOMEN?
“The Victim?”................................................WHO IS THE VICTIM?                  “Restraining Order” ................ IS THERE A RESTRAINING ORDER
“What Time?” ........................................... WHEN DID IT HAPPEN?                       ........................................................................ ON THAT PERSON?
“Know Suspect”............................DO YOU KNOW THE SUSPECT                                “Copy Order” ............. CAN I SEE A COPY OF THE RESTRAINING
      .............................................................OR WHERE HE LIVES?                ORDER OR THE CUSTODY ORDER
“Flee Where?” ............... WHICH WAY DID THE SUSPECT FLEE?                               MEDICAL
“More Than One?”... WAS THERE MORE THAN ONE SUSPECT?                                        “Pain?”.............................................................DO YOU HAVE PAIN?
“Weapons”.......................DID THE SUSPECT HAVE A WEAPON?                                  “Where Hurt” ........................................ WHERE DOES IT HURT?
“Go On Foot” ....................DID THE SUSPECT LEAVE ON FOOT?                                 “Chest Hurt?”.......................... ARE YOU HAVING CHEST PAIN?
“In Car?” ............................DID THE SUSPECT LEAVE IN A CAR?                           “Breathing” ........ARE YOU HAVING DIFFICULTY BREATHING?
    “In Truck?”...............DID THE SUSPECT LEAVE IN A TRUCK?                                 “Ambulance”................................ THE AMBULANCE IS COMING
    “Van?”.................................................IS THE VEHICLE A VAN?                “OK”................................................................... YOU WILL BE OK
    “Color?” ................................WHAT COLOR IS THE VEHICLE?                     “Caused Injury”................ SHOW ME WHAT CAUSED THE INJURY
    “Old Vehicle?” ....................................... IS THE VEHICLE OLD?                    “You Shot?” ........................................HAVE YOU BEEN SHOT?
    “Car?” ................................................ IS THE VEHICLE A CAR?                 “Stabbed?” ..................................HAVE YOU BEEN STABBED?
    “Truck?”.........................................IS THE VEHICLE A TRUCK?                      “Assaulted?” ........................... HAVE YOU BEEN ASSAULTED?
“Man?” ......................... IS THE SUSPECT A MAN OR A WOMAN?                           “You Ill?” ...................................................................... ARE YOU ILL?
    “How Old?” ................................................................HOW OLD?         “Diabetic?”.................................................. ARE YOU DIABETIC?
    “Show How Tall”.......SHOW ME HOW TALL THE SUSPECT IS                                       “Nauseated?” ........................................ARE YOU NAUSEATED?
    “How Tall?”................................... IF SO, SHOW ME HOW BIG                       “Pregnant?” .............................................ARE YOU PREGNANT?
    “Heavier?” ..................IS THE SUSPECT HEAVIER THAN ME?                            “Swallowed?”................................... YOU SWALLOWED ANYTHING
“Caucasian”.......................................... IS THE SUSPECT WHITE?                         ........................................................ THAT MIGHT HURT YOU?
    “Latino” ...........................................IS THE SUSPECT LATINO?                   “Injected?” ............................ YOU INJECTED ANYTHING THAT
    “Black” ............................................. IS THE SUSPECT BLACK?                    ................................................................... MIGHT HURT YOU?
    “Asian”.............................................. IS THE SUSPECT ASIAN?                  “Taken Pills?” ............... YOU TAKE ANY PILLS OR MEDICINE?
“Mustache?” ............. DOES THE SUSPECT HAVE A MUSTACHE                                       “He Drugs?”................................ HAS HE TAKEN ANY DRUGS?
    “Beard?” .................... DOES THE SUSPECT HAVE A BEARD?                                 “She Drugs?”............................HAS SHE TAKEN ANY DRUGS?
    “Bald?”..................................................IS THE SUSPECT BALD            “Relax”......................................................................................RELAX
“Shirt Color”....................................... WHAT COLOR WAS SHIRT?                      “Sit Down” ..................................................... PLEASE SIT DOWN
    “Pants Color?” .......................... WHAT COLOR WERE PANTS?                            “You Lay Down” ........... I NEED FOR YOU TO LAY DOWN NOW
    “Jacket Color”............................ WHAT COLOR WAS JACKET?                           “Don’t Move”.......................................... PLEASE DO NOT MOVE
“Plate Number”............DO YOU KNOW THE LICENSE NUMBER?                                       “Stand Back” .......... EVERYBODY PLEASE STAND BACK NOW
    .............................................................. IF SO, WRITE IT HERE         “OK”................................................................... YOU WILL BE OK
“Write All”                  WRITE YOUR NAME, ADDRESS & PHONE No.                           “Medications”.............WRITE THE NAMES OF ANY MEDICATIONS
                                                                                                    ........................................................... YOU ARE ALLERGIC TO
                                                                                             “Doctors”........................ WRITE DOWN THE NAMES AND PHONE
                                                                                                  ............................................... NUMBERS OF YOUR DOCTORS
                                                                                            “Medical Card?” ....................... DO YOU HAVE A MEDICAL CARD?
                                                                                            “Conditions”........................................WRITE DOWN ANY MEDICAL
                                                                                                   ............................................... CONDITIONS YOU MAY HAVE




                                                                                            B-2
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
                                                         APPENDIX C


                                    LECTURE NOTES HOW TO USE THE VRT


     There are two switches on the VRT unit, a toggle switch and a red pushbutton. The
     toggle switch is for power on/off. The red pushbutton switch is used to place the VRT in
     standby mode or to start initial training. To begin initial training, hold the red button
     down for 10 seconds, and then release. The VRT will guide you through the initial
     training. There are also two LED displays. The first illuminated LED will indicate when
     the power is on. The second illuminated LED indicates the level of your voice
     (green/amber/red).

     Speaking in a clear, commanding voice, you should light up the voice level indicator
     LED. Speak loud enough to turn the LED amber, but not red. Ideally, the LED should
     flicker green/amber when giving a command. The same voice level should be used
     during training and use of the device. Please remember that you will sub-consciously
     project your voice more in an open area or out of doors than you will when in an
     enclosed room. You should train the unit by speaking a little louder than normal, as if
     you were out on the street. Better yet, train outside, but be sure you are not standing
     within 30 feet of a loud source of noise.

     Position the microphone close to the mouth, touching or almost touching the upper lip.
     The microphone is designed to work best when you speaking directly into it.
     Recognition is reduced when turning your head or while walking around. Stand up and
     stand still during training. The VRT must be trained in a relatively quiet area, away from
     actual noise sources. Background noise outside is OK, as long as it is at least 20 feet
     away. If possible, train the VRT in the environment in which it is to be used, i.e. indoors
     or outdoors).

     Do not pause your voice between words in a single command, either during training or
     operation – as the unit has an automatic ¼ second timeout. Speak normally, in a
     natural, flowing voice. It is mandatory to let your words flow together when giving
     commands of two or more words. For example, say “GOTOSTANDBY” as if it is one
     word, not “GO---TO---STANDBY”. Also, note that speed and inflection of pronunciation
     must be the same every time you use the VRT. Although the VRT will work at different
     levels of volume for your voice, it is best to train the unit the same way it will be used. If
     it will be used indoors, you will naturally (and subconsciously) speak more softly, so
     position the microphone closer. Outdoors, your voice naturally compensates for the lack
     of acoustic reflection, and you subconsciously speak louder, so hold the microphone a
     little farther away (i.e, 1 inch from mouth). In all cases, watch the light on the device
     and strive to turn the LED to an amber color; remember, no light or green is too soft, red
     is too loud.

     Occasionally, a command may need to be repeated, this does not usually indicate a
     problem, other than you may be speaking either too loud or too soft - watch the lights. It
     also may be that the background noise level was simply too loud. Move away from the
     noise source or wait for the noise level to drop. This unit has been tested to work at the
     side of a road with cars moving by at 45-50 mph (approx 90db). However, you must



                                                                   C-1
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the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     remain calm and repeat commands in the same tone of voice and same cadence in
     which you recorded them for it to recognize your commands.

     Sometimes a command will simply not be recognized after repeated attempts. In this
     case, the unit must be re-trained for that situation. Re-training will not overwrite any
     existing training in other situations/events. When used with the ticket book, the user
     must be careful to hold the microphone the same way each time as it was recorded
     (remember to keep the microphone close to the mouth).

     Commands that start with S or F, H, M, or N (soft sounds) can be a problem - you must
     enunciate these clearly. When you say the word “male” for example, the sound is
     actually coming out of your nose (try plugging your nose and saying the letters N or M).
     While the trigger command can actually be anything the user wants, as long as it can be
     remembered and repeated, some sounds do not work well and are not recommended for
     this device (for more detail see linguist analysis section of the VRT Evaluation Report).
     Remember that in Standby, the only commands that work are "Start-Training" and
     "Translate".

     To use the device, turn it on and set the desired language (“Different Language”). When
     you encounter someone who does not speak English, determine what language they
     speak, then, use the "Begin Directions" command in that language. This command will
     explain to the person what you are doing. The Begin Directions command translates to
     the following:

               " I am using this device to translate my voice into <language>.
               Please respond by using hand gestures, or writing your
               answers. Use head movements for yes and no."

     At this point the officers should record their commands into the devices. This can
     be done in the same room in which the lecture was delivered without undue
     concern or problems of too much noise being made. Next the instructor should
     individually test each officer’s proficiency at operating the device in and out of
     doors. Two hours is ample time to train up to eight officers in this fashion.
     Officers should then be told to practice with the device at home, in public, etc.,
     until they are comfortable with it, before taking it into the field for on-the-job use.




                                                                   C-2
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
                      APPENDIX D - FIELD EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE

     Device # _____                 Duty _______

     1.    While recording your voice onto the unit, did you encounter any problems? No; Yes
           (If yes, describe)




     2.    How long did it take you to become comfortable with the device?




     3.    Were the directions in the booklet confusing or unclear? No; Yes
           (If Yes, explain)




     4.    Where did you use the VRT (street, indoors, crowds, rain?):



     5.    How long did you have the device? (# days) _______

     6.    Total number of times used for Police work______

     7.    Check Languages Used on Duty: Spanish ______ Vietnamese _____ Cantonese ______

     8.    Check Situations/events Used on Duty:                   ______ Greetings                         ______ Crowd
     Control
                                                         ______ Traffic Stop                      ______ Domestic
                                                         ______ Found Child                       ______ Field Interview
                                                         ______ Medical                           ______ Interview Victim

     9.    Problems Encountered: (Check all that apply)
              ____ Microphone didn’t pick up my voice                        ____ Device gave wrong commands
              ____ Couldn’t find commands on Cards                           ____ Power Switch / Battery Life
              ____ Did not work in Noisy Environments                        ____ Citizens put off/offended by it
              ____ Commands beginning with letter “S”                        ____ Microphone Awkward
              ____ Other ________________________

     -- go to next page --




                                                                   D-1
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
                 APPENDIX D (Cont.)- FIELD EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE
     10. What recommendations or features would you suggest for the device?




     11. What additional Commands should be added?




           Thank You for your participation in this effort. Please return the completed form to:

                                                     Tom Franz, Code 4973
                                                          NAWCTSD
                                                    12350 Research Parkway
                                                              Orlando, FL

                                              Fax Number: (407) 380-4219
                                             Phone Number: (407) 380-4631
                                            Email: FranzTM@navair.navy.mil




                                                                   D-2
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the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
                                                         APPENDIX E

                                            MICROPHONE TEST RESULTS


     NAWCTSD Testing and Modifications

     The four VRT units supplied to NAWCTSD were modified to allow connecting different
     microphones (mics), and two of the units were modified for connection to more
     professional type mics.

          •         NIJ # 001, 002 - have 5v power for electret microphone
          •         NIJ # 003, 004 - have been modified for use for dynamicrophone or phantom
                                     powered mics. 5v power is no longer on the microphone
                                     signal line.

     Ambient background noise was measured using a Radio Shack Sound Pressure Level
     (SPL) Meter. All noise measurements were made with 'C' weighting. 'C' weighting
     measures sound using a flat response curve (all frequencies are given equal weight),
     while 'A' weighting mimics the response of the human ear. Note that while a person
     may think the background noise level is low, the actual noise level can be 15-20dB
     higher (# 4, inside car). This is due to the characteristic of the human ear being less
     sensitive to rumble and other low frequency sound.

     Above 95dB, the VRT becomes useless, due to background noise masking the output of
     the box.

     Ambient background noise measurements were taken of the following:

          1)        quiet room (studio)                            42dB avg
          2)        office                                         60-65dB avg
          3)        side of highway 50                             85-95dB avg, 105dB peaks
          4)        inside a police car, at 55 mph                 85dB avg, 70dB (avg, A wt)

     Microphones were evaluated in a quiet studio and in a noisy environment. Loud music
     was used as the noise source, as it is random and wide-spectrum. Pink noise is a
     broadband audio test signal, similar to radio static. The ambient noise limit is defined as
     the point at which the VRT microphone no longer responds or recognizes commands
     (over 50%).

     Micophone Evaluation Results:

          VRT Original Equipment electret microphone
          •     Pattern - Omni?
          •     Output Sensitivity = 5.0mv @ 76dB pink noise
          •     80dB ambient noise limit (music)
          •     This microphone required a lot of re-training.



                                                                   E-1
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
          •         approximately 70% recognition accuracy - in a quiet room


          Radio Shack 33-3028 lavalier electret mic
          •      Pattern - Omni
          • Output = 2.0mv @ 76dB pink noise
          • 75dB ambient noise limit (music)
          • No re-training was needed
          • 100% recognition accuracy
          • Note: this microphone was excellent at recognizing different voice inflections.

          Noise-cancelling electret microphone (homemade by Tim McQuen)
          • Pattern - Unknown
          • Output = 2.0mv @ 76dB pink noise (microphone fixed)
          • Output = 10mv @ 76dB pink noise (microphone moving)
          • 85dB ambient noise limit (music)
          • Some re-training was needed
          • 85-90% recognition accuracy
          • Note: the orientation of this microphone is critical - it must not be moved while in
             use.

          Crown CM-311A head/collar worn condenser microphone (noise rejecting)
          • Pattern - Differoid
          • Output = 0.4mv @ 76dB pink noise
          • 95dB ambient noise limit (music)
          • Very little or no re-training needed
          • 98% recognition accuracy, up to the noise limit.
          • Note: this microphone was also tested in stairwell and at the side of highway 50.

     Microphone Field Tests

     Microphone field tests were conducted on a residential street with 25-30 mph traffic
     passing by as often as every eight seconds, and up to 90 second intervals without traffic.
     Decibel ratings ranged from very quiet, up to 85 decibels when large trucks passed by.
     None of the microphones were able to operate when noise readings exceeded 80-90
     decibels, although if they had one could not have heard the translated phrase anyway.
     The command NEGATIVE was not recognized, although trained successfully, by any of
     the units. On two of the tests, (see D-7, D-8) two thirds of the commands not recognized
     were composed of unvoiced components. (For example, “Chest Hurt,” “How Tall”, “He
     Strike”). On the other two tests, over a third of the problem commands were unvoiced in
     nature. Finally, unit # 4 had the microphone jack break off during the trials. The design
     of these joints was improved prior to the field evaluations.

     Crown Microphone (standard): Test had 21 errors occur, 9 were not recognized, 12
     were repeats-required. Laboratory tests confirmed that the device could not recognize
     6* of commands. Unvoiced commands comprised 66% of the commands that the
     device was unable to discern (see table of results for this microphone).

     Crown Microphone on Ticket Book: Handled very well, comfortable to use. Field test
     had 3 of 29 commands not recognized in an extremely noisy (10% in a 90+ dB.


                                                                   E-2
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     environment) Highway tests had 20 errors occur, 9 were not recognized, 11 were
     repeats-required. In Laboratory tests with this microphone configuration, 13 errors
     occurred, 6 were repeats-required, 7 commands were not recognized by the device.
     Unvoiced commands comprised 37% of the commands that the device was unable to
     discern.

     Original Microphone: Tested on the Ticket Book. Handled very well, comfortable to use.
     Test had 28 errors occur, 13 were not recognized, 15 were repeats-required. In
     Laboratory tests with this microphone afterwords, 13 of the commands were still not
     recognized by the device. Unvoiced commands comprised 64% of the commands that
     the device was unable to discern.

     TGX-5: Tested on the Ticket Book. Responded poorly, although also comfortable to
     use on the ticket book. Test had 33 errors occur, 14 were not recognized, 19 were
     repeats-required. In Laboratory tests with this microphone afterwords, 15 of the
     commands were still not recognized by the device. Unvoiced commands comprised 38%
     of the commands that the device was unable to discern.

     Crown Microphone Field Test Results

     Situation/Event                         Not Recognized                                Repeats Required
     Medical                                 Chest Hurt * **                               She Drugs **
                                             You Shot **
     Traffic Stop                            Driver's License
                                             Write Name
     Field Interview                         Hands Behind* **                              Door Open
                                                                                           Hands Visible **
                                                                                           Arrest Warrant
     Crowd Control                                                                         Tear Gas **
     Found Child                             Lost Before                                   Police Before
                                             Father Work **                                Mother Coming * **
     Domestic                                Kids in Danger * **                           He Strike **
                                             File Complaint **                             Hit Before * **
     Greetings                               Negative
     Interview Victim                        How Tall * **                                 Pants Color **

     *        Six Commands not recognized in subsequent laboratory tests, all Six (100%)later
              identified as having Unvoiced Components
     **       Fourteen of 21 (66%) Commands were later identified as having Unvoiced
              components
     Italics: Only single-word Problem Phrase; all others (95%) were Multi-Word Commands




                                                                   E-3
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     Original Microphone Field Test Results

     Situation/Event                 Not Recognized                                        Repeats Required
     Medical                         Taken Pills * **                                      Injected
                                     Breathing * = My Name                                 Chest Hurt * **
     Traffic Stop                    Vehicle Search,*                                      How Fast **
                                     Driver's License *                                    Too Fast **
                                     Tail Lights **                                        Not Current
                                     Current Address ** = Write Address
                                     Write Address * = Car Headlights
     Field Interview                 Police* **
     Crowd Control
     Found Child                     Address*                                              Mother Coming * **
                                     Someone Coming **                                     Show Hurt **
      Domestic                       Knife **
                                     Kids in Danger **
                                     Copy Order **
     Greetings                       How are You * **
                                     Sign Name * ** = My Name
     Interview Victim                Mustache
                                     Shirt Color **
                                     Man **
                                     Truck,*
                                     Car **
                                     Van*

     *        Twelve Commands not recognized in subsequent laboratory tests, (50%) had
              unvoiced components
     **       Eighteen of 28 (64%) commands were later identified as having unvoiced
              components
      Italics: Single-word problem phrases; others (64%) were multi-word commands




                                                                   E-4
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     TGX-5 Beyerdynamicrophone Test Results

     Situation/Event                           Not Recognized                             Repeats Required
     Medical                                   Ambulance
                                               Assaulted
                                               You Ill
                                               Nauseated
                                               She Drugs **
                                               Medical Card *
      Traffic Stop *                           Vehicle Search
                                               Name
                                               Address * **
     Field Interview                           Hands Behind * **
     Crowd Control
     Found Child                               Father Coming * ** =                       Lost Before *
                                               Mother Coming                              Brother Sister
                                               How Here **                                Show Hurt **
                                               Address *
     Domestic                                  Hit Before * **                            He Strike **
                                               Who Custody * **                           Children **
                                                                                          Children There * **
     Greetings                                 Speak English                              Good day
                                               Negative *                                 Good Afternoon
                                                                                          Name Called
     Interview Victim *                        Go on Foot *
                                               In Car
                                               In Truck
                                               Van = Man
                                               Know Suspect
                                               Plate Number
                                               Color = Car **
                                               How Tall * **

     *        Twelve commands not recognized in subsequent laboratory tests, of these
              seven (58%) were Identified as having unvoiced components
     **       Twelve of 32 (38%) Commands were later identified as having unvoiced
              components
     Italics: Single-word problem phrases, others (78%) were multi-word commands




                                                                   E-5
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     Crown Microphone Test (Mounted On Ticket Book)

     Situation/Event                         Not Recognized                                 Repeats Required
     Medical                                 Chest Hurt * **                                Relax
                                             OK                                             Medical Card
     Traffic Stop                            Write Name *
     Field Interview                         Hands Behind * **                              Door Open
                                             Arrest Warrant
     Crowd Control
     Found Child                             Father Coming * **                             Address*
                                             = Mother Coming
     Domestic                                Your Husband                                   He Strike **
     Greetings                               Write When                                     Name Called
                                             Good Afternoon                                 How Old **
     Interview Victim                        How Tall * **                                  Shirt Color **
                                                                                            More Than One
                                                                                            Write All *

     *        Seven Commands not recognized in subsequent laboratory tests, of these
              four (57%) were identified as having unvoiced components
     **       Seven of 19 (37%) Commands were later identified as having unvoiced
               components
     Italics: Single-word Problem Phrases, others (90%) were Multi-Word Commands


     Audio-Technica Microphone (Head Mount)

     Microphone was too uncomfortable to wear in field tests.


     Microphone Evaluation Conclusions

     The original equipment microphone supplied with the VRT had the worst performance,
     while the Crown CM-311 microphone had the best overall performance.

     The Crown CM-311 microphone has the best noise immunity of any microphone, and
     has fair ability to recognize changing voice inflection. Performed well in echoic stairwell.
     On a busy six-lane highway, commands sometimes had to be repeated several times,
     but no commands were processed incorrectly. Sometimes a command simply could not
     be recognized ("translate"). On a six-lane divided highway with heavy traffic the unit was
     reliable at the workable limit of performance. Cost $220 each.

     The Radio Shack lavalier microphone had the least re-training needed, and is able to
     recognize changing voice inflections, after training. However, this microphone only
     works in a quiet environment. Cost $29.

     The VRT unit had more difficulty with long phrases, and commands starting with the
     letter 'S'. Shorter one-word commands seemed to work better, since there was less
     chance for different speed and inflection of pronunciation. While a command can be



                                                                   E-6
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the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     anything the user wants, as long as it can be remembered. The VRT often confused
     the commands "Sign Name" and "My Name.” Later it was learned that “Name” and “My
     Name” are composed primarily of nasal consonants, which are emitted through the nasal
     passages, hence not reliably discerned with microphones located in front of the mouth.
     The word “sign” begins with an unvoiced speech component and ends with a nasal
     consonant, making it equally difficult for the computer to discern reliably (see linguist
     analysis section).




                                                                   E-7
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
         APPENDIX F – LINGUIST CORRECTED LAW ENFORCEMENTCOMMANDS
                       (Corrections Underlined in Right column)
INITIAL                                                                                               INITIAL

“Start Directions” ................................... Start Directions Paragraph                     “Begin Directions”........................ Directions Paragraph Begins
“You’re Under Arrest”............................ YOU’RE UNDER ARREST                                 “You’re Under Arrest”............................ YOU’RE UNDER ARREST
“Put Hands ......................................PUT HANDS ON YOUR HEAD                               “Place Hands” ................................PUT HANDS ON YOUR HEAD
“Calm Down” .............................................................. CALM DOWN                  “Calm Down” .............................................................. CALM DOWN
“Hello”.................................................................................... HELLO     “Greetings”.......................................................................... HELLO
“My Name” ..............................................I AM A POLICE OFFICER                         “My Name” ................................................. I AM POLICE OFFICER
“Change Language” ..................................... WHICH LANGUAGE?                               “Different Language” ..................................... WHICH LANGUAGE
“Situation” ...................................................... WHICH SITUATION?                   “Event”.....................................................................WHICH EVENT
“My Location” ............................................. CURRENT LOCATION                          “My Location” ...............................................CURRENT LOCATION
“Go To Standby” ....................................................... ON STANDBY                    “Go to Standby”......................................................... ON STANDBY

CHANGE LANGUAGE COMMANDS                                                                              CHANGE LANGUAGE COMMANDS
“Viet” ......................................................................... VIETNAMESE           “Viet”...........................................................................VIETNAMESE
“Spanish” .......................................................................... SPANISH          “Begin Spanish”.............................................................. SPANISH
"Cantonese” .............................................................. CANTONESE                  “Cantonese” ............................................................... CANTONESE
"Creole" .............................................................................. CREOLE        “Creole” .............................................................................. CREOLE

SITUATION COMMANDS                                                                                    EVENT COMMANDS
“Greetings” ...................................................................GREETINGS              “Meetings” .................................................................... MEETINGS
“Medical”............................................................................MEDICAL          “Medical”............................................................................MEDICAL
“Interview Victim”................................................ INTEVIEW VICTIM                    “Interview Victim”............................................INTERVIEW VICTUM
“Found Child” ........................................................... FOUND CHILD                 “Lost Child” ............................................................... LOST CHILD
“Field Interview”................................................. FIELD INTERVIEW                    “Entry” ..................................................................................ENTRY
“Traffic Stop” ..........................................................TRAFFIC STOP                 “Traffic Stop” ...........................................................TRAFFIC STOP
“Crowd Control” .............................................. CROWD CONTROL                          “Crowd Control”................................................ CROWD CONTROL
“Domestic”......................................................................DOMESTIC              “Domestic”......................................................................DOMESTIC

COMMANDS IN STANDBY                                                                                   COMMANDS IN STANDBY
“Translate” .................................................................. TRANSLATE              “Translate”....................................................................TRANSLATE
“Start Training” ...................................................START TRAINING                    “Begin Training” ............................................... BEGIN TRAINING



GREETINGS
                                                                                                      MEETINGS
“Did You See?”............................... DID YOU SEE THIS HAPPEN?
                                                                                                      “Did You See?”............................... “DID YOU SE THIS HAPPEN?”
“Show Me”............................... SHOW ME WHERE IT HAPPENED
                                                                                                      “Show Me”............................. “SHOW ME WHERE IT HAPPENED”
“Write When” ....................... WRITE DOWN WHEN IT HAPPENED
                                                                                                      “Write When ......................“WRITE DOWN WHEN IT HAPPENED”
“Good Morning” ................................................... GOOD MORNING
                                                                                                      “Good Morning” .................................................“GOOD MORNING”
“Good Day”........................................................ HAVE A NICE DAY
                                                                                                      “Good Day”...................................................... “HAVE A NICE DAY”
“Good Afternoon” ........................................... GOOD AFTERNOON
                                                                                                      “Good Afternoon” .........................................“GOOD AFTERNOON”
“Good Evening” .................................................... GOOD EVENING
                                                                                                      “Good Evening” .................................................. “GOOD EVENING”
“How Are You?” ....................................................HOW ARE YOU?
                                                                                                      “You OK” ........................................................................ “YOU OK”
“Goodbye” ..................................................................... GOOD-BYE
                                                                                                      “Goodbye” .................................................................... “GOODBYE”
“Speak English?”................................ DO YOU SPEAK ENGLISH?
                                                                                                      “English”........................................... “DO YOU SPEAK ENGLISH”
“Understand?” ........................................ DO YOU UNDERSTAND?
                                                                                                      “Understand?” ........................................ “DO YOU UNDERSTAND”
“Don’t Understand”.....................................I DON’T UNDERSTAND
                                                                                                      “Don’t Understand”.................................. “I DON’T UNDERSTAND”
“Slower” .................................................PLEASE SPEAK SLOWER
                                                                                                      “Slower” ...............................................“PLEASE SPEAK SLOWER”
“Repeat” ................................ PLEASE REPEAT WHAT YOU SAID
                                                                                                      “Repeat” ..............................“PLEASE REPEAT WHAT YOU SAID”
“Thank You” .................................................................THANK YOU
                                                                                                      “Gracias”................................................................... “THANK YOU”
“You’re Welcome” ........................................... YOU’RE WELCOME
                                                                                                      “You’re Welcome” ......................................... “YOU’RE WELCOME”
“Yes”...........................................................................................YES
                                                                                                      “Yes”........................................................................................ “YES”
“Negative”........................................................................NEGATIVE
                                                                                                      “Negative”.................................................................................. “NO”
“Sign Name” .......................................PLEASE SIGN YOUR NAME
                                                                                                      “Write Name”..................................“PLEASE SIGN YOUR NAME”
“Name Called ....... WRITE THE NAME THAT PEOPLE CALL YOU
                                                                                                      “Name Called” .... “WRITE THE NAME THAT PEOPLE CALL YOU”
“Family” .....................................WHICH IS YOUR FAMILY NAME?
                                                                                                      “Last Name” ...........................“WHICH IS YOUR FAMILY NAME?”
“Address”..................................PLEASE WRITE YOUR ADDRESS
                                                                                                      “Address”................................“PLEASE WRITE YOUR ADDRESS”
“Telephone”.................. WHAT IS YOUR TELEPHONE NUMBER?
                                                                                                      “Phone” ........................ “WRITE YOUR TELEPHONE NUMBER?”
“How Old?” ................................................... HOW OLD ARE YOU?
                                                                                                      “Your Age” ................................................“HOW OLD ARE YOU?”
“You Married?” ..............................................ARE YOU MARRIED?
                                                                                                      “You Married?” ............................................. “ARE YOU MARRIED”




                                                                                                      F-1
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
TRAFFIC STOP                                                                                         TRAFFIC STOP

“Turn Off Engine” ......................................TURN OFF THE ENGINE                          “Turn Off Engine” .......................................TURN OFF THE ENGINE
“Step Out”.......................................... STEP OUT OF THE VEHICLE                         “Get Out” ........................................... STEP OUT OF THE VEHICLE
“Vehicle Search?”......PERMISSION TO DO A VEHICLE SEARCH?                                            “Vehicle Search?”.......PERMISSION TO DO A VEHICLE SEARCH?
“Car Taken” ...........YOUR CAR IS BEING TAKEN BY THE POLICE                                         “Car Taken” ...........YOUR CAR IS BEING TAKEN BY THE POLICE.
“How Fast?”................................. HOW FAST WERE YOU GOING?                                “How Fast?”.................................. HOW FAST WERE YOU GOING?
“Too Fast”................. YOU WERE EXCEEDING THE SPEED LIMIT                                       “Too Fast”................. YOU WERE EXCEEDING THE SPEED LIMIT.
“Red Light” ................... YOU DROVE THROUGH THE RED LIGHT                                      “Red Light” ...................... YO DROVE THROUGH THE RED LIGHT.
“Stop Sign” ................... YOU DROVE THROUGH THE STOP SIGN                                      “Stop Sign” ................... YOU DROVE THROUGH THE STOP SIGN.
“Illegal Turn” ................................... YOU MADE AN ILLEGAL TURN                          “Illegal Turn” ................................... YOU MADE AN ILLEGAL TURN.
“Car Headlights” ..... THE CAR HEADLIGHTS ARE NOT WORKING                                            “Car Headlights” ..............THE HEADLIGHTS ARE NOT WORKING.
“Tail lights”.................THE CAR TAILLIGHTS ARE NOT WORKING                                     “Rear Lights” ............THE CAR TAILLIGHTS ARE NOT WORKING.
“Driver’s License” ............. MAY I SEE YOUR DRIVER'S LICENSE?                                    “Driver’s License” .............. MAY I SEE YOUR DRIVER’S LICENSE?
“Take It Out” ................................................................. TAKE IT OUT          “Remove It” ................................................................. TAKE IT OUT.
“Current Address?”..............IS THIS YOUR CURRENT ADDRESS?                                        “Current Address?”...............IS THIS YOUR CURRENT ADDRESS?
“Registration”............. MAY I SEE THE VEHICLE REGISTRATION?                                      “Registration”.............. MAY I SEE THE VEHICLE REGISTRATION?
“Not Current” ...................THE REGISTRATION IS NOT CURRENT                                     “Not Current” ...................THE REGISTRATION IS NOT CURRENT.
“Insurance” ........................................DO YOU HAVE INSURANCE?                           “Insurance” ..........................................DO YOU HAVE INSURANCE.
“Citation”........................................I AM ISSUING YOU A CITATION                        “Ticket” .............................................I AM ISSUING YOU A TICKET.
“Write Name”....................................................WRITE YOUR NAME                      “Write Name”....................................................WRITE YOUR NAME.
“Other Name?” .........................DO YOU USE ANY OTHER NAME?                                    “Other Name” ............................DO YOU USE ANY OTHER NAME?
“Write Address” .........................................WRITE YOUR ADDRESS                          “Write Address” .........................................WRITE YOUR ADDRESS.
“Name Address” ................... WRITE YOUR NAME AND ADDRESS                                       “Name Address” ................... WRITE YOUR NAME AND ADDRESS.
“Car Owner” ............................. ARE YOU THE VEHICLE OWNER?                                 “Car Owner” .............................. ARE YOU THE VEHICLE OWNER?
“No Guilt”....WHEN YOU SIGN YOU ARE NOT ADMITTING GUILT                                              “No Guilt”....WHEN YOU SIGN YOU ARE NOT ADMITTING GUILT.
“Pay Fine”...... YOU PAY THE FINE (BY MAIL) AT THIS ADDRESS                                          “Payment” .... YOU PAY THE FINE (BY MAIL) AT THIS ADDRESS.




FIELD INTERVIEW                                                                                      ENTRY
“Police” .................................................................................. POLICE   “Police” .................................................................................. POLICE.
“Stop”......................................................................... STOP, POLICE         “Halt” ........................................................................ STOP, POLICE.
“Door Open” ................................POLICE, OPEN THE DOOR NOW                                “Door Open” ................................POLICE, OPEN THE DOOR NOW.
“Weapons?”..................DO YOU HAVE ANY WEAPONS ON YOU?                                          “Weapons?”...................DO YOU HAVE ANY WEAPONS ON YOU?
“Show Hands” ......................................... SHOW ME YOUR HANDS                            “Your Hands” .......................................... SHOW ME YOUR HANDS.
“Hands Visible”....KEEP YOUR HANDS WHERE I CAN SEE THEM                                              “Hands Visible”....KEEP YOUR HANDS WHERE I CAN SEE THEM.
“Hands in Front” ...............................KEEP YOU HANDS IN FRONT                              “Hands in Front” ............................ KEEP YOUR HANDS IN FRONT.
“Hands Behind” .............PUT YOUR HANDS BEHIND YOUR BACK                                          “Hands behind”..............PUT YOUR HANDS BEHIND YOUR BACK.
 “Arrest Lady” ..........................I’M GOING TO ARREST THIS LADY                               “Arrest Lady” ...........................I’M GOING TO ARREST THIS LADY.
“Drugs on You?”................ DO YOU HAVE ANY DRUGS ON YOU?                                        “Any Drugs?”.................... DO YOU HAVE ANY DRUGS ON YOU?
“Probation?” ..................ARE YOU ON PROBATION OR PAROLE?                                       “Probation?” ...................ARE YOU ON PROBATION OR PAROLE?
“Identification?”.. DO YOU HAVE ANY IDENTIFICATION ON YOU?                                           “Identification?”... DO YOU HAVE ANY IDENTIFICATION ON YOU?
“Search Warrant”......... POLICE, WE HAVE A SEARCH WARRANT                                           “Search Warrant”......... POLICE, WE HAVE A SEARCH WARRANT.
“Arrest Warrant” ........ POLICE, WE HAVE AN ARREST WARRANT                                          “Arrest Warrant” ........ POLICE, WE HAVE AN ARREST WARRANT.



CROWD CONTROL                                                                                        CROWD CONTROL

“Keep Moving”........................................................... KEEP MOVING                 “Move” ...................................................................... KEEP MOVING.
“Break Up Now”...................... FAILURE TO BREAK UP NOW WILL                                    “Break Up Now”....................... FAILURE TO BREAK UP NOW WILL
                                                    RESULT IN YOUR ARREST                            .............................................................. RESULT IN YOUR ARREST.
“Tear Gas”......................LEAVE IMMEDIATELY OR WE WILL USE                                     “Tear Gas”.......................LEAVE IMMEDIATELY OR WE WILL USE
                                                                  TEAR GASON YOU                     ...........................................................................TEAR GAS ON YOU.
“Barricades”............................... STAY BEHIND THE BARRICADES                               “Barricades”............................... STAY BEHIND THE BARRICADES.
“Against the law” ... WHAT YOU'RE DOING IS AGAINST THE LAW                                           “Against the law” ... WHAT YOU’RE DOING IS AGAINST THE LAW.
“Group Leader”..............................WHO IS THE GROUP LEADER?                                 “Group Leader”...............................WHO IS THE GROUP LEADER?




                                                                                                     F-2
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
FOUND CHILD                                                                                LOST CHILD
“Your Name”..............................................WHAT IS YOUR NAME?                “Your Name”..................................................... WHAT IS YOUR NAME?
“How Old” ..................................................... HOW OLD ARE YOU?           “Age”....................................................................HOW OLD ARE YOU?
“Someone Coming?”.............. IS SOMEONE COMING FOR YOU?                                 “Adult Coming” .............................IS SOMEONE COMING FOR YOU?
“Show Hurt” .......... ARE YOU HURT? IF YES, SHOW ME WHERE                                 “Where Hurt?” ............ARE YOU HURT? IF YES, SHOW ME WHERE.
“How Here?”....................................... HOW DID YOU GET HERE?                   “Get Here?” ...............................................HOW DID YOU GET HERE?
“Stranger” ........................ DID A STRANGER BRING YOU HERE?                         “Stranger” ................................DID A STRANGER BRING YOU HERE?
“Lost Before?” ..............HAVE YOU EVER BEEN LOST BEFORE?                               “Lost Before?” ..................... HAVE YOU EVER BEEN LOST BEFORE?
“Police Before?” .........POLICE EVER LOOK FOR YOU BEFORE?                                 “Police Before?” ................ POLICE EVER LOOK FOR YOU BEFORE?
“How Long?”......................HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN HERE?                              “How Long?”............................. HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN HERE?
“Live with Who?” ................................. WHO DO YOU LIVE WITH?                   “Live with who?” .......................................... WHO DO YOU LIVE WITH?
“Where Parents?”........................ WHERE ARE YOUR PARENTS?                           “Where Parents?”................................WHERE ARE YOUR PARENTS?
“Brother/Sister?”........ DO YOU HAVE BROTHERS OR SISTERS?                                 “Brother/Sister? .................DO YOU HAVE BROTHERS OR SISTERS?
“School?”............................. WHERE DO THEY GO TO SCHOOL?                         “Name School?” ........................WHERE DO THEY GO TO SCHOOL?
“Telephone”.........PLEASE WRITE YOUR TELEPHONE NUMBER                                     “Phone” .......... PLEASE WRITE DOWN YOU TELEPHONE NUMBER.
“Address”.................... DO YOU KNOW YOUR HOME ADDRESS?                               “Address”............................DO YOU KNOW YOUR HOME ADDRESS?
“Dad’s Name” ................................WHAT IS YOUR DAD’S NAME?                      “Dad’s Name” ....................................... WHAT IS YOUR DAD’S NAME?
“Mom’s Name”..............................WHAT IS YOUR MOM’S NAME?                         “Mom’s Name”..................................... WHAT IS YOUR MOM’S NAME?
“Parents Work?” ................WHERE DO YOUR PARENTS WORK?                                “Parent’s Work” ........................ WHERE DO YOUR PARENTS WORK?
“Work Telephone” ........ DO YOU KNOW THE WORK PHONE #'s?                                  “Work phone” ........DO YOU KNOW THE WORK PHONE NUMBERS?




                                                                                           INTERVIEW VICTUM
INTERVIEW VICTIM
                                                                                           " Victim?" ......................................................WHO IS THE VICTIM?
" Victim?" ......................................................WHO IS THE VICTIM?
                                                                                           "What Time?" ........................................... WHEN DID IT HAPPEN?
"What Time?" ........................................... WHEN DID IT HAPPEN?
                                                                                           "Know Suspect?"................... DO YOU KNOW THE SUSPECT OR
"Know Suspect?"................... DO YOU KNOW THE SUSPECT OR
                                                                                           .......................................................................... WHERE HE LIVES?
                                                                    WHERE HE LIVES?
                                                                                           "Go Where"................... WHICH WAY DID THE SUSPECT FLEE?
"Flee Where" ................. WHICH WAY DID THE SUSPECT FLEE?
                                                                                           "More Than One?" .. WAS THERE MORE THAN ONE SUSPECT?
"More Than One?" .. WAS THERE MORE THAN ONE SUSPECT?
                                                                                           "Weapons?".....................DID THE SUSPECT HAVE A WEAPON?
"Weapons?".....................DID THE SUSPECT HAVE A WEAPON?
                                                                                           "Go on Foot?"...................DID THE SUSPECT LEAVE ON FOOT?
"Go on Foot?"...................DID THE SUSPECT LEAVE ON FOOT?
                                                                                           "In Car?" ............................DID THE SUSPECT LEAVE IN A CAR?
"In Car?" ............................DID THE SUSPECT LEAVE IN A CAR?
                                                                                           "In Truck?"....................DID THE SUSPECT LEAVE IN A TRUCK?
"In Truck?"....................DID THE SUSPECT LEAVE IN A TRUCK?
                                                                                           "In Van?" ...........................DID THE SUSPECT LEAVE IN A VAN?
"In Van?" ...........................DID THE SUSPECT LEAVE IN A VAN?
                                                                                           "Vehicle Color".........................WHAT COLOR IS THE VEHICLE?
"Color" .......................................WHAT COLOR IS THE VEHICLE?
                                                                                           "Old Vehicle?" ............................................ IS THE VEHICLE OLD?
"Old Vehicle?" ............................................ IS THE VEHICLE OLD?
                                                                                           "Auto?".................................................. IS THE VEHICLE A CAR?
"Car?" ..................................................... IS THE VEHICLE A CAR?
                                                                                           "Truck?"..............................................IS THE VEHICLE A TRUCK?
"Truck?"..............................................IS THE VEHICLE A TRUCK?
                                                                                           "Male" ......................... IS THE SUSPECT A MAN OR A WOMAN?
"Man"........................... IS THE SUSPECT A MAN OR A WOMAN?
                                                                                           "Age"..............................................................................HOW OLD?
"How Old".......................................................................HOW OLD?
                                                                                           "Show How Tall"............SHOW ME HOW TALL THE SUSPECT IS
"Show How Tall"............SHOW ME HOW TALL THE SUSPECT IS
                                                                                           "Bigger?"........................IS THE SUSPECT HEAVIER THAN ME?
"Heavier?" .......................IS THE SUSPECT HEAVIER THAN ME?
                                                                                           "White"................................................. IS THE SUSPECT WHITE?
"Caucasian".......................................... IS THE SUSPECT WHITE?
                                                                                           "Latino" ................................................IS THE SUSPECT LATINO?
"Latino" ................................................IS THE SUSPECT LATINO?
                                                                                           "Black" .................................................. IS THE SUSPECT BLACK?
"Black" .................................................. IS THE SUSPECT BLACK?
                                                                                           "Asian"................................................... IS THE SUSPECT ASIAN?
"Asian"................................................... IS THE SUSPECT ASIAN?
                                                                                           "Mustache?" ............. DOES THE SUSPECT HAVE A MUSTACHE
"Mustache?" ............. DOES THE SUSPECT HAVE A MUSTACHE
                                                                                           "Beard?" ......................... DOES THE SUSPECT HAVE A BEARD?
"Beard?" ......................... DOES THE SUSPECT HAVE A BEARD?
                                                                                           "Bald?".......................................................IS THE SUSPECT BALD
"Bald?".......................................................IS THE SUSPECT BALD
                                                                                           "Color Shirt" ..................................... WHAT COLOR WAS SHIRT?
"Shirt Color"....................................... WHAT COLOR WAS SHIRT?
                                                                                           "Color Pants " .............................. WHAT COLOR WERE PANTS?
"Pants Color"................................. WHAT COLOR WERE PANTS?
                                                                                           "Color Jacket " .............................. WHAT COLOR WAS JACKET?
"Jacket Color"................................. WHAT COLOR WAS JACKET?
                                                                                           "Plate Number"............DO YOU KNOW THE LICENSE NUMBER?
"Plate Number"............DO YOU KNOW THE LICENSE NUMBER?
                                                                                            .................................................................. IF SO, WRITE IT HERE
                                                                 IF SO, WRITE IT HERE
                                                                                           "Write All" ................................ WRITE YOUR NAME, ADDRESS &
"Write All" ............... WRITE YOUR NAME, ADDRESS & PHONE #
                                                                                           ........................................................................................... PHONE #



                                                                                           F-3
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
DOMESTIC                                                                                              DOMESTIC

 “You Injured?” ................................................. ARE YOU INJURED?                     “You Injured?” ................................................. ARE YOU INJURED?
 “He Strike?” ................................................... DID HE STRIKE YOU?                   “Man Strike?”................................................ DID HE STRIKE YOU?
 “She Strike?” ...............................................DID SHE STRIKE YOU?                      “Woman Strike?”........................................DID SHE STRIKE YOU?
 “No Hit” .................. IN THIS STATE IT IS AGAINST THE LAW FOR                                   “Don’t Hit”............. IN THIS STATE IT IS AGAINST THE LAW FOR
                                           SOMEONE TO HIT ANOTHER PERSON                              ...........................................SOMEONE TO HIT ANTOHER PERSON
 “Hit Before?”.................... HAS THIS PERSON HIT YOU BEFORE?                                     “Beat Before?”............... HAS THIS PERSON HIT YOU BEFORE?
 “He Weapon?”.................................. DOES HE HAVE A WEAPON?                                 “Man Weapon?”.............................. DOES HE HAVE A WEAPON?
 “She Weapon?” .............................. DOES SHE HAVE A WEAPON?                                  “Woman Weapon?”...................... DOES SHE HAVE A WEAPON?
 “Gun” ..................................................................................... A GUN?    “Gun” ..................................................................................... A GUN?
 “Knife?”............................................................................... A KNIFE?      “Knife?”............................................................................... A KNIFE?
 “Go To Jail” .......................... I AM TAKING THIS PERSON TO JAIL                               “Go To Jail” .......................... I AM TAKING THIS PERSON TO JAIL
 “Who Called?” ....................................WHO CALLED THE POLICE?                              “Who Called?” ....................................WHO CALLED THE POLICE?
 “Your Name”............................................... WHAT IS YOUR NAME?                         “Your Name”............................................... WHAT IS YOUR NAME?
 “Live Here” ..................................................... DO YOU LIVE HERE?                   “Live Here” ..................................................... DO YOU LIVE HERE?
 “Another Room”...........................LET'S TALK IN ANOTHER ROOM                                   “Another Room”...........................LET'S TALK IN ANOTHER ROOM
 “Together” ............................................DO YOU LIVE TOGETHER?                          “Together” ............................................DO YOU LIVE TOGETHER?
 “Your Husband”.....................IS THIS PERSON YOUR HUSBAND?                                       “Your Husband”.....................IS THIS PERSON YOUR HUSBAND?
 “Your Wife?” .....................................IS THIS PERSON YOUR WIFE                            “Your Wife?” .....................................IS THIS PERSON YOUR WIFE
 “Children?” ...........................................DO YOU HAVE CHILDREN?                          “Youngsters?” ....................................DO YOU HAVE CHILDREN?
 "Children There?"........................ ARE THE CHILDREN IN THERE?                                  "Children There?"........................ ARE THE CHILDREN IN THERE?
 “Kids In Danger” .......................ARE THE CHILDREN IN DANGER?                                   “Any Danger?”.........................ARE THE CHILDREN IN DANGER?
“Your Children?”.............DO YOU HAVE CHILDREN IN COMMON?                                          “Your Children?”.............DO YOU HAVE CHILDREN IN COMMON?
 “Who Custody?” ......... WHO HAS CUSTODY OF THE CHILDREN?                                             “Who Custody?” ......... WHO HAS CUSTODY OF THE CHILDREN?
 “File Complaint?”............. DO YOU WISH TO FILE A COMPLAINT?                                       “File Complaint?”............. DO YOU WISH TO FILE A COMPLAINT?
 “Temporary Shelter”.......DO YOU WISH TO STAY TEMPORARILY                                             “Temporary Shelter”.......DO YOU WISH TO STAY TEMPORARILY
...........................................................IN A SHELTER FOR WOMEN?                    ...........................................................IN A SHELTER FOR WOMEN?
 “Restraining Order” ................ IS THERE A RESTRAINING ORDER                                     “Restraining Order” ................ IS THERE A RESTRAINING ORDER
 .......................................................................... ON THAT PERSON?            .......................................................................... ON THAT PERSON?
 “Copy Order” ............. CAN I SEE A COPY OF THE RESTRAINING                                        “View Order”............. CAN I SEE A COPY OF THE RESTRAINING
 ..............................................ORDER OR THE CUSTODY ORDER?                             ..............................................ORDER OR THE CUSTODY ORDER?

MEDICAL                                                                                               MEDICAL

 "Pain?"............................................................DO YOU HAVE PAIN?                  "In Pain?".......................................................DO YOU HAVE PAIN?
 "Where Hurt?" .......................................... WHERE DOES IT HURT?                          "Where Hurt?" .......................................... WHERE DOES IT HURT?
 "Chest Hurt?" ............................. ARE YOU HAVING CHEST PAIN?                                "Pain in Chest?"........................ ARE YOU HAVING CHEST PAIN?
 "Breathing?" ..........ARE YOU HAVING DIFFICULTY BREATHING?                                           "Breathing?" ..........ARE YOU HAVING DIFFICULTY BREATHING?
 "Ambulance".................................... THE AMBULANCE IS COMING                               "Ambulance".................................... THE AMBULANCE IS COMING
 "OK".......................................................................YOU WILL BE OK             "OK".......................................................................YOU WILL BE OK
 "Caused Injury" .............. SHOW ME WHAT CAUSED THE INJURY                                         "Injury Caused" ............ SHOW ME WHAT CAUSED THE INJURY
 "You Shot?"..............................................HAVE YOU BEEN SHOT?                          "You Shot?"..............................................HAVE YOU BEEN SHOT?
 "Stabbed?" ........................................HAVE YOU BEEN STABBED?                             "Knifed?"..........................................HAVE YOU BEEN STABBED?
 “Assaulted?” ................................. HAVE YOU BEEN ASSAULTED?                               “Assaulted?” ................................. HAVE YOU BEEN ASSAULTED?
 “You Ill?”..................................................................... ARE YOU ILL?          “You Ill?”..................................................................... ARE YOU ILL?
 “Diabetic?”...................................................... ARE YOU DIABETIC?                   “Diabetic?”...................................................... ARE YOU DIABETIC?
 “Nauseated?” ............................................ARE YOU NAUSEATED?                           “Nauseated?” ............................................ARE YOU NAUSEATED?
 “Pregnant?” .................................................ARE YOU PREGNANT?                        “You Pregnant?” ........................................ARE YOU PREGNANT?
 “Swallowed?”....................... HAVE YOU SWALLOWED ANYTHING                                       “Swallowed?”....................... HAVE YOU SWALLOWED ANYTHING
................................................................. THAT MIGHT HURT YOU?                ................................................................. THAT MIGHT HURT YOU?
 “Injected?” ...................... HAVE YOU INJECTED ANYTHING THAT                                    “Injected?” ...................... HAVE YOU INJECTED ANYTHING THAT
........................................................................... MIGHT HURT YOU?           ........................................................................... MIGHT HURT YOU?
 “Taken Pills?” ..................YOU TAKEN ANY PILLS OR MEDICINE?                                     “Any Pills?”.....................YOU TAKEN ANY PILLS OR MEDICINE?
 “He Drugs?”..................................... HAS HE TAKEN ANY DRUGS?                              “Man Drugs?” ................................. HAS HE TAKEN ANY DRUGS?
 “She Drugs?”.................................HAS SHE TAKEN ANY DRUGS?                                 “Woman Drugs?” .........................HAS SHE TAKEN ANY DRUGS?
 “Relax”.....................................................................................RELAX     “Relax”.....................................................................................RELAX
 “Sit Down” ......................................................... PLEASE SIT DOWN                  “Please Sit”....................................................... PLEASE SIT DOWN
 “You Lay Down” ............... I NEED FOR YOU TO LAY DOWN NOW                                         “You Lay Down” ............... I NEED FOR YOU TO LAY DOWN NOW
 “Don’t Move”.............................................. PLEASE DO NOT MOVE                         “Don’t Move”.............................................. PLEASE DO NOT MOVE
 “Stand Back” .............. EVERYBODY PLEASE STAND BACK NOW                                           “Back”........................ EVERYBODY PLEASE STAND BACK NOW
 “Medications”............WRITE THE NAMES OF ANY MEDICATIONS                                           “Medications”............WRITE THE NAMES OF ANY MEDICATIONS
.................................................................... YOU ARE ALLERGIC TO              .................................................................... YOU ARE ALLERGIC TO
 “Doctors" ...........WRITE THE NAMES AND PHONE NUMBERS OF                                             “Doctors" ...........WRITE THE NAMES AND PHONE NUMBERS OF
................................................................................YOUR DOCTORS          ................................................................................YOUR DOCTORS
 “Medical Card?” ...................... DO YOU HAVE A MEDICAL CARD?                                    “Medical Card?” ...................... DO YOU HAVE A MEDICAL CARD?
 “Conditions”...............WRITE DOWN ANY MEDICAL CONDITIONS                                          “Conditions”...............WRITE DOWN ANY MEDICAL CONDITIONS
...........................................................................................YOU HAVE   ...........................................................................................YOU HAVE




                                                                                                      F-4
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
                                                          Appendix G

                                                   Programming the VRT

     The IWT Voice Response Translator (VRT) uses a set of image files and an executable
     VRT program that reside in the VRT’s compact flash card. The loadable image sound
     files are created by running a DOS utility (MWN.exe). The executable VRT program to
     use with the Crown CM311 microphone is 99_200_8. The loadable image files have
     two-digit names, without extension, (01, 02, 33, 40, 56, etc.)

           Overview

     The situations/events/commands/languages to be used must be chosen first. Sound files
     are recorded, edited, organized, and compiled into a VRT software loadable image as
     follows:

     NOTE: NAWCTSD used the audio editing program Cool Edit 2000 for steps 1 - 6. For steps 3,
     4, and 5, the script/batch processing capability provided by Cool Edit was used (.wav files were
     processed in batches).

     1) Record phrases in 16 bit, 44.1 Khz format. Name each file appropriately, in English.
     2) Edit each phrase for noise, pops, etc. Trim excess silence from the beginning and end of each
        recorded phrase. If the phrase contains very soft & loud parts, apply some audio compression
        (tweak levels).
     3) Normalize to 100%.
     4) Compress each phrase to the 8-bit 11.025KHz VRT format.
     5) Normalize to 90%.
     6) Keep the set of original phrase files (named in English) separate from those below.

     7) Organize and re-name phrases, with the correct file naming convention, in an appropriate
        folder on the hard drive. (File naming convention is discussed in paragraph II, FILE
        STRUCTURE - NAMING CONVENTIONS.)

     8) Execute a software build (run MWN.exe in same subdirectory where all phrases of step 5 are
         stored).
     9) Re-load the Flash Card with the new image files created by MWN, and install the Flash Card
         in a VRT.
     10) Test it for each phrase, every language.

     A directory must be created for the individual phrase files, related files, and the MWN utility. The
     naming scheme is straightforward, but must be followed precisely. Note that all audio files must
     be 8-bit, 11025 Hz, mono and have a “.wav” extension. If strange noises are heard when using
     the VRT, or if the VRT program is in a runaway state or locks up, it is likely a wav file was
     loaded in the wrong format. Best sound quality is obtained by recording at 16-bit, 44.1KHz, and
     re-sampling the file down to the 8-bit, 11025 Hz format. Trim all recorded wav files such that
     there is no excess silence header or trailer - save only the part with speech. This will minimize
     the time the Red LED stays on during training, which will improve training and recognition
     performance.




                                                                   G-1
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     File Structure – Naming Conventions

     Besides the translated language files, the VRT uses the following four file groups, each
     with a 2 character alpha part followed by a 2 digit numeric part:

               Co phrases - (6) control commands - the function cannot be changed.
               Cv phrases - (6) global commands. Always active.
               La language prompts - correlated to phrases, La01 = _a, La02 = _b, etc.
               Si situation prompts - Si01, etc.

     There are 6 or 7 other files that also should not be changed, such as “_w_la.wav” which
     is the file that asks, “Which language?".

     Global and Control Commands

     The VRT includes global (always active) user commands that can be accessed
     regardless of the active Situation. In Standby mode, only two of the commands are
     active - "Begin Training" and "Use VRT". Global commands are of two types – "Co" for
     control commands such as “Begin training” or “Different language” and “Cv” for
     translated user commands such as “Hello” or “Calm down”. Co phrases are fixed into
     the VRT design and cannot be changed (although the phrase can be). Cv phrases can
     be anything. The first English voice prompt is Cv01.wav, for example.              The
     corresponding foreign language phrases are named Cv01_a.wav, Cv01_b.wav and so
     on (“_a”, “_b” indicate a different language). Note that with the 99_200 version of the
     program, only six Cv0X commands can be used, however newer versions may be
     different.

     The following are the fixed control commands:

                         Co01       "My Location"
                         Co02       "Different Language"
                         Co03       "Event"
                         Co04       "Go to Standby"
                         Co05       "Begin Training"
                         Co06       "Use VRT"

     The following shows the file naming scheme for user-definable global commands, for the
     languages used in the NIJ VRT:

             English                        Creole              Viet                 Spanish              Cantonese
               Cv01 "under arrest"            Cv01_a               Cv01_b               Cv01_c              Cv01_d
               Cv02 "place hands"             Cv02_a               Cv02_b               Cv02_c              Cv02_d
               Cv03 "calm down"               Cv03_a               Cv03_b               Cv03_c              Cv03_d
               Cv04 "begin dir"               Cv04_a               Cv04_b               Cv04_c              Cv04_d
               Cv05 "greetings"               Cv05_a               Cv05_b               Cv05_c              Cv05_d
               Cv06 "my name"                 Cv06_a               Cv06_b               Cv06_c              Cv06_d




                                                                   G-2
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     Language Prompts

     Language prompts are named “La” followed by a number which corresponds to the _a,
     _b, and so on, in the language files (01 = _a). The first language is “La01.wav”. If the
     user says “different language,” the VRT says “which language”, and the user could
     respond, “Spanish”, which would be an “La" file. Each new language must have an "La"
     file.

     The following illustrates the file naming of language prompts found in the NIJ VRT (these can
     be changed).

                         La01     "Creole"
                         La02     "Viet"
                         La03     "Begin Spanish"
                         La04     "Cantonese"

     Situation/Event Prompts

     Situation/Event prompts are named "Si", followed by a number.              The first
     situations/event is “Si01.wav”. These are the English voice prompts for changing the
     Situation/Event; there may be as many of these as desired, and they can be anything
     the user wants. (Amount of Compact Flash memory defines limits to the number of
     phrases/situations/events/languages.)

     The following shows the situation/event prompts found in the NIJ VRT:

               Si01   "Meetings"                                   Si05   "Field Interview"
               Si02   "Medical"                                    Si06   "Traffic Stop"
               Si03   "Interview Victim"                           Si07   "Crowd Control"
               Si04   "Found Child"                                Si08   "Domestic Dispute"

     Phrase Prompts/Translations

     For the English phrase prompts, the name is a two-digit code for the situation/event (i.e.,
     07) followed by a two-digit code for phrase (i.e., 03). For example, phrase 1, in
     situation/event 1, is named “0101.wav”. Phrase 3, in situation/event 2, is named
     “0203.wav”. (Note: The software allows a maximum of 32 phrases per situation/event.)

                         Situation            Situation            Situation
           Phrase           1                     2                    3                etc.
           1             0101                 0201                 0301
           2             0102                 0202                 0302
           3             0103                 0203                 0303
           etc.

     For each foreign language phrase, the numbering scheme corresponds to the English
     set of phrases, but with an underscore and a letter added. Thus, the first language for
     the above examples would be “0101_a.wav” and “0203_a.wav”. The second language
     would be “0101_b.wav” and “0203_b.wav” (shown on next page).




                                                                   G-3
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
               Situations/event 1

                         English              Creole               Viet                 Spanish             Cantonese
                         0101                 0101_a               0101_b               0101_c              0101_d
                         0102                 0102_a               0102_b               0102_c              0102_d
                         0103                 0103_a               0103_b               0103_c              0103_d



     Software Build and Program Load

     Once all files are assembled into one directory, run the MWN utility from a DOS window
     and indicate the number of languages being used. For example, if seven languages are
     used, then at the DOS prompt, in the directory containing the hundreds of individual wav
     files and the MWN utility, one should type: “MWN 7”. The final number of files created
     by MWN varies, based on the number of translated languages and phrases used. Each
     loadable image file has a two-digit name without an extension - e.g., 01, 02, 03, 33, 40,
     56. The executable program and loadable image files created by the MWN utility must
     then be copied onto a newly formatted Compact Flash card.

               1. Remove Compact Flash card from a VRT.
               2. Install Flash card in a programming device, and FORMAT the device (in Explorer,
                  right-click on the device, select Format).
               3. Copy the executable program 99_200_8 first.
               4. Then copy the other two-digit image files that were created by MWN.
               5. Re-install into the VRT.
               NOTE: If the Flash Card has been previously used, always reformat it.

     Executable Programs

     There are several versions of the executable program. The digits after the last underscore
     in the name indicate the Gain of the program. A higher number means less inherent gain;
     99_200_2 has ½ the maximum gain possible. The program is chosen to match the
     microphone being used. (99_220 is auto-gain, 99_200_8 is the single-user program used
     with the Crown microphone).

               99_200_2             (1/2 of max gain)
               99_200_4             (1/4 gain)
               99_200_8             (1/8 gain)
               99_200_16            (1/16 gain)




                                                                   G-4
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     Multi-user Capability

     Multi-user capability provides for up to 8 users. When the unit is turned on, it will promt
     with "Input user ID." To input the user ID, press the red button one to eight times.
     The VRT is now functioning the same as the single-user model. Note that anytime a new Flash
     card is installed in a VRT, it will put you directly into training mode. When you turn it on again
     after training, it will ask for the user ID. If you input an ID that has been trained, it's ready to go.
     No hardware changes are needed for multi-user operation.

     To create the multi-user version, put the following sound files in the same directory as the regular
     (numbered) files:

               _d1                  _d2                  _d3                 _d4
               _d5                  _d6                  _d7                 _in_id

     Run the MWN8.exe utility to build the software, the same way as with MWN;
     i.e. type "mwn8 3" for three languages (MWN8 is used instead of MWN).

               99_822 is the new executable program.
                       Load this onto Flashcard first (instead of 99_200_8).

               98_8      is a file to set a fixed gain = 1/8.
                          Load this onto the Flashcard second. Without this file, the executable program
                          uses AGC (not recommended).

     Load the remaining two-digit image files, as mentioned before.




                                                                   G-5
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     QUICK REFERENCE

     Control commands (6)
     Co01 "My Location"
     Co02 "Different Language"
     Co03 "Event"
     Co04 "Go to Standby"
     Co05 "Begin Training"
     Co06 "Use VRT"


     Global user commands (6)
     English               Creole                        Viet                Spanish              Cantonese
     Cv01 "under arrest"   Cv01_a                        Cv01_b              Cv01_c               Cv01_d
     Cv02 "place hands"    Cv02_a                        Cv02_b              Cv02_c               Cv02_d
     Cv03 "calm down"      Cv03_a                        Cv03_b              Cv03_c               Cv03_d
     Cv04 "begin dir"      Cv04_a                        Cv04_b              Cv04_c               Cv04_d
     Cv05 "greetings"      Cv05_a                        Cv05_b              Cv05_c               Cv05_d
     Cv06 "my name"        Cv06_a                        Cv06_b              Cv06_c               Cv06_d


     Change Language prompts                             Situation/event prompts
     La01 "Creole"                                       Si01 "Meetings"
     La02 "Viet"                                         Si02 "Medical"
     La03 "Begin Spanish"                                Si03 "Interview Victim"
     La04 "Cantonese"                                    Si04 "Found Child"
                                                         Si05 "Field Interview"
                                                         Si06 "Traffic Stop"
                                                         Si07 "Crowd Control"
                                                         Si08 "Domestic Dispute"

     Phrase Prompts/Translations

                      Situation            Situation            Situation
     Phrase             1                      2                    3                   etc.
     1                  0101                 0201                 0301
     2                  0102                 0202                 0302
     3                  0103                 0203                 0303
     etc.

     Situations/event 1
                         English              Creole               Viet                 Spanish             Cantonese
                         0101                 0101_a               0101_b               0101_c              0101_d
                         0102                 0102_a               0102_b               0102_c              0102_d
                         0103                 0103_a               0103_b               0103_c              0103_d
                         0104                 etc.




                                                                   G-6
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
                                                          Appendix H

                          Voice Response Translator Field Assessments Results


     Question # 1: While recording your voice onto the unit, did you encounter any
                   problems?

     Forty-six percent responding said no, fifty-four percent responding said yes.

               No:       10

               Yes: 13 Explanation of the 13 Yes answers, with associated comments,
               below:

           Two were confirmed as faulty devices.

               Yes, didn’t respond to recording commands. Note, device 008 was behaving
               unreliably and would not take commands: medical, domestic, when tested by the
               researcher during the follow-on visit.

               Yes, this device started in on standby and was not user friendly at all. Had to
               redo several commands more than once. Note: Complaint was valid, device
               only started in “On-Standby”

           Two were attributed to low user skill level:

               Yes, I had to repeat some commands several times. Note: While on site the
               psychologist had the officer train device while being observed, officer could not
               get device to record “Start Cantonese” or “Child” (which sounded like “chil-“).
               Note the officer had a black ethnic dialect/accent to the English, and it had a high
               rate of variability, almost musical in nature, making it nearly impossible to recall
               and repeat exactly how words had been said during training. This same officer
               had the microphone pointed at the ceiling, did not know how to turn on the
               device, and had to be coached on how the device would help with
               communications. This was learned more two weeks after the 2 hour training
               period, but the officer never took the initiative to report any problems with the
               device during training (and appeared to be using the device at that time without
               problem) or in the interim.

               Some problems going from one situations/Event to another Note: I asked officer
               to demonstrate and officer used the command “Change Situtation” not just
               “Situation”

           Nine were attributed to device sensitivity to phrasing/volume/accents:

               Yes. Variations in ability to work indoors and outdoors, once recorded.

               Yes. Had to redo registration a couple of times, that’s all.



                                                                   H-1
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
               Yes.

               Yes. Recorded in rain and occasionally after that. Used “Green One” for “Start
               Directions.“ That worked beautifully

               Yes. Still have to re-record a few. “Arrest Lady” still not working

               Yes. Does not like a southern accent, had to repeat situations/event commands
               and translate. I found if I changed language then went back to original language
               it would translate fine.

               Yes. Iinitially I did because I recorded in a seated position. I then re-recorded it
               standing and it worked fine.

               Yes. While recording my voice, certain words I had to repeat five and 6 times
               while other words I only had to record once.

               Yes. There would always be one or more commands that would not work
               properly. To remedy you had to go through the whole recording process again.


     Question # 2. How long did it take to become comfortable with the device?

     Of the 23 Respondents, 65% (13 of 20 with valid data) required less than one day to
     become comfortable/familiar with device. About 30% (6 of 20 with valid data) reported
     they did NOT get used to operating the device.

           How Long                           # of Respondents

           Not                                           6
           24+ Hours                                     1
           8 Hours                                       2
           Few Hours                                     3
           Right Away                                    8
           Missing                                       3

     Comments from six “not” answers:

           I did not become comfortable with it, it did not work in noisy rooms (conversation).
           Only worked about half the time.

           Only used device successfully once while off duty. Note: When asked to
           demonstrate how it worked, the officer did not know how to operate, push buttons,
           etc.

           Still getting comfortable with it, only used three times on duty, maybe six more times
           on duty and I’d be comfortable with it. Tried it out with landscaping crews, worked
           great.

           Didn’t, was too frustrating, this thing does not need to be hands free, if I could just
           push a button to make it talk that would be great.


                                                                   H-2
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
           Still Not.

           Still not comfortable, but a little more than I was at start of program.


     Question #3: Were the directions in the booklet confusing or unclear?

           No:           20         100% (20 of 20 with valid data.)
           Missing        3

     Question #4:          Where did you use the VRT for police business?

                                Indoors                                      11
                                Outdoors                                     11
                                Traffic                                       9
                                Rain/Wind/Hail                                5
                                Crowds                                        2
                                Over 100 Degrees                              1
                                N/A                                           3
                                Missing                                       4

     Note: Most users tried the VRT in multiple conditions/locations, therefore the total is
     larger than the number of officers who were provided the device, i.e., 23.

     Question #5: How long did you have the device? (# days).

             # Officers               Reported Calendar              Estimated Days in              Number Officers x
                                       Days With VRT                   Field With VRT               Est. Days = Total
                   9                         28                              14.0                     9 x 14 = 126
                   6                         25                              12.5                     6 x 12. = 75
                   5                         21                              10.5                     5 x 10.5 = 52
                   3                         14                               7.0                     3x7      = 21
                                                                    Total Days VRT in
                                                                    Field Evaluation                             276

     Reported number of days with the device ranged from 28 days to 14. Most officers
     worked a 10 hour schedule, 4 days on, 4 days off, so each actually had their VRT in the
     field about half the number of days reported. Total Estimated Days VRT was in Field
     Evaluation Status was 276.




                                                                   H-3
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     Question #6: Total number of times VRT was used for police work.

                                 Number of Times                Number of Officers
                                 Device was Used                Reporting Use
                                 N/A                                       5
                                 Zero                                      8
                                 Once                                      2
                                 Twice                                     1
                                 Three                                     1
                                 Five                                      1
                                 Seven                                     1
                                 Twelve                                    2
                                 Fifteen                                   1
                                 Twenty                                    1

     The range of use was from none/zero to twenty, with an average of about three
     opportunities to use the VRT per each officer. The total (estimated) number of times
     the VRT was used for Police work in Central and Southern
      Florida during the Field Evaluation was 78. Combining the data of questions 5 and 6:
     276 days in use / 78 times used = 3.5 times per day the VRT was used to assist non-
     English speaking persons during the field evaluation period. Recommend that be
     reported as seven translation assists every two days that were provided to the officers
     using the VRTs during the field evaluation.


     Question 7:         What languages were used while on duty?

                                                Language                        Times Used
                                   Spanish                                         14
                                   Vietnamese                                       1
                                   Cantonese                                        0
                                   Creole                                           1

     Of the officers who had an opportunity and ability to use the device, most required
     Spanish to assist them in their work. While Spanish was the predominant language
     used, the officers also provided assists in Creole and Vietnamese successfully with the
     VRT. It was reported by scholars of Spanish and by individuals from Puerto Rico that
     the Spanish translations were very clear.




                                                                   H-4
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     Question #8: Check Situations/Events Used on Duty:

                                   Situation                    Checks           % of Total
                                                                on Form           Checks              Number of Uses
                      Traffic Stop                                 13              40%                     31
                      Greetings                                     9              28%                     23
                      Found Child                                   2               6%                      5
                      Field Interview                               2               6%                      5
                      Medical                                       2               6%                      5
                      Interview Victim                              2               6%                      5
                      Crowd Control                                 1               3.5%                    2
                      Domestic                                      1               3.5%                    2
                      Total                                        32             100.0%                   78

     The VRT provided assistance in every “Situations/Event” it was designed for. Most
     officers reported using it in “Traffic Stops,” followed by “Greetings” as most often used. It
     should be noted that the VRT assisted in an estimated 31 traffic stops, five
     situations/events of a found child, five medical situations/events, five crime victim
     interviews, five times to conduct a field interview, and twice for domestic dispute and
     crowd control situations/events. It is recommended that the Traffic Stop commands be
     further developed prior to additional field testing, as this was the most common
     Situations/Event that the officers used the VRT for. The lack of questions pertaining to
     (1) date of birth, and (2) sobriety checks, proved difficult for the officers.

     Question #9: Reported VRT Problem Areas

                   Problem                                 Occurrences                           Comments
     Microphone failed to pick up voice                        10
     Wrong Commands given by device:                            7
     Unable to use device in noisy                              5
     environments
     Letter “S” commands did not work                               5
     Citizens did not like device                                   3            All Haitians, one frightened, other
                                                                                 two laughed
     Command cards difficult to use                                 1
     Power switch/battery on a problem                              1            Before battery light modification
                                                                                 was made
     Microphone awkward to use                                      3            One had head worn unit, two had
                                                                                 ticket book units
     Other:
     • Reliability affected by
        environment in which recorded
     • Required more commands
     • Commands did not apply to
        specific situation

     Assuming the VRT’s were used a total of approximately 78 times in the field, the total of
     35 encountered problems is rather high. Of the 23 respondents, only six reported having
     no problems with the devices. Some problems were the result of three faulty devices


                                                                   H-5
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     from the developer, and two officers later identified as the source of the reported
     problems. Even when correcting for the three faulty devices, missing data, and the two
     officers deemed incapable of operating the devices, 9 of 15 users (60%) reported
     problems with the VRTs. Thus over half the users identified specific problems with the
     device during the field evaluation.

     Question #10: Recommendations for the VRT

       Times
     Requested            Request/Recommendation
          4               Volume Switch
          3               A touch pad so if voice trigger does not work I can still get it to start.
          3               Smaller, Clip on microphone would be better (Note: Officers had both ticket book
                          and head worn units)
             2            Cigarette Charger Option (Note: Unit now has a car cigarette lighter charger.)
             2            Clip on belt (Note: Clips have since been added.)
             1            Light on unit to read commands with
             1            Battery Low indicator (Note: This modification has since been made)
             1            Way to redo a specific commands recording without having to do entire situation.
             1            Power charger that acts as a cradle for device and is always plugged in. Like a
                          cell phone or Palm Pilot charging cradle.


     NAWCTSD Device Improvements

     The following changes have all been made to the devices: a clip-on belt, cigarette
     lighter charger, low battery indicator, on light, and smaller microphone.

     Required Changes for Commercialization

     •    Multi-user capability
     •    Crown Microphone standard
     •    Bias set low (users must speak up)
     •    Audio signal output jack
     •    Clip on back for belt
     •    Cigarette lighter charger
     •    Low battery indicator
     •    On light

     These recommendations all pertain to the design of the VRT unit and its operation.
     Recommendations for new commands are detailed in the next section. The most
     requested modification was a volume switch, followed by an optional touch pad that
     would enable operation of the device when the voice inputs fail. Other recommendations
     such as a clip on for belt, cigarette lighter charger, low battery indicator, on light, and
     smaller microphone have all been made to the devices.




                                                                   H-6
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
     Question #11: Commands recommended to be added:

     DUI Situation: Sobriety Test directions:

               •    Implied Consent
               •    # Drinks you’ve had, show on hand
               •    Close your eyes and stand on one foot, like this
               •    Close your eyes and touch your nose, like this
               •    Walk on this line, heal to toe, till I say stop
               •    Exhale into this device three times
               •    Handheld Breath Test
               •    Walk-and-turn 9 steps heel to toe
               •    Follow-the-Pen-With-Your-Eyes, Understand?
               •    What state was your Drivers License Issued?

     Three requests for: “Ask for DOB (written) in Traffic Stop, so check can be run on
     missing Driver’s License.”

     Three requests for: “Miranda Rights”

     Two requests for: “I’m going to search you for weapons”

     One request for: “Turn Left, Turn Right, some way to give directions.” Officer had
     individual headed to the local arena (had tickets), was only a few blocks away but was
     unable to give directions on how to get there.

     Other requests:

     -         Always have available: “Drop Weapon” and “Stop Police”
     -         Add “Are you sure?” on Field Interview.
     -         “Leave Now” (command given to empty a house or building of occupants)
     -         Was the traffic light Green?
     -         Was car small/large/round/square
     -         Where is the damage?
     -         Empty pockets
     -         Is this your friend?
     -         Drivers License Not Valid/Suspended (Could have used “not current”).




                                                                   H-7
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
                       Optional megaphone
                            output jack




                                                                                                                          Naval Air Warfare Center
                                                                                                                                       Training Systems Division


                                                                            Tol: x.xx = +\-0.005"                                       ASSEMBLY
                                                                                 x.xxx = +\-0.001"
                                                                                  x.xxxx = +\-0.0005            SIZE      FSCM NO                              DWG NO             REV

                                                                            Angle: +\-0.5 degrees or as noted    B      VRT case.vsd                           VRT/3-2

                                                                              Drwn by: PAUL G. BARBER                                    Last edited 5/10/02   SHEET     2 OF 3




                                                                                                                       I-1
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
                                                                                    Ø 0.25
                                                                         Ø 0.25                      Ø 0.19
                                                                Ø 0.38
                                                                                                              Ø 0.25


                                                              0.40




                                                                           0.70                       0.77                                              0.37
                              0.42                                                1.15              1.17
                                                                                     1.55
                                                                                                                        Ø 2.00



                       0.95
                                      Ø 0.31
                                           6                                                                                            1.10
                                                       1.38                                                                                                         Ø 0.25
              1.50                   (megaphone
                                     output only)




                     Ø 0.31
                                                4.75

                                                                                     1.56




                                                                                             3.13
                                                                                                                       Material: purchase                       Naval Air Warfare Center
                                                                                                                       Finish: gray paint                                  Training Systems Division
                                                                                                                       Quanity: 1
                                                                                                                       Tol: x.xx = +\-0.005"                                  VRT CASE
                                                                                                                            x.xxx = +\-0.001"
                                                                                                                             x.xxxx = +\-0.0005        SIZE      FSCM NO                      DWG NO           REV

                                                                                                                       Angle: +\-0.5 degrees or as notedB      VRT case.vsd                      -1
                                                                                                                                                                                             VRT/3
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                                                                                                                                                     1                                 5/10/02 SHEET
                                                                                                                                                                             Last edited               1 OF3




                                                                                                                                 I-2
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
                                                Voice vol. LED




                                            Power On LED




                                                                                                         Optional megaphone
                                                                                                         output jack




                            Low Batt. LED



                                                                                                                        NOTE:
                                                                                                          Green side of LED gets wired to pin
                                                                                                          3 of LED51 point on the card. Red
                                                                                                                  side goes to pin 1.
                                                                                                                                                     green            red
                                                                 L50     LED 50    LED 51

                                                                                                                                                    Mouser part # 604-L59EGW

                                                                       green side of LED             1
                                                                                                X4



                                                                                            1
                                                                                  C24   +
                                                                                                X2                                                             Naval Air Warfare Center
                                                                                                                                                                            Training Systems Division


                                                                                                                Tol: x.xx = +\-0.005"                           ELECTRONIC WIRE UP
                                                                                                                     x.xxx = +\-0.001"
                                                                                                                      x.xxxx = +\-0.0005            SIZE        FSCM NO                              DWG NO             REV

                                                                                                                Angle: +\-0.5 degrees or as noted    B       VRT case.vsd                            VRT/3-3

                                                                                                                  Drwn by: PAUL G. BARBER                                      Last edited 5/10/02   SHEET     3 OF 3




                                                                                                                                                           I-3
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
                                                         2.3
                                                          1
                             Ø 0.13
                             4place
                               s

                 0.2
                  5




                       0.1
                        9




                                                   0.8
                                                    5




          0.63                             3.12
          typ.                              5
                                                                                           Material: Alum 0.04 thk.                         Naval Air Warfare Center
                                                                                           Finish: none                                               Training Systems Division
                                                                                           Quanity: 1
                                                                                           Tol: x.xx = +\-0.01"                                  HOLDER BRACKET
                                                                                                x.xxx = +\-0.005"
                                                                                                 x.xxxx = +\-0.0008            SIZE         FSCM NO                         DWG NO            REV

                                                                                           Angle: +\-0.5 degrees or as noted    B      Holder bracket.vsd                       -1
                                                                                                                                                                            VRT/2

                                                                                            Drwn by: PAUL G. BARBER                                    Last edited3/29/02   SHEET    1 OF 1
                                                                                                                                      Scale:1.5 : 1




                                                                                                I-4
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the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
                                                                                             I-5
This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
               Filename:                 4
               Directory:                C:\Melanie_Folder\kreg_purcell\060704
               Template:                 C:\Documents and Settings\mzwack\Application
                    Data\Microsoft\Templates\NORMAL.DOT
               Title:                    Voice Response Translator
               Subject:
               Author:                   Thomas M. Franz
               Keywords:
               Comments:
               Creation Date:            12/18/2003 1:24 PM
               Change Number:            3
               Last Saved On:            12/19/2003 9:27 AM
               Last Saved By:            Valued Gateway Client
               Total Editing Time:       5 Minutes
               Last Printed On:          06/07/2004 1:33 PM
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                    Number of Pages:     43
                    Number of Words: 13,217 (approx.)
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This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by
the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official
position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.

								
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