THE SPREAD OF ISLAM
Conquest and trade led to the spread
of Islam, the blending of cultures, and
the growth of cities.
After Muhammad’s death, Abu Bakr became
the 1st caliph (highest leader of Islam)
Caliphs were not religious leaders, but
political and military leaders.
Muslim armies united Arabia, then defeated
the Persian and Byzantine empires.
The Berbers, a native people of North Africa,
converted to Islam and joined forces with the
An army of Arabs and Berbers conquered
Spain in AD 711.
In 750, a new dynasty, the Abbasids,
reorganized the government to make it
easier to rule such a large region.
Islam spread to India, Africa, Malaysia
Trade brought new products to Muslim
lands and made many people rich.
Travelers learned how to make paper
and use gunpowder from the Chinese.
Merchants brought crops of cotton,
rice, and oranges from India, China,
and Southeast Asia.
Language and religion helped unify
many groups that became part of the
Muslims practiced tolerance with
people who had different beliefs and
Jews and Christians could keep their
Baghdad and Cordoba
Baghdad was the capital of the Islamic
It was located near land and water trade
Built hospitals, observatories, and a library
used as a university.
Cordoba was the capital of what is now
It had a strong economy based on trade and
By the 900’s it was the largest and most
advanced city in Europe
It was a center of learning and a center of
Write a question for each slide
and a 5 sentence (minimum)
The Ottoman Empire covered a large
area in eastern Europe.
The Safavid Empire blended Persian
cultural traditions with Shia Islam
The Mughal Empire in India left and
impressive cultural heritage.
The Ottomans were aided by slave soldiers
They had gunpowder weapons
Mehmed II (“the Conquerer”) and Suleyman
I (“the Magnificent”) led conquests that
turned the Ottomans into a world power.
During Suleyman’s rule, the Ottoman Empire
reached its cultural peak
Women had limited freedom. In the ruling
class women lived apart from men in an area
of a household called a harem.
Ottoman Government and
The sultan, or Ottoman ruler, issued laws
and made all major decisions in the empire.
Ottoman society was divided into 2 classes.
Judges and people who advised the sultan
were the ruling class.
The other class was mad up of those who
did not fit into the ruling class. Many of
these were Christians or Jews from lands
the Ottomans had conquered.
The Safavid Empire blended
Persian cultural traditions with
Islam split into 2 groups when a conflict
arose over who should be caliph.
The Shia thought that only members of
Muhammad’s family could become
The Sunni thought it did not matter as
long as they were good Muslims and
The Safavid Empire began when the Safavid
leader Esma’il conquered Persia and made
himself shah, or king.
He made Shiism the official religion of the
The Safavids blended Persian and Muslim
The manufacturing of traditional products,
such as hand-woven carpets, silk, and
velvet, was encouraged.
The Mughal Empire in India
Babur established the Mughal Empire, but it
grew under the emperor Akbar.
Akbar’s tolerant policies helped unify the
A conflict of cultures led to the end of this
Cultures that blended in the empire
- Muslims, Hindus, Persians, Indians
The Mughal Empire is known for its
monumental architecture – particularly the