The Radio Spectrum utilisation and management by pin20927

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									        The Radio Spectrum:

      utilisation and management

              Les Barclay

      Information revolution

          Value of information

          Demand for bandwidth

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      No shortage of bandwidth

         Cable and optical fibre systems can
      have as much bandwidth as they need.

          Standards and protocols only have
      to be agreed between those concerned

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         Need for mobility

      Information is only of value if it
       can be delivered where it is

        Some mobility through intelligent
        wired network

        More mobility through wireless LAN
        technology, etc

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      But for true mobility

          Flexibility and rapid deployment

          Radio is the only option

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      There is only one radio spectrum

          Capability only expandable to a
          limited extent into the mm
          wavebands or by improving
          modulation and coding methods

          MUST use it effectively to get best
          value, and to have potential for
          future expansion of services

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      Need adequate quality of service

      Assurance of protection against


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        National Regulation
      Each country is sovereign – can authorise
       the use of radio transmissions

      Needs to plan and control the use of radio

      Licensing, etc

      In UK: OFCOM
          (previously the Radiocommunications Agency)

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        Satellite transmissions

      Particular problem as the transmitters are
       not within the territory of the country

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      Common objectives to coordinate the use
       of radio:
        To avoid interference
        Create common equipment specifications
        Permit cross border use

      In Europe
        European Communications Committee of CEPT

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      International Telecommunication Union

        International treaties to regulate the use of
         the radio spectrum and the satellite orbits

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      radio spectrum        3 kHz to 3 THz

      main use 9 kHz to 400 GHz:

        range covered by ITU Radio Regulations.

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      Band Symbol   Frequency Range            Wavelength            Corresponding      Symbol
      No                                                             metric
                                                                      sub-division of
            ELF                     < 300 Hz           > 1000 km
        3   ULF               300 Hz -3 kHz        1000 - 100 km     Hectokilometric    B.hkm
        4   VLF               3 kHz - 30 kHz     100 km - 10 km      Myriametric        B.Mam
        5   LF            30 kHz - 300 kHz          10 km - 1 km     Kilometric
        6   MF             300 kHz - 3 MHz          1 km - 100 m     Hectometric
        7   HF              3 MHz - 30 MHz           100 m - 10 m    Decametric         B.dam
        8   VHF          30 MHz - 300 MHz              10 m - 1 m    Metric             B.m
        9   UHF            300 MHz - 3 GHz          1 m - 100 mm     Decimetric
       10   SHF              3 GHz - 30 GHz      100 mm - 10 mm      Centimetric
       11   EHF           30 GHz - 300 GHz          10 mm - 1 mm     Millimetric
       12                  300 GHz - 3 THz         1 mm – 100 m     Decimillimetric    B.dmm
       13                         3 - 30 THz          100 - 10 m    Centimillimetric   B.cmm
       14                      30 - 300 THz              10 - 1 m   Micrometric        B.m
                            300 - 3000 THz              1 - 0.1 m   Decimicrometric    B.dm

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      Letter      Radar   (GHz)           Space radiocommunications
      symbol Spectrum      Examples         Nominal      Examples
              region         GHz          designations     (GHz)
        L      1–2        1.215 - 1.4    1.5   GHz band   1.525 - 1.710
        S      2–4         2.3 - 2.5     2.5   GHz band    2.5 - 2.690
                           2.7 - 3.4
        C       4–8       5.25 - 5.85    4/6 GHz band       3.4 - 4.2
                                                            4.5 - 4.8
                                                          5.85 - 7.075
        X      8 – 12      8.5 - 10.5
        Ku     12 – 18    13.4 - 14.0    11/14 GHz band   10.7 - 13.25
                          15.3 - 17.3    12/14 GHz band    14.0 - 14.5
       K (1)   18 – 27   24.05 - 24.25   20 GHz band      17.7 - 20.2
       Ka(1)   27 – 40    33.4 - 36.0    30 GHz band      27.5 - 30.0
        V                                40 GHz bands     37.5 - 42.5
                                                          47.2 - 50.2

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         ELF (below 3 kHz) and VLF (3-30 kHz)

      Typical services:
       world-wide telegraphy to ships and submarines; time
       standards; worldwide comms, sub-surface comms
      System considerations:
       even largest antennas only a small fraction of a
       wavelength with low radiation resistance; bandwidth
       very limited, only low or very low data rates; high
       atmospheric noise
       In Earth-ionosphere waveguide, relatively stable
       propagation; asymmetric propagation E/W & W/E.
       Propagation through sea-water, which has significant
       skin depth for these wavelengths.
       No international frequency allocations below 9 kHz.
       Limited use below 9 kHz for military purposes.

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         LF (30-300 kHz)
      Typical services:
       long-distance shore-to-ship communication; fixed
       services over continental distances; broadcasting;
       time signals

      System considerations:
       vertical polarisation (for ground wave propagation, &
       for antenna efficiency); efficient but large antennas
       directional antennas very large; high atmospheric
       noise; limited bandwidth.

       up to several thousand km; ground wave, strong sky
       wave at night, slow fading

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        MF (300 kHz -3 MHz)

      Typical services:
       broadcasting; radionavigation;
       maritime mobile communications;

      System considerations:
       1/4 l vertical antenna at 1 MHz is 75 m high;
       directional antennas possible,
       magnetic receiving antennas;

       ground wave more pronounced over sea; strong
       sky wave absorption during the day, but little
       absorption at night; high atmospheric noise levels

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      HF ( 3-30 MHz)    I

  Typical services:
   international broadcasting, national broadcasting in
   tropical regions; long-distance point-to-point
   communications; aeronautical and maritime mobile

  System considerations:
   arrays of horizontal dipoles; log-periodic antennas
   (vertical or horizontal), vertical whip antennas;
   frequency agility essential; crowded spectrum
   needing good intermodulation performance; external
   noise environment varies with time and location.
   Bandwidths up to about 6 kHz

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         HF ( 3-30 MHz)    II

       propagation up to world-wide distances by ionospheric
       sky-wave, very variable in time. Propagation window
       between MUF and LUF (maximum and lowest usable
       frequencies) varies from a few MHz to about 20 MHz

       necessary to change the operating frequency several
       times during 24 hours. Broadcasting uses schedule of
       frequencies. Fixed and some mobile services use
       intelligent frequency adaptive systems. Continues to
       provide the main intercontinental air traffic control
       system. Most modulation bandwidths may exceed the
       correlation bandwidth.

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        VHF ( 30-300 MHz)     I

      Typical services:
       land mobile for civil, military and emergency
       purposes, maritime and aeronautical mobile;
       sound (FM and DAB) and (outside UK) TV
       broadcasting (to about 100 km); aeronautical
       radionavigation and landing systems; cordless
       telephones; paging; very limited little LEO
       satellite systems

      System considerations:
       multi-element dipole (Yagi) antennas, rod
       antennas suitable for vehicle mounting,
       atmospheric noise small but man-made noise
       Some use for meteor burst communications
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         VHF ( 30-300 MHz)     II

       usually by refraction in troposphere; reflections may
       cause multipath on line-of sight paths; screening by
       major hills, but diffraction losses generally small;

       some anomalous propagation due to atmospheric
       refractivity; unwanted ionospheric modes due to
       sporadic E and meteor scatter.

       substantial Faraday rotation and ionospheric
       scintillation on Earth-space paths

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         UHF (300 MHz - 3 GHz)
      Typical services:
       TV broadcasting; cellular and personal communications;
       satellite mobile; GPS; important radio astronomy bands;
       surveillance radars; terrestrial point-to-point service;
       radio fixed access; telemetry; cordless telephones;
       tropospheric scatter links.

      System considerations:
       small rod antennas; multi-element dipole (Yagi) antennas;
       parabolic dishes for higher frequencies; wide bandwidths

      Propagation: :
       line-of sight and slightly beyond; tropospheric scatter for
       transhorizon paths, screening by hills, buildings and trees;
       refraction effects; ducting possible; ionospheric

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         SHF (3-30 GHz)

      Typical services:
       fixed (terrestrial point-to-point up to 155 Mb/s);
       fixed satellite; radar; satellite television; GSO and
       NGSO fixed satellite services; remote sensing from
       satellites; RFA

      System considerations:
       high-gain parabolic dishes and horns; waveguides;
       major inter-service frequency sharing; wide

       severe screening; refraction and ducting; scintillation;
       rain attenuation and scatter increasing above about
       10 GHz; atmospheric attenuation above about 15 GHz,
       ionospheric effects becoming small.
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         EHF (30-300 GHz)

      Typical services:
       line-of sight communications, future satellite
       applications; remote sensing from satellites; MVDS;
       fixed service in the future using high altitude

      System considerations:
       small highly directional antennas; equipment costs
       increase with frequency; little use at present above
       60 GHz; very wide bandwidths; short range

       severe difficulties: screening; atmospheric
       absorption; rain; fog; scintillation
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        Spectrum Occupancy
      Space:       service range
                   coverage area
                   interference range or area

      Time:        continuous or intermittent
                   propagation variability

      Bandwidth:   necessary bandwidth
                   transmitter and receiver
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       Spectrum Utilisation (U)


      where   B is the bandwidth
              S is the geographic space or volume
                    occupied (desired or denied)
              T is the time

              Not a real equation!

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        Geographic space

      Area coverage systems such as broadcasting or
       mobile applications: - required space is
       defined as coverage area

      Point-to-point communications – desired space
       is confined to the direct path between the

      Geostationary satellite networks:- just the
       orbit spacing around the geostationary arc
       and the direct links to earth stations
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         Geographic space
      More relevant to define spectrum utilisation in terms
       of the geographic space denied to others

      Consider:    radiated power
                   antenna directivity
                   propagation for small time percentages

      Passive applications such as radio astronomy, have no
       transmissions, but still need a large geographic space
       to give protection against interference

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      for narrow band systems – related to
          information rate

      complex modulation methods permit more
      bits/Hz but usually need a more perfect
      propagation channel

      spread spectrum – consider a factor related
      to the power density across the bandwidth

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      Time factor

      Unity for broadcasting

      Smaller for some other applications

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        Efficient spectrum utilisation
      Perfect technical efficiency would require:
        Perfect transmitters – no unwanted emissions
        Perfect receivers – no susceptibility to other
                            - perfect selectivity
        High gain antennas, accurately pointed
        Emissions limited to the necessary bandwidth
        Minimum power to provide sufficient signal
        Maximise frequency reuse

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      This would impose impossible demands on

      - too expensive

      - unreasonable maintenance

      - no flexibility for changing requirements

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        Effective spectrum use
        Seek efficient use within practical constraints
        Specifications for unwanted emissions
        reasonable selectivity characteristics
        Design for acceptable cost
        Rapid entry to market
        Provide for future flexibility

      Effective usage is a more reasonable aim

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      International Telecommunication

                 and the

             Radio Regulations

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      History of International Telecommunciation

       1849 first international telegraph
       1865 foundation of international telegraph union
        To deal with emerging technical and financial problems of
        international telegraphy
       1876 invention of telephone
       1895 first wireless communication
       1906 first international Radio Conference
       1927 CCIR established
       1932 becomes International Telecommunication
       1947 becomes specialised agency of the united

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        Purposes of the ITU

      ITU – concerned with the international
        regulation of telecommunications
      Purposes include:
        To extend international cooperation
        To offer technical assistance
        To promote the development of telecommunication
         facilities and their most efficient operation
      To this end the ITU, amongst many other things
        Undertakes studies
        Adopts recommendations
        Collects and publishes information

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         The ITU shall

      Allocate frequency bands, register assignments and
       geostationary orbit positions to avoid harmful
      Coordinate efforts to avoid harmful interference and
       improve use of spectrum and GSO
      Facilitate international standardization
      Foster international cooperation
      Harmonise development of facilities
      Establish rates as low as possible, consistent with
      Ensure safety of life
      Undertake studies

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        Membership of ITU

      Member States (national administrations)

        Registered operating agencies

        Scientific and industrial organisations

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      ITU modernised in 1947

      Plenipotentiary Conference
         - Every 5 years

      World Adminstrative Radio Conferences (WARC)
       - Held as required

      World Administrative Telephone and Telegraph
       Conferences (WATTC)
        - infrequent

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      General Secretariat

      International Frequency Registration Board

      CCIR secretariat (international radio
      consultative committee)

      CCITT secretariat

      Telecommunication Development Bureau

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      International Frequency Registration Board

      - Record and register frequency assignments and
        locations in the GSO
      - Maintain and publish the Master International
        Frequency Register
      - Examine the probability of harmful interference
      - Advise on spectrum usage
      - Publish the seasonal HF broadcasting schedule
      - Undertake inter-sessional work for WARCs
      - Offer technical assistance
      - Develop coordination procedures

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        Need for change

       Perceived pressure from regional
       standardization bodies


      = ITU reorganization

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        WARCs following WARC 1979
      1981 W   general allocations
      1981 R   MF BC (region 2)
      1983 W   mobile
      1984 W   HFBC 1st session
      1984 R   VHF BC (reg 1 & part reg 3)
      1985 R   radiobeacons (Europe)
      1985 W   VHF/UHF BC (Europe)
      1985 W   GSO planning 1st session
      1987W    HFBC 2nd session
      1988 R   MFBC (region 2)
      1988 W   GSO 2nd session
      1989 R   VHF/UHF TV BC in Africa
      1992 W   allocations, etc

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                            New ITU

      Plenipotentiary Conference – every 4 years
      ITU Council – 41 members, meets annually
      Three Sectors
        Telecommunication standardization
        Telecommunication development
      Each sector has:
        study groups,
        advisory group,
        and is supported by a Bureau

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        Radiocommunication sector

      World Radiocommunication Conferences
        Every 2 years ( now a longer interval)
      Radiocommunication Assembly
        To manage the study groups, at the same time ad
         the WRCs
      Radiocommunication Advisory Group
        Meets annually
      Radio Regulations Baord
        9 part time members
      Radiocommunication Bureau (BR)

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        ITU-R Study Groups

      SG1   spectrum utilisation and monitoring
      SG3   radiowave propagation
      SG4   fixed-satellite service
      SG6   broadcasting
      SG7   science services (space research,
                 radio astronomy, standard frequencies
                 and time signals)
      SG8 mobile; radiodetermination;
               amateur; & related satellite services
      SG9 fixed service
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        ITU-R Study Groups

      Meet every 2 years or more often
      Report to Radiocommunication Assembly
      Work through:
        Task Groups – for urgent time limited studies
        Working parties
        Email correspondence groups
      Studies based on approved questions

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               ITU-R STUDY GROUP 4



      Systems and networks for the fixed satellite
       service and inter-satellite links in the fixed-
       satellite service, including associated
       tracking, telemetry and telecommand

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      Baseband transmission variability, delay & echoes in
       systems in the FSS
      Characteristics of antennas at earth stations in the
      Use of transportable transmitting earth stations in the
       FSS including use for feeder links to broadcasting
      Preferred multiple-access characteristics in the FSS
      Feeder links in the FSS used for the connections to
       and from geostationary satellites in various MSS
      Frequency sharing of the FSS with terrestrial radio
       services other than the FS
      Frequency sharing between the FSS and the EESS
       (passive) and SRS (passive) services near 19 GHz

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      Frequency sharing of FSS & ISS with other space
      Protection of GSO against unacceptable interference
       from transmitting earth stations in FSS above
       15 GHz
      Availability & interruptions to traffic on digital paths
       in FSS
      Performance objectives of intl. digital links in FSS
      Voice & data signal processing for intl. digital links in
      Video signal proc. for intl. digital links in FSS
      Use of satellite communication systems in B-ISDN
      Frequency sharing among networks in FSS, MSS &
       those of satellites equipped to operate in more than
       one service in the 20-50 GHz band
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                                          QUESTION ITU-R 113-1/9
                                         THE SPACE RESEARCH SERVICE
      The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly,

      a) that radio-relay systems are widely employed throughout the world and make extensive and increasing use
         of several frequency bands;
      b) that there is potential for interference between radio-relay systems and both geostationary and non-
         geostationary satellite radiocommunication systems;
      c) that special consideration must be made of the unique characteristics of systems in space
         radiocommunication services other than the traditional fixed-satellite service;
      d) that Radiocommunication Study Group 7 has undertaken some preliminary studies with regard to radio-relay
         systems sharing with the earth exploration-satellite service and the space research service;
      e) that the World Administrative Radio Conference (Geneva, 1979) (WARC-79) allocated these services to
         share additional frequency bands and at the same time requested the ex-CCIR via Recommendation No.706
         to study certain aspects of the sharing criteria between radio-relay systems and passive sensors for the
         earth exploration-satellite service and the space research service operating in the band 18.6 to 18.8 GHz;
      f) that administrations will require agreed sharing criteria to carry out compatibility analysis under the Radio
         Regulations, such as Article 14,

      decides that the following Question should be studied
      1 What are the levels of interference from the earth exploration-satellite service and the space research
        service acceptable to radio-relay systems, including percentage of time considerations?
      2 What are the constraints on the services which would be necessary and acceptable to facilitate sharing?
      3 What special considerations of sharing are required when non-geostationary satellites are used by these
        space services?
      4 What are the feasibility and constraints on sharing these services when the space services employ passive
        or active microwave sensors?

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      a) that radio-relay systems are widely employed throughout the
        world and make extensive and increasing use of several
        frequency bands;
      b)that there is potential for interference between radio-relay
        systems and both geostationary and non-geostationary satellite
        radiocommunication systems;
      c)that special consideration must be made of the unique
        characteristics of systems in space radiocommunication services
        other than the traditional fixed-satellite service;
      d)that Radiocommunication Study Group 7 has undertaken some
        preliminary studies with regard to radio-relay systems sharing
        with the earth exploration-satellite service and the space
        research service;
      e)that WARC-79 allocated these services to share additional
        frequency bands and at the same time requested the ex-CCIR
        via Rec.706 to study certain aspects of the sharing criteria
        between radio-relay systems and passive sensors for the earth
        exploration-satellite service and the space research service
        operating in the band 18.6 to 18.8 GHz;
      f)that administrations will require agreed sharing criteria to carry
        out compatibility analysis under the Radio Regulations, such as
        Article 14
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         decides that the following Question should be

      1What are the levels of interference from the earth
       exploration-satellite service and the space research
       service acceptable to radio-relay systems, including
       percentage of time considerations?
      2What are the constraints on the services which would
       be necessary and acceptable to facilitate sharing?
      3What special considerations of sharing are required
       when non-geostationary satellites are used by these
       space services?
      4What are the feasibility and constraints on sharing
       these services when the space services employ
       passive or active microwave sensors?

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        Radio Regulations

      Provide World-Wide agreement on the use,
       coordination and regulation of radio

      Contain the International Table of Radio
       Frequency Allocations

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      4.1    Member States shall endeavour to limit the
       number of frequencies and the spectrum used to the
       minimum essential to provide in a satisfactory manner
       the necessary services. To that end they shall
       endeavour to apply the latest technical advances as
       soon as possible
      4.2    … in assigning frequencies to stations which are
       capable of causing harmful interference to services …
       of another country, such assignments are to be made
       in accordance with the Table of Frequency
       Allocations and other provisions of these Regulations
      4.3    Any new assignment or any change of frequency
       … shall … avoid causing harmful interference …
      4.4    … shall not assign to a station any frequency in
       derogation of either the Table of Frequency
       Allocations … or other provisions … except on the
       express condition … shall not cause harmful

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          Terrestrial Services
                                        ┌ - - Aeronautical Mobile ( R )
            ┌ - -Aeronautical Mobile* - ┴- - - Aeronautical Mobile (OR)*
 Mobile* - -┼- - - - - Land Mobile*
            └ - - - -- Maritime Mobile* - - - - ┬ - - Ship Movement
                                                └ - - Port Operation

                                         ┌ - Maritime Radionavigation*
 Radiodetermination*-┬- Radionavigation* ┴ Aeronautical Radionavigation*
                     └ - Radiolocation*

 Radio Astronomy
 Meteorological Aids
 Standard Frequency and Time Signal*

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      Satellite services

             The terrestrial services marked with an asterisk.

             space operations
             space research

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         Designation of emissions
       The nature of an emission is specified in a

      the first 4 characters give the necessary bandwidth

       the next 3 characters give the classification
       according to the type of modulation

        there may also be two additional final characters which provide
       some supplementary information, where necessary.

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         necessary bandwidth

      3 digits for numerical value and a letter, in position of
       the decimal point for the multiplier:

      necessary bandwidth of 0.1 Hz = H100
                              2.4 kHz = 2K40
                      202 MHz = 202M
                           5.65 GHz = 5G65

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           Classification of Emissions. A: Type of modulation
      An unmodulated carrier                                          N
      The main carrier is amplitude-modulated
         Double-sideband                                              A
         Single sideband, full carrier                                H
         Single sideband, reduced or variable level carrier           R
         Single sideband, suppressed carrier                          J
         Independent sidebands                                        B
         Vestigial sideband                                           C
      The main carrier is angle modulated
         Frequency modulation                                         F
         Phase modulation                                             G
      The main carrier is amplitude and phase modulated,
      simultaneously or in a pre-established sequence                 D
      Pulse emissions
        a sequence of unmodulated pulses                              P
        Modulated in amplitude                                        K
        Modulated in width/duration                                   L
        Modulated in position/phase                                   M
        With angle modulation of carrier during pulses                Q
        Other pulse modulation methods or combinations of methods     V
      Hybrid modulation systems not covered above, involving two or
      more basic modulation techniques, amplitude angle or pulse      W
      Other cases                                                     X
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 Classification of emissions, B: Nature of modulating signal
          No modulating signal                                                0
          A single channel of quantized or digital information
              Without the use of a sub-carrier                                1
              with a sub-carrier                                              2
          A single channel containing analogue information                    3
          Two or more channels containing quantified or digital information   7
          Two or more channels containing analogue information                8
          A composite system containing both analogue and digital channels    9
          Other cases                                                         X

      Classification of emissions, C: Type of Information
          No information transmitted                             N
          Telegraphy - for aural reception                       A
          Telegraphy - for automatic reception                   B
          Facsimile                                              C
          Data transmission, telemetry, telecommand              D
          Telephony (including sound broadcasting)               E
          Television                                             F
          Combinations of the above                              W
          Other cases                                            X

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      cw telegraphy             A1A
      dsb AM                    A3E
      ssb, suppressed carrier   J3E
      tv vision                 C3F
      fm telephony              F3E
      4 frequency telegraphy    F7B

      fm sound bc:   180KF3EGN

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      NECESSARY BANDWIDTH, for a given class of
       emission, is the width of the frequency band which is
       just sufficient to ensure the transmission of
       information at the rate and the quality required
       under specified conditions. The Radio Regulations
       give a number of empirical rules for its determination.

      ASSIGNED FREQUENCY BAND is determined by
       adding the necessary bandwidth to twice the
       frequency tolerance

      OCCUPIED BANDWIDTH is defined as the width of
       the frequency band such that, below the lower and
       above the upper frequency limits, the mean powers
       emitted are each equal to a specified percentage
       (usually 0.5%) of the total mean power of the
       emission. This definition takes account of the
       practical effects of out of band emissions

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      Frequency Tolerances

      Spurious emissions

      Radiated power

      Antenna gain


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             ITU Regions

                         160° 140° 120° 100° 80° 60° 40°         20°       0°   20° 40° 60° 80° 100° 120° 140° 160° 180°
                     C                                                 B              A
          75°                                                                                                                 75°

       60°                                                                         REGION 1                                   60°
                             REGION 2
      40°                                                                                                                     40°
        30°                                                                                                                   30°
          20°                                                                                                                 20°

             0°                                                                                                                    0°

          20°                                                                                                                 20°
          30°                                                                                                                 30°
          40°                                                                                                                 40°
                         REGION 3                                                                    REGION 3
                                     C                            B                        A
          60°                                                                                                                 60°

                     160° 140° 120° 100° 80° 60° 40°            20°    0°       20° 40° 60° 80° 100° 120° 140° 160° 180°

                               The shaded part represents the Tropical Zones as defined in Nos. 5.16 to 5.20 and 5.21.

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  5.235 Additional allocation: in Germany, Austria, Belgium,
  Denmark, Spain, Finland, France, Israel, Italy, Liechtenstein,
  Malta, Monaco, Norway, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom,
  Sweden and Switzerland, the band 174-223 MHz is also allocated
  to the land mobile service on a primary basis. However, the
  stations of the land mobile service shall not cause harmful
  interference to, or claim protection from, broadcasting stations,
  existing or planned, in countries other than those listed in this

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        Frequency Assignments

      National frequency authorities assign specific
      carrier frequencies,
        within the frequency block allocations,
        for transmission at radio stations;

      assignments are made for specified purposes,
       usually specifying emission parameters;
       receiving point, carrier power, bandwidth,
       antenna characteristics, etc.

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         Interference may cross national frontiers

      National authorities notify BR, and ask for frequency
       assignments to be registered in the Master
       International Frequency Register (MIFR).

      BR may merely check that the assignment is in
       accordance with the RR, then registers it.

      Or BR will do technical checks to verify that the new
       assignment will not cause interference to an
       assignment of another country.

      Or the RR require national authorities to discuss and
       agree (“coordinate”)

      Or there will be an a-priori plan

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      Regional and national

      spectrum management

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         Regional spectrum management

      Regional groups are advantageous:

      - establishing common standards across a region

      - provide a large market place

      - remove barriers to trade

      - permit cross-border operation

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      CEPT - Electronic Communications Committee

      European Telecommunication Standards Institute

      European Telecommunication Network Operators

      European Union

BAL                                                    82
        EU harmonisation measures

      ERMES Directive    1990
      DECT Directive     1991
      SPCS Directive     1997
      GSM Directive      1997
      UMTS Directive     1998

BAL                                 83
         European Conference of Postal and
         Telecommunications Admins (CEPT)

      - established in 1959 by 19 countries
      - original members were monopoly-holding postal and
        telecommunications administrations

      - in 1992, postal & telecom operators set up
       PostEurope and ETNO
        CEPT became a body of policy-makers & regulators.
        Central & East European Countries became eligible
        for membership in CEPT.

BAL                                                         84
         CEPT members
      now, 45 members
      Albania, Andorra, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium,
       Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,
       Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany,
       United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Greece,
       Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein,
       Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Netherlands,
       Norway, Poland, Portugal, Rep of Macedonia, Romania,
       Russian Federation, San Marino, Serbia and Montenegro,
       Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey,

       Ukraine, Vatican.

BAL                                                                  85
         role and purpose of CEPT
      - establish European forum for sovereign and regulatory issues
         for post and telecommunications
      - provide mutual assistance among members
      - exert influence on goals & priorities through common positions;
      - carry out its activities at a pan- European level;
      - strengthen and foster more intensively co-operation
          with Eastern and Central European countries;
      - promote and facilitate relations between European
          regulators; influence developments in ITU and UPU
      - respond to new circumstances in a non-bureaucratic,
          cost-effective and timely way
      - settle common problems through close collaboration
      - give its activities more binding force, if required;
      - create a single Europe on posts and telecommunications sectors

BAL                                                                 86
         Electronic Communications Committee
      develop Radiocommunication policy

      coordinate frequency, regulatory and technical matters

      consult with users, operators, industry and standards

      develop guidelines for ITU meetings

      guide and coordinate work of the ERO and the WG’s

BAL                                                       87
      ECC policy goals - 1

 - Forward plan use of the spectrum
 - Harmonise use of frequencies within Europe; foster
    world-wide harmonisation; ensure effective utilisation,
    minimum interference and safety of human life
 - Ensure European telecommunications standards; utilise
    spectrum efficiently; consider market demands;
    introduce standards in national type approval regimes
 - Provide for free circulation of radio equipment
 - Provide mutual recognition of type approval
     certificates & mutual acceptance of test reports
 - Provide mutual recognition of radio licences
 - align admin procedures for free circulation & use

BAL                                                     88
      ECC policy goals - 2

 - Exchange of information on national research
 - Exchange information & harmonise national legislation
 - Exchange information on principles of financing the
    work of administrations; find a common basis for fees
 - Encourage deregulation & minimise burdens on users
 - Coordinate Members action with respect to EC
 - Foster development of ECP's; coordinate Members’
    activities in respect of ITU
 - Consult widely

BAL                                                   89
         ECC working groups (radio related)

      Frequency Management (FM) - to agree and harmonise
       the use of parts of the spectrum within Europe
      Radio Regulatory (RR) - concerned with licensing,
       certification, etc
      Spectrum Engineering (SE) - concerned with
       compatibility & related technical issues .

      Conference Preparatory Group – prepares for ITU
      Project teams

        Supported by the European Radio Office in Copenhagen

BAL                                                            90
         Working Group SE - 1

      develop technical guidelines for the use of the
        frequency spectrum by various radiocom services;
      develop sharing criteria between radiocom services,
         systems or applications using same frequency bands;
      develop compatibility criteria between radiocom
         services using different frequency bands;
      co-ordinate related activities & contributions to
         work in ITU-R;
      co-operate with relevant technical bodies in ETSI
      study technical impacts of ISM & other non-radio
         equipment on radio services

BAL                                                      91
         Working Group SE - 2

      contribute to CPG on preparation of CEPT positions
         for WRCs and other relevant fora;
       seek contributions & assistance from ERO, etc
       consult various bodies & organisations within CEPT
         countries or Administrations outside the CEPT, to
         collect information & broaden support for
       prepare draft Decisions and prepare & approve
         Recommendations and Reports as necessary;

BAL                                                          92
         European Telecommunication Standards
      Established 1988
      Membership - industry & administrations

      Objective: to be a regional standards body sensitive to
       market needs with an innovative and efficient
       approach to producing quality standards in a timely

        Facilitate integration of telecoms infrastructure
        Assure interworking of future services
        Achieve compatibility of terminal equipment
        Create pan-European telecoms networks
        Contribute to international standardization (ITU)

BAL                                                         93
      General Assembly
       technical committees
       ETSI projects
      TC ERM     emc and radio spectrum matters
      TC MSG     mobile standards
      TC SES     satellite earth stations and systems
      TC PLT     power line telecommunciations
      JTC broadcast
      EP DECT    digital cordless phones
      EP TETRA terrestrial trunked radio
      EP BRAN    broadband radio access networks

BAL                                                     94
           ETSI deliverables
      EN     European Standard (telecommunication series)
             contains normative provisions, approved for
             publication by a process involving national
             standards organisations or ETSI national
      TS     Technical specification which contains normative
             provisions approved by a technical body;
      ES     Standard which contains normative provisions
             approved by the membership
      SR     Special Report containing information approved
             by a technical body
      EG     Guide containing information approved by the
BAL                                                         95
         National - UK

      UK legislation:
       wireless telegraphy act                    1949
       wireless telegraphy act                    1967
       marine, etc. broadcasting (offences) act   1967
       telecommunications act,                    1984
       interception of telecommunications act,    1985
       Broadcasting act,                          1990
       Wireless telegraphy act                    1998
       Communications Act                         2003
            and many statutory instruments

BAL                                                      96
        Office of Communications,
      OFCOM brings into one non-governmental
       regulatory organisation five existing bodies:

       Broadcast Standards Commission
       Independent Television Commission
       Radio Authority
       OFTEL (Office of Telecommunications)
       Radiocommunciations Agency

BAL                                                97
      OFCOM is the regulator for the UK
       communications industries, with
       responsibilities across television, radio,
       telecommunications and wireless
       communications services.

      OFCOM exists to further the interests of
       citizen-consumers as the communications
       industries enter the digital age.

BAL                                                 98
      To do this OFCOM shall:
      Balance the promotion of choice and competition with
       the duty to foster plurality, informed citizenship,
       protect viewers, listeners and customers and promote
       cultural diversity.
      Serve the interests of the citizen-consumer as the
       communications industry enters the digital age.
      Support the need for innovators, creators and
       investors to flourish within markets driven by full and
       fair competition between all providers.
      Encourage the evolution of electronic media and
       communications networks to the greater benefit of
       all who live in the United Kingdom.

BAL                                                        99
      Note that nowhere amongst these aims are any
       technical objectives to ensure the effective
       or efficient use of the spectrum,
      nor to provide any leadership in guiding UK
       interests towards the establishment of
       common developments
      which will maintain the UK as leaders in the
       future uses of radio and benefit the UK
       economy as a whole.

BAL                                             100
         Radiocommunications Agency

      Until the end of 2003

      Managed the civil radio spectrum

      Aim: optimal use of the radio spectrum in a dynamic
           and successful UK economy with enhanced
           quality of life through excellence and innovation
           in spectrum management

BAL                                                      101
        Radiocommunications Agency

  610 staff (400 in London)

  Eight licensing centres

  Monitoring station at Baldock

  Technical centre at Whyteleafe, Surrey

      Income         £138M        2001/2002
      Expenditure    £66M         2001/2002

  RA prepared and led international work in Europe and

BAL                                                  102
         Radio users

      210 types of licence
       from Vodafone (3G licence for 20 years - £6 billion)
       to CB and amateur user (£15 per year)

            Mobile phones
            Infrastructure (satellite and terrestrial)
            Broadband networks and local networks
            Defence and emergency services
            Radio astronomy
            Amateur and CB

BAL                                                      103
         Economic impact

      Value of spectrum estimated at £20 billion in 2000 &
       continues to grow

      2.5 million more cellular subscribers than a year ago

      12% growth in fixed links since Oct 2001

      15% growth in satellite earth stations

BAL                                                           104
         Vision statement - 1994

      We will publish, and update annually, a strategic plan
       for the use and development of the radio spectrum.

      We are also committed to improving communications publishing more information about spectrum

      The 2nd commitment is being met by the availability
       from the Agency library of a large number of
       information sheets,
            (see index on

BAL                                                        105
           Strategic plan 1996

      1.   Providing access to the spectrum - maximising the
           use of the spectrum & endeavouring to ensure
      2.   seeking improvement in global and regional
           spectrum coordination
      3.   ensuring compliance with spectrum management
      4.   improving communications and decision making
      5.   developing the skills of RA staff and the supporting

BAL                                                        106
         Green paper 1994

      How to manage the spectrum? Regulation not sufficient –
       burdensome, inflexible, ineffective in predicting future use

      Congestion – PBR, mobile telephony, terrestrial BC, fixed links
      Telecoms policy
      RA or SMO’s
      Pricing – cost based pricing undervalues spectrum – leads to
       wastage & apparent shortage
      Spectrum rights
      Secondary trading
BAL                                                                   107
      Green paper 1994

     pricing – 70% - reform desirable
                      prefer administrative pricing
     secondary trading – mixed response
     organisation – yes to self managed SMOs
                      no to commercial SMOs
                      RA should enforce
   RA’s function – core spectrum management

BAL                                                   108
         Wireless Telegraphy Act 1998

      Licence fees
          prescribed by regulation, or
          as determined by the Secretary of State
      Regulations may:
            make different provisions for different cases
            confer exemptions
            fees may be refunded
            make transitional arrangements
      Fees may be greater than necessary for cost recovery
      May undertake or arrange research and development
      May make grants

BAL                                                    109
      Satellite Services

BAL                        110
         Fixed satellite service

      RR1.20      fixed service:
       A radiocommunication service between specified
       fixed points.

      RR1.21       fixed-satellite service:
       A radiocommunication service between earth stations
       at given positions, when one or more satellites are
       used; the given position may be a specified fixed
       point or any fixed point within specified areas; in
       some cases this service includes satellite-to-satellite
       links, which may also be operated in the inter-
       satellite service; the fixed-satellite service may also
       include feeder links for other space
       radiocommunication services.

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       FSS allocations

      WARC 1963
      3400 -   4200   MHz   (down-links) [i.e. space to Earth]
      4400 -   4700   MHz   (up-links)
      5725 -   6425   MHz   (up-links)
      7250 -   7750   MHz   (down-links)
      7900 - 8400 MHz (up-links)

BAL                                                        112
        FSS allocations

      WARC-71 added allocations for FSS at higher
      10.95 - 11.2 GHz (down-links)
      11.45 - 11.7 GHz (down-links)
      11.7 - 12.2 GHz (down-links) (Region 2 only)
      12.5 - 12.75 GHz (down-links) (Region 1 only)
      14.0 - 14.5 GHz (up-links)
      17.7 - 21.2 GHz (down-links)
      27.5 - 31.0 GHz (up-links)
      plus several pairs of bands between 35 and 275 GHz
       and narrow bands at 2.6 GHz.

BAL                                                    113
          FSS allocations

      WARC 1988
              down-links                              up-links
                                                     5.15 - 5.25
      3.4 - 4.2 and 4.5 - 4.8                      5.725 - 7.075
            7.25 - 7.75                              7.9 - 8.4
            10.7 - 11.7                             12.5 - 13.25
            12.5 - 12.75                           12.75 - 13.25
                                                   15.43 - 15.63
           17.3 - 17.7
           17.7 - 21.2                              27.5 - 31.0
           37.5 - 40.5                              42.5 - 43.5
                                                    47.2 - 50.2
                                                    50.4 - 51.4
      plus several pairs of bands at higher frequencies.

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      Almost all of the FSS bands are shared
       with other services

      Elaborate means are used to enable this
        shared use

BAL                                             115
         Mobile Satellite service

      RR1.24         mobile service: A radiocommunication
             service between mobile and land stations, or
             between mobile stations
      RR1.25        mobile-satellite service: A
             radiocommunication service:
            – between mobile earth stations and one or more
              space stations, or between space stations used
               by this service; or
            – between mobile earth stations by means of one
              or more space stations.

      This service may also include feeder links necessary
       for its operation
BAL                                                      116
      RR1.67      mobile station: A station in the mobile
       service intended to be used while in motion or during
       halts at unspecified points.

      RR1.68       mobile earth station: An earth station in
       the mobile-satellite service intended to be used while
       in motion or during halts at unspecified points.

      RR1.69      land station: A station in the mobile
      service not intended to be used while in motion.
            base station: in the land mobile service.
            coast station: in the maritime mobile service.
            aeronautical station: in the aeronautical mobile

BAL                                                         117
    a radio station which is on wheels and roadworthy
  but is only operated while it is stationary at one or
  more specified points may be a fixed station, because
  its use of frequencies can be co-ordinated with the
  use made by other fixed stations of the same

 , a transportable station which is set up to operate at
  unspecified points but is always stationary when it is
  in operation is nevertheless classified as mobile.

BAL                                                   118
      FSS needs very large allocated bandwidth because of
      the information flow
       - sharing constraints devised to allow both FSS & FS
         to operate in the same frequency band,
         (more difficult for small dish systems)

      MSS systems use quite small earth station antennas.
       - demands high down-link PFD & high up-link receiver
        sensitivity, - sharing difficult.

BAL                                                    119
         Choice of radio frequency

       For all satellite systems: cost of RF power to
       satellite antenna is high - desirable to select
       frequency bands to maximise C/N ratio

       For FSS choice is simple; allocated bands start at 3.4
       GHz - desirable to use bands close to this bottom
       limit, but relatively small penalty for higher
       frequencies up to say 15 GHz.

      (rain attenuation significant at higher frequencies)

BAL                                                          120
         Choice of radio frequency

      For MSS, assume gain of satellite antenna is fixed -
      determined by the required coverage area.
       (a) As frequency reduced, size of satellite antenna
           for constant gain increases,
           as it gets too big to launch, gain of the satellite
          antenna may start to fall away below a certain
      ( b) For given satellite antenna gain & given earth
          station antenna size, transmission loss constant
           regardless of operating frequency.
          - but mobile station antenna gain increases &
            beamwidth reduces, - more costly tracking

BAL                                                              121
      (c) antennas of constant gain at both satellite &
          earth station:

       - transmission loss increases by 20 dB for 10-fold
         increase in frequency.

BAL                                                       122
       satellite tracking capabilities of mobile
       earth station
      (a) simple, cheap antenna with no tracking:
          gain about 8 dBi; small enough to mount on most
          vehicles, regardless of frequency,
      (b) antenna on ship or aircraft with 10º beamwidth:
           simple tracking system.
           gain about 25 dBi. (at 2 GHz, diameter 1 metre),.

       (c) where high cost is tolerable, much better
           is feasible,
           for 1º minimum beamwidth & 1 metre max diam.
           gain about 45 dBi for frequencies above 20 GHz,
BAL                                                     123
      minimum earth station antenna size, minimum cost
      system, - frequencies well below 1 GHz desirable,
      particularly for wide coverage systems.

      larger earth terminal antenna of medium cost (e.g.
       INMARSAT), transmission loss is less, - optimum
      frequency band, say 800 MHz to 2 GHz

      high performance, high cost earth terminal,
        - frequency range spreads from below 1 GHz to at
      least 30 or 40 GHz, ( beware of rain attenuation at
      the higher frequencies)

BAL                                                       124
         MSS frequency allocations
      137 - 138 MHz down link partly secondary allocations
      148 - 150.05 up link
      235 - 322      footnote provision- not causing interference
      312 - 315      up link
      335.4 - 399.9 footnote provision - not causing interference
      387 - 390      down link
      399.9 - 400.05 up link
      400.15 - 401 down link
      406 - 406.1    up link
      455 - 456      ) Region 2 only
      459 - 460      ) up link

       1525 - 1559 MHz down link ) mainly maritime and aeronautical
                                 ) mobile with some land
      1610 - 1660.5    up link ) mobile as secondary in some parts

BAL                                                                 125
         MSS frequency allocations

      1980 - 2010       up link
      2170 - 2200       down link
      2483.5 – 2520     down link
      2670 - 2690       up link
      7250 - 7375       down-link ) footnote provision
      7900 - 8025       up-link    ) - no interference

      19.7 - 21.2 GHz      down-link
      29.5 - 31            up link

      And some higher bands

BAL                                                      126
         Broadcast Satellite Service

      RR1.38      broadcasting service:
       A radiocommunication service in which the
       transmissions are intended for direct reception by
       the general public. This service may include sound
       transmissions, television transmissions or other types
       of transmission

       RR1.39     broadcasting-satellite service:
        A radiocommunication service in which signals
       transmitted or retransmitted by space stations are
       intended for direct reception by the general public.
            In the broadcasting-satellite service, the term “direct
       reception” shall encompass both individual reception and
       community reception.

BAL                                                               127
       BSS frequency allocations

      TV down links:

       620 - 790 MHz. - footnote
       2520 - 2670 MHz. - shared band, limited to “national and
                  regional” BSS networks for community reception

       main bands
                Region 1; 11.7 - 12.5 GHz
                Region 2; 12.2 - 12.7 GHz
                Region 3; 11.7 - 12.2 GHz
                and higher frequencies

BAL                                                          128
         BSS frequency allocations

      Sound broadcast down links

      1452 to 1492 MHz - limited to dab

BAL                                       129
       BSS feeder links

      10.7 - 11.7 GHz. (Reg 1 only) (shared with FSS
      14.5 - 14.8 GHz. (excluding Europe)
      17.3 - 18.1 GHz. (part shared with FSS downlinks)

      and higher frequencies

BAL                                                       130
         Other space services

      11 other space radio services
       ISS inter-satellite service hardly used so far
       AmSS amateur satellite service – widely used
       Other 9 services:
        - typically operated by governments, etc
         - satellites not usually geostationary
        - earth stations are few & can be located to avoid
           interference from terrestrial stations
         - frequency allocations are many but narrow,
             often national & often secondary

BAL                                                      131
      Inter-satellite service

      54.25 - 58.2 GHz   126 - 134 GHz
         59 - 64 GHz     170 - 182 GHz
        116 - 126 GHz    185 - 190 GHz

BAL                                      132
         Amateur satellite service

      Most amateur allocations also available for the amateur
       satellite service

BAL                                                      133
       Radiodetermination satellite service

      RR 1.9 radiodetermination: “the determination of the
      position, velocity and/or other characteristics of an
      object, or the obtaining of information relating to
      these parameters, by means of the propagation
      properties of radio waves”.

      radionavigation (RN) service - involve safety
                        of life factors
      radiolocation (RL) service - no direct safety
                        of life factors

BAL                                                     134
         Radiodetermination satellite service

      149.9 - 150.05 MHz & 399.9 - 400.05 MHz. - were used
                                       for Transit
      1215 - 1350 MHz (down-links). - GPS
      1559 - 1610 MHz (down-links). - GPS & GLONASS
      14.3 - 14.4 GHz (down-links). - secondary allocation

BAL                                                   135
       Space research satellite service
       earth exploration satellite service

        space research service (SRS) - “in which spacecraft
      or other objects in space are used for scientific or
      technological research purposes”.
       earth exploration-satellite service (EESS) – “... in
      information relating to the characteristics of the earth and its
      natural phenomena is obtained from active ... or passive sensors
      on earth satellites,
        similar information is collected from airborne or earth-based
        such information may be distributed to earth stations within
      the system concerned, platform interrogation may be included.”

BAL                                                                136
         meteorological satellite service

      meteorological-satellite service (MetSS) - “an EESS
       for meteorological purposes.”

      These 3 services all need frequency allocations for
        three kinds of use:
          - active sensors
          - passive sensors
          - for transmission of observed data, control signals

BAL                                                       137
         Space research satellite service
         earth exploration satellite service
         meteorological satellite service
       Active sensors, bands centred on:
         1250 MHz     8600 MHz       17.25 GHz     78.5 GHz
             3200 MHz         9650 MHz      24.15 GHz
             5300 MHz         13.7 GHz      35.55 GHz
       Passive sensors, bands centred on:
       1385 MHz       7160 MHz      21.3 GHz
       1412 MHz       10.64 GHz     22.23 GHz
       2647 MHz       10.69 GHz     23.8 GHz
       2670 MHz       15.27 GHz     31.4 GHz
       4970 MHz       15.37 GHz     31.65 GHz
       6475 MHz       18.7 GHz      36.5 GHz.

BAL                                                           138
         meteorological satellite service

       400.15 - 401 MHz, down-links, primary.
       401 - 403 MHz, up-links, secondary.
       460 - 470 MHz, down-links, secondary, shared
      1670 - 1710 MHz, down-links, primary.
      7450 - 7550 MHz, down-links, primary, shared
      8175 - 8215 MHz, up-links, primary, shared
       18.1 - 18.3 GHz, down-links, primary, limited to
                    GSO & shared

BAL                                                       139
         Space operation service

      6 very narrow allocations,
      - primarily for use in the launch phase

        Standard Frequency and Time Signal
        satellite service

BAL                                             140
         Radio Astronomy

      RR 1.13 “astronomy based on the reception of radio
       waves of cosmic origin”.

      Included as a radio service as it requires protection
       from interference

      Many allocations throughout the spectrum

BAL                                                           141
         Case Study - HDFSS
      continuing growth in demand for high data rate

      radio services have advantages of flexibility and rapid

      terrestrial schemes for HD FWA at SHF or EHF
       require extensive infrastructure

      limits rate of system deployment

      may never be available in more rural areas.

BAL                                                       142
      scope for introduction of high density satellite
           e.g. Teledesic

      continue to be opportunities for both GSO and
       non-GSO services.

      Resolution 143 (WRC-03)

BAL                                                143
        Frequency bands for HDFSS
       space to earth              earth to space
      17.3-17.7 GHz Reg 1    27.5-27.82 GHz     Reg 1
      18.3-19.3 GHz Reg 2    28.35-28.45 GHz Reg 2
      19.7-20.2 GHz          28.45-28.94 GHz
                             28.94-29.1 GHz     Reg 2 & 3
                             29.25-29.46 GHz Reg 2
      39.5-40 GHz Reg 1      29.46-30 GHz
      40-40.5 GHz
      40.5-42 GHz Reg 2
      47.5-47.9 GHz Reg 1
      48.2-48.54 GHz Reg 1
      49.44-50.2 GHz Reg 1   48.2-50.2 GHz     Reg 2

BAL                                                    144
      Radio Regulations state:
       identification for HDFSS does not preclude
       the use of these bands by other FSS
       applications or by other services to which
       these bands are allocated on a co-primary
       does not establish priority in these
       Regulations among users of the bands

BAL                                             145
           RESOLUTION 143 (WRC-03)
           Guidelines for the implementation of high-density applications in
           the fixed-satellite service in frequency bands identified for these
      The World Radiocommunication Conference (Geneva, 2003),
      a) that demand has been increasing steadily for global broadband communication
         services throughout the world, such as those provided by high-density applications in
         the fixed-satellite service (HDFSS);
      b) that HDFSS systems are characterized by flexible, rapid and ubiquitous deployment
         of large numbers of cost-optimized earth stations employing small antennas and
         having common technical characteristics;
      c) that HDFSS is an advanced broadband communication application concept that will
         provide access to a wide range of broadband telecommunication applications
         supported by fixed telecommunication networks (including the Internet), and thus will
         complement other telecommunication systems;
      d) that, as with other FSS systems, HDFSS offers great potential to establish
         telecommunication infrastructure rapidly;
      e) that HDFSS applications can be provided by satellites of any orbital type;
      f) that interference mitigation techniques have been and continue to be studied in ITU-R
         to facilitate sharing between HDFSS earth stations and terrestrial services;
      g) that to date, studies have not concluded on the practicability of implementation of
         interference mitigation techniques for all HDFSS earth stations,

BAL                                                                                     146
 a) that No. 5.516B identifies bands for HDFSS;
 b) that, in some of these bands, the FSS allocations are co-primary with fixed and
    mobile service allocations as well as other services;
 c) that this identification does not preclude the use of these bands by other services or
    by other FSS applications, and does not establish priority in these Regulations among
    users of the bands;
 d) that, in the band 18.6-18.8 GHz, the FSS allocation is co-primary with the Earth
    exploration-satellite service (EESS) (passive) with the restrictions of Nos. 5.522A and
 e) that radio astronomy observations are carried out in the 48.94-49.04 GHz band, and
    that such observations require protection at notified radio astronomy stations;
 f) that co-frequency sharing between transmitting HDFSS earth stations and terrestrial
    services is difficult in the same geographical area;
 g) that co-frequency sharing between receiving HDFSS earth stations and terrestrial
    stations in the same geographical area may be facilitated through the implementation
    of interference mitigation techniques, if practicable;
 h) that many FSS systems with other types of earth stations and characteristics have
    already been brought into use or are planned to be brought into use in some of the
    frequency bands identified for HDFSS in No. 5.516B;
 i) that HDFSS stations in these bands are expected to be deployed in large numbers
    over urban, suburban and rural areas of large geographical extent;
 j) that the 50.2-50.4 GHz band, adjacent to the band 48.2-50.2 GHz (Earth-to-space)
    identified for HDFSS in Region 2, is allocated to the EESS (passive),

BAL                                                                                     147
 a) that in cases where FSS earth stations use bands that are shared on a co-primary
    basis with terrestrial services, the Radio Regulations stipulate that earth stations of
    the FSS shall be individually notified to the Bureau when their coordination contours
    extend into the territory of another administration;
 b) that, as a consequence of their general characteristics, it is expected that the
    coordination of HDFSS earth stations with fixed service stations on an individual site-
    by-site basis between administrations will be a difficult and long process;
 c) that, to minimize the burden for administrations, simplified coordination procedures
    and provisions can be agreed by administrations for large numbers of similar HDFSS
    earth stations associated with a given satellite system;
 d) that harmonized worldwide bands for HDFSS would facilitate the implementation of
    HDFSS, thereby helping to maximize global access and economies of scale,
 recognizing further
 that HDFSS applications implemented on FSS networks and systems are subject to all
   provisions of the Radio Regulations applicable to the FSS, such as coordination and
   notification pursuant to Articles 9 and 11, including any requirements to coordinate
   with terrestrial services across international borders, and the provisions of Articles 21
   and 22,

BAL                                                                                      148
 that administrations which implement HDFSS should consider the following guidelines:
 a) making some or all of the frequency bands identified in No. 5.516B available for
    HDFSS applications;
 b) in making frequency bands available under resolves a), take into account:
 – that HDFSS deployment will be simplified in bands that are not shared with terrestrial
 – in       in bands shared with terrestrial services, the impact that the further deployment
    of terrestrial stations would have on the existing and future development of HDFSS,
    and the further deployment of HDFSS earth stations would have on the existing and
    future development of terrestrial services;
 c) take into account the relevant technical characteristics applicable to HDFSS, as
    identified by ITU-R Recommendations (e.g. Recommendations ITU-R S.524-7 and
    ITU-R S.1594);
 d) take into account other existing and planned FSS systems, having different
    characteristics, in frequency bands where HDFSS is implemented in accordance with
    resolves a) above and the conditions specified in No. 5.516B,

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      invites administrations
      1 to give due consideration to the benefits of harmonized utilization of the spectrum for
        HDFSS on a global basis, taking into account the use and planned use of these
        bands by all other services to which these bands are allocated, as well as other types
        of FSS applications;
      2 to consider implementing simplified procedures and provisions that facilitate the
        deployment of HDFSS systems in some or all of the bands identified in No. 5.516B;
      3 when considering the deployment of HDFSS systems in the upper portion of the band
        48.2-50.2 GHz, to take into account as appropriate the potential impact such
        deployment may have on the satellite passive services in the adjacent band 50.2-
        50.4 GHz, and to participate in ITU-R studies on the compatibility between these
        services, taking into account No. 5.340;
      4 to, given invites 3 above, and where practicable, consider starting the deployment of
        HDFSS earth stations in the lower part of the band 48.2-50.2 GHz

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      Frequency reuse?

      Can HDFSS really be described as high density?

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