Processor Specs (Continued) by ars16282

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									      Processor Specs (Continued)




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                  Package Type




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                  Package Type




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           Form Factor and Package
• The term form factor applies to many
  devices including processors. It refers to
  their size and shape. And in the case of
  processors it also includes how they connect
  to the motherboard.
     – The motherboard has a slot or socket.
• A related term is the “package” — an
  enclosure for a chip (integrated circuit).
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                  Pinning
                                     The pins or leads are how
                                     a chip interfaces with the
                                     outside world.
                                     There are various ways to
                                     arrange the pins on a chip.
                                     Furthermore, several chips
                                     can be brought together
                                     into unit called a module
                                     (common in memory).


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                  PGA/DIP/SIP
• PGA: pin grid array, chip in which the
  pins are located on the bottom in concentric
  squares.
     – Used in some microprocessors.
• DIP: dual in-line package, rectangular
  chip with two rows of pins, one on each
  side.
• SIP: single in-line package, chip with pins
  protruding from one side
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                         SEPP
                                  • Single-Edge Processor
                                    Package
                                  • With the S.E.P.P. form
                                    factor, the processor is not
                                    completely covered by the
                                    black plastic (as in
                                    S.E.C.C.and S.E.C.C.2).
An out-dated processor            • The circuit board
packaging scheme.                   (substrate) can be seen
                                    from the bottom side.

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                        SECC
                                 • Single Edge Contact
                                   Connector
                                 • With the S.E.C.C. form
                                   factor, processors have a
                                   plastic shroud covering
                                   with an active heatsink
                                   and fan.
                                 • Identifiable by the
Another out-dated processor        goldfinger contacts which
packaging scheme.                  in this case are inside of
                                   the plastic housing.

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                       Heat
• Recall that in the history of processors the number
  of transistors continues to grow (Moore‘s Law)
  while the relative size of the chip stays fixed.
  With more transistors carrying current, more
  heat is produced.
• Various developments have occurred to deal with
  the issue of heat. One is a reduction in the
  working voltage (5V  3.3V  2V). Another
  has been the introduction of the heatsink and fan.

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                     Heat Sink
• The computer has had a fan for some time to deal
  with heat. But starting with the 486, the processor
  needed special consideration.
• A heat sink is an element designed to take heat
  away from the processor.
• In this case, heat is dissipated mainly via
  convection, the heat is transferred to the nearby
  air and is carried away with the air as it moves.
     – Convection is why a breeze feels nice on a hot summer
       day.


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                  Desired Effects
• A heat sink should have a large surface area since
  this is where the heat is transferred to the air.
• But the heat sink should not block the air flow
  since this is how the heat is carried away.
• Heat sinks often have very strange shapes to try to
  maximize these two competing effects.
     – Typically made of Aluminum
     – May have “fins”


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                  Heat Sinks




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                  Passive and Active
• All modern processors have a heat sink. Some also
  require a fan.
     – Without a fan: passive heat sink
     – With a fan: active heat sink
• Because the heat sink‘s purpose is to dissipate
  heat, it is important that the heat can get from the
  processor to the heat sink. The material ―gluing‖
  the heat sink to the processor must conduct heat
  well.
• A heat slug is a piece of metal that connects the
  processor core to the processor package and/or
  heatsink.
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                  SECC2
                           • As with SECC, with
                             SECC2 the processors
                             have a plastic housing
                             with an active heatsink
                             (means it has a fan).
                           • It is distinct from
                             SECC in that the
                             goldfinger contacts are
                             exposed.
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                  PPGA
                           • Plastic Pin Grid Array
                           • With PPGA the processors
                             have pins arranged in a
                             square pattern. They fit
                             into Socket 370
                             motherboards.
                           • Look for the square
                             pattern (Pin Grid Array)
                             on the bottom.
                           • Slot connectors do not
                             have pins.

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                  FC-PGA
                            • Flipped-Chip Pin Grid
                              Arrays
                            • The chip is designed so
                              that the “core” processor,
                              which is the part that gets
                              the hottest, is on top
                              (closer to the heat sink).
                            • Also fits into a socket 370
                              motherboard. But it must
                              be a FCPGA compliant
                              motherboard for FCPGA
                              processor to work.
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             Pentium 4 Form Factors
• Pentium 4‘s also come in a FCPGA form factor.
     – The package uses 478 pins, which are 2.03 mm long
       and .32 mm in diameter.
• FCBGA (Flip Chip Ball Grid Array)
     – Instead of pins, FCBGA uses small balls, which acts as
       contacts for the processor. Pins bend, ball don‘t.
     – The package uses 479 balls, which are .78 mm in
       diameter.




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                             The LGA
• "Intel’s new LGA, or Land Grid Array, 775 processor
  socket takes a step away from traditional implementations
  in that the package no longer features pins, rather the
  bottom of the LGA 775 processors only have small gold
  contacts. With the LGA package, Intel has moved the pins
  into the bottom portion of the processor socket, something
  that will make installation of the processor easier in that
  there is no need to watch for bent pins on the
  package...although it will make it more difficult as well.
  You no longer need to worry about bent or damaged pins
  on the processor, rather now you have to worry twice as
  much about bent pins within the processor socket itself."
•   http://rootprompt.org/article.php3?article=7115


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Intel Core MicroArchitecture




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                   Micro-architecture
• A processor‘s architecture refers to its instruction
  set, the number and type of registers, and memory-
  resident data structures (e.g. stacks) that are available
  to a programmer (at least at the assembly level).
• A processor‘s micro-architecture refers to the
  hardware implementation of the architecture (the
  transistors).
• Backward compatibility is within the architecture
  (which is more of a logical level). The micro-
  architecture (implementation) may change
  dramatically and is not necessarily compatible with
  previous versions.

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 Intel® Wide Dynamic Execution
• A combination of techniques (data flow
  analysis, speculative execution, out of order
  execution, and super scalar) that enables
  the processor to execute more instructions
  in parallel.
  – Pipelining ideas
• Delivers more instructions per clock cycle
  to improve execution time and energy
  efficiency.
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                   Pipelining
• Recall that to execute an instruction, one must
  fetch it, decode it, fetch any data required, execute
  the instruction, write the answer to the appropriate
  place and possibly look for an interrupt requests
  that might have occurred during the previous.
• In pipelining a processor can begin executing a
  second instruction before the first has been
  completed.
• Thus, many instructions are in the pipeline at the
  same, though at various processing stages.

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                       Pipelining
• The pipeline is divided into segments. Each
  segment can perform its duty at the same time as
  the other segments.
• When a segment completes its task, it passes the
  result to the next segment and fetches the next
  operation from the preceding segment.
• Once a feature of only high-end processors, now
  pipelining is standard.
     – A Pentium had up to six instruction in the pipeline.



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      Hyper-Pipelined Technology
• Pentium 4‘s Hyper-pipelined technology
  uses a 20-stage pipeline.
• Having so many instructions in the works
  can be a problem if the program branches
  and one has the wrong instructions in the
  pipeline.
• For long pipelines to be effective there must
  be good ―branch prediction.‖ BPU –
  Branch Prediction Unit
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Intel® Wide Dynamic Execution (Cont.)

• Wider execution core allow each core to
  fetch, dispatch, execute and retire up to four
  full instructions simultaneously.
• More accurate branch prediction
• Deeper instruction buffers for greater
  execution flexibility


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Intel® Advanced Smart Cache
• The Intel Advanced Smart Cache is a multi-
  core optimized cache.
• Reduces latency to frequently used data
  – Improves performance and efficiency by
    increasing the probability that each execution
    core can quickly access data.



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 Intel® Smart Memory Access
• Intel Smart Memory Access optimizes the use of
  the available data bandwidth from the memory
  subsystem.
• Includes an important new capability called
  "memory disambiguation,"
   – which increases the efficiency of out-of-order
     processing by providing the execution cores with the
     built-in intelligence to speculatively load data for
     instructions that are about to execute before all previous
     store instructions are executed.
   – (I.e. get what you need when you need it)
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Intel® Advanced Digital Media Boost

• Intel® Advanced Digital Media Boost is a feature
  that significantly improves performance when
  executing Intel® Streaming SIMD Extension
  (SSE/SSE2/SSE3) instructions.
• Accelerate video, speech and image, photo
  processing, encryption, financial, engineering and
  scientific applications.
• Enables 128-bit instructions to be executed at a
  throughput rate of one per clock cycle, doubling
  the speed of previous generations.
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           Internet Streaming SIMD
                  Extensions
• SSE is an acronym within an acronym: It stands
  for Streaming SIMD Extensions, where SIMD is
  Single Instruction Multiple Data
• SSE consists of 70 SIMD instructions for integer
  and floating-point operations. It helps with high
  resolution images, audio and video viewing,
  speech recognition etc.
• Pentium 4 actually uses SSE2.
• SSE2 adds 144 new instructions.

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   Intel® Virtualization Technology

• Intel® Virtualization Technology (Intel®
  VT)¹ improves traditional software-based
  virtualization solutions.
  – ―These integrated features give virtualization
    software the ability to take advantage of
    offloading workload to the system hardware,
    enabling more streamlined virtualization
    software stacks and ‗near native‘ performance
    characteristics.‖

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                 Virtualization
• Using virtualization, one computer system can
  function as multiple "virtual" systems.
   – Can run multiple operating systems (simultaneously)
   – One machine being used as a number of independent
     virtual machines.
   – Allows consolidate and balancing of multiple
     workloads on one physical server system.
   – Lowers hardware acquisition costs
   – Improved data center performance efficiency.

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         Execute Disable Bit
• Intel's Execute Disable Bit allows the
  processor to distinguish between areas in
  memory where an application can execute
  and where it cannot.
• Can be used to disable certain worm
  attacks.


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                  References
• PC Hardware in a Nutshell, Thompson and
  Thompson
• http://www.webopedia.com
• http://www.intel.com
• http://www.anandtech.com
• http://www.mbreview.com/lga775.php
• http://www.intel.com/technology/architectu
  re-silicon/core/
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