Chapter 8 Special Senses - DOC

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Chapter 8 Special Senses - DOC Powered By Docstoc
					Chapter 8 Special Senses
Study Guide

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.
Fill in the blank or provide a short answer:
          1) After tears flush across the eyeball, they are absorbed medially into the __________. 1) _____________

       2) The six muscles attached to the outer surface of the eye that produce gross eye              2) _____________
          movements and make it possible for the eyes to follow objects are the __________.

       3) The area of sharpest visual acuity that normally contains only cones is the __________.      3) _____________

       4) Rods and cones are called __________ because they respond to light.                          4) _____________

       5) The condition resulting from hardening and opacity of the lens, in which vision becomes      5) _____________
          hazy and eventually may cause blindness, is __________.

       6) Aqueous humor is reabsorbed into venous blood at the sclera-cornea conjunction               6) _____________
          through the __________.

       7) The posterior wall of the retina is called the __________.                                   7) _____________

       8) The upside-down image formed on the retina as a result of the light-bending activity of      8) _____________
          the lens is the __________.

       9) At the optic chiasma, the __________ fibers of each eye cross over to the opposite side.     9) _____________

      10) The overlapping of the two visual fields that provides for depth perception (3-D vision)     10) ____________
          results in __________.

      11) Loss of the same side of the visual field of both eyes from damage to the visual cortex on   11) ____________
          one side only is called __________.

      12) Earwax is produced by __________.                                                            12) ____________

      13) Another name for the "hammer" bone of the middle ear is the __________.                      13) ____________

      14) The gel-like membrane that lies over the hair cells of the organ of Corti is called          14) ____________

      15) The cochlear nerve transmits impulses to the auditory cortex located in the __________.      15) ____________

      16) The reflex in which the eyes of an infant who is tilted backward roll downward so that       16) ____________
          its gaze remains fixed to compensate for disturbances in balance is called __________.

      17) Tiny stones made of calcium salts that roll in response to changes in gravitational pull     17) ____________
          are called __________.

      18) The receptor region inside each membranous semicircular canal, which consists of the         18) ____________
          cupula important to dynamic equilibrium, is the __________.
     19) The type of sensorineural deafness resulting in the loss of ability to hear high tones and     19) ____________
         speech sounds associated with atrophy of the organ of Corti as a consequence of aging is
         called __________.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
    20) The oily secretions that lubricate the eye are produced by the:                             20) ______
          A) tarsal glands
          B) ciliary glands
          C) lacrimal glands
          D) apocrine glands
          E) ceruminous glands

     21) Tarsal glands associated with the edges of the eyelids are considered modified:                       21) ______
           A) ceruminous glands
           B) apocrine glands
           C) sebaceous glands
           D) sweat glands
           E) lacrimal glands

     22) The highly contagious bacterial infection known as "pinkeye" is caused by bacterial or viral          22) ______
         irritation of the:
            A) choroid
             B) conjunctiva
            C) retina
            D) sclera
             E) cornea

     23) Tears are produced by the lacrimal glands that are located:                                           23) ______
           A) above the medial canthus of each eye
           B) below the lateral canthus of each eye
           C) below the medial canthus of each eye
           D) behind the nasal bones
           E) above the lateral canthus of each eye

     24) Which one of the following is NOT true about lysozyme secretion around the eye surfaces:              24) ______
          A) it is an enzyme
          B) it cleanses and protects the eye
          C) it stimulates the rods and cones
          D) it destroys bacteria
          E) it is found in tears

     25) Inflammation of the conjunctiva involves which of the following:                                      25) ______
           A) extrinsic eye muscles
            B) delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the front of the eyeball
            C) portion of the eye that contains the optic nerve
            D) circular band surrounding the pupil
            E) glands that produce tears

     26) The fibrous outermost tunic seen anteriorily as the "white of the eye" is the:                        26) ______
           A) sclera
           B) cornea
           C) fovea centralis
      D) choroid
      E) retina

27) The transparent central anterior portion of the sclera through which light enters the eye is called   27) ______
      A) iris              B) choroid           C) retina           D) cornea            E) pupil

28) The middle coat of the eyeball that contains pigment which prevents light from scattering in the      28) ______
    eyeball is the:
      A) pupil             B) choroid          C) sclera          D) cornea            E) retina

29) The "blind spot" where no photreceptor cells are present is located at the:                           29) ______
      A) pupil
      B) ciliary body
      C) choroid
      D) fovea centralis
      E) optic disk

30) The pigmented portion of the eye that has a rounded opening through which light passes is the:        30) ______
      A) cornea          B) retina            C) pupil           D) iris             E) sclera

31) The three sets of color receptors within the retina are sensitive to wavelengths of visible light     31) ______
    that are:
      A) red, blue, and yellow
       B) orange, green, and purple
      C) blue, green, and red
      D) red, green, and yellow
       E) green, yellow, and purple

32) Cataracts cause hazy vision and possible eventual blindness from changes in the:                      32) ______
      A) lens             B) pupil             C) choroid          D) iris                 E) cornea

33) Which one of the following is NOT true of color blindness:                                            33) ______
     A) it results from lack of cones
     B) it is sex-linked, inherited homeostatic imbalance
     C) it occurs most often in women
     D) it is caused by a defect in genes on the X (female) sex chromosome
     E) lack of red or green receptors is the most common type

34) The gel-like substance that reinforces the eyeball and prevents it from collapsing inward is the:     34) ______
      A) ciliary body
      B) aqueous humor
      C) canal of Schlemm
      D) vitreous humor
      E) choroid coat

35) Which one of the following correctly lists the order of the parts through which light passes as it    35) ______
    enters the eye:
      A) lens, aqueous humor, cornea, vitreous humor
       B) cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor
      C) vitreous humor, lens, aqueous humor, cornea
      D) cornea, lens, aqueous humor, vitreous humor
       E) aqueous humor, cornea, lens, vitreous humor

36) Receptors stimulated by the physical forces that cause movement of fluid or vibration within the   36) ______
    body are:
      A) mechanoreceptors
      B) chemoreceptors
      C) thermoreceptors
      D) proprioceptors
      E) gustatory receptors

37) Sound waves entering the external auditory canal hit the eardrum, also known as the:               37) ______
      A) ossicles
      B) pinna
      C) auricle
      D) oval window
      E) typmanic membrane

38) Hair cells that function as hearing receptors are located within the:                              38) ______
     A) ossicles
      B) auditory tube
      C) auricle
      D) oval window
      E) organ of Corti

39) The three auditory ossicles that transmit vibratory motion are located within the:                 39) ______
      A) inner ear
      B) middle ear
      C) external ear
      D) membranous labyrinth
      E) bony labyrinth

40) The stapes (also called the stirrup) transmits vibrations into the inner ear through the:          40) ______
      A) organ of Corti
      B) tympanic membrane
      C) oval window
      D) malleus
      E) auditory tube

41) An ear infection following an illness such as a cold has passed from the throat through the        41) ______
    auditory tube to the:
      A) middle ear
      B) semicircular canals
      C) eardrum
      D) inner ear
      E) outer ear

42) The auditory ossicle called the "anvil" is also called the:                                        42) ______
      A) cochlea
      B) malleus
      C) bony labyrinth
      D) incus
      E) stapes
43) Which one of the following is NOT part of the inner ear?                                     43) ______
     A) cochlea
     B) semicircular canals
     C) vestibule
     D) ossicles
     E) membranous labyrinth

44) The plasma-like fluid between the osseous and membranous labyrinths of the ear is the:       44) ______
      A) perilymph
      B) endolymph
      C) otolymph
      D) metalymph
      E) epilymph

45) Hearing receptors within the organ of Corti are called:                                      45) ______
      A) Corti cells
      B) rod cells
      C) cone cells
      D) hair cells
      E) ceruminous cells

46) The portion of the bony labyrinth responsible for static equilibrium is the:                 46) ______
      A) oval window
      B) vestibule
      C) semicircular canals
      D) cochlea
      E) ossicles

47) Receptors for taste and olfaction are classified as:                                         47) ______
      A) mechanoreceptors
      B) gustatory receptors
      C) chemoreceptors
      D) proprioceptors
      E) thermoreceptors

48) Which one of the following is NOT a primary taste sensation:                                 48) ______
     A) sweet             B) salty           C) sour             D) pungent          E) bitter

49) Which one of the following is NOT found on the dorsal tongue surface:                        49) ______
     A) gustatory cells
     B) filiform papillae
     C) maculary papillae
     D) circumvallate papillae
     E) fungiform papillae

50) Stimulation of salty receptors occurs in response to:                                        50) ______
       A) sugars, saccharine, and some amino acids
       B) neutral ions
       C) hydrogen ions or acidity
       D) metal ions in solution
       E) alkaloids
      51) The decreased lens elasticity associated with aging that makes it difficult to focus on near objects   51) ______
          is known as:
             A) myopia
             B) strabismus
             C) hemianopia
             D) hyperopia
             E) presbyopia

      52) The only special sense that is NOT fully functional at birth is:                                       52) ______
            A) smell             B) hearing          C) vision             D) taste             E) touch

TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.
    53) The sclera is also called the sensory tunic.                                                             53) ______

      54) The cornea lacks nerve endings that respond to pain when touched.                                      54) ______

      55) The pupil is the circular opening in the iris through which light passes.                              55) ______

      56) Gross eye movements are produced by five extrinsic eye muscles attached to the outer surface of        56) ______
          each eye.

      57) In close vision and bright light, the pupil will dilate.                                               57) ______

      58) Cones enable vision in dim light.                                                                      58) ______

      59) The pinna, also called the auricle, is what most people call the "ear."                                59) ______

      60) The function of the auditory tube is to transmit sound vibrations.                                     60) ______

      61) The "stirrup" is also referred to as the stapes.                                                       61) ______

      62) Presbycusis is a type of sensorineural deafness.                                                       62) ______

      63) Dynamic equilibrium receptors report the position of the head with respect to the pull of gravity      63) ______
          when the body is not moving.

      64) Deafness is defined as hearing loss ranging from slight to total loss.                                 64) ______

      65) Unlike the taste sensation, it is NOT necessary to have the chemicals associated with smells           65) ______
          dissolved in body fluids.

MATCHING. Choose the item in column 2 that best matches each item in column 1.
Match the following descriptions to their appropriate eye structure:
      66) "White of the eye"                                    A) choroid                                       66) ______
      67) Blood-rich tunic that contains dark                    B) suspensory ligaments                         67) ______
      68) Smooth muscle structures attached to                  C) sclera                                        68) ______
           the lens
                                                                D) iris
      69) Circularly and radially arranged                       E) cornea                                       69) ______
           pigmented smooth muscle fibers
                                                            F) ciliary body
                                                            G) extrinsic eye muscles

       70) Rounded opening through which                    A) pupil                                      70) ______
           light passes
       71) Contains millions of photoreceptors              B)    optic disk                              71) ______
       72) Blind spot                                       C)    iris                                    72) ______
                                                            D)    retina
                                                            E)    fovea centralis

Match the following ear structures to their descriptions:
      73) Pinna                                             A)    hammer                                  73)   ______
      74) Tympanic membrane                                 B)    wedge                                   74)   ______
      75) Auditory tube                                     C)    links the inner ear and the cochlea     75)   ______
      76) Malleus                                           D)    snail-like subdivision of the osseous   76)   ______
       77) Incus                                            E)    anvil                                   77) ______
       78) Stapes                                           F)    middle ear                              78) ______
       79) Cochlea                                          G)    eardrum                                 79) ______
                                                            H)    links the middle ear and the throat
                                                             I)   outer ear
                                                             J)   contains the ossicles
                                                            K)    saddle horn
                                                            L)    stirrup

       80) Organ of Corti                                   A) contains the cochlea                       80) ______
       81) Semicircular canals                              B) contains receptors for dynamic             81) ______
       82) Vestibule                                        C) snail-like subdivision of the osseous      82) ______
                                                            D) contains the receptors for dynamic
                                                            E) contains the receptors for static
                                                            F) contains the hair cells

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
    83) Describe the pathway of light starting outside the eyeball and ending at the optic nerve.

       84) Explain the mechanism of hearing; describe what happens in the outer, middle, and inner ear.

       85) Explain static and dynamic equilibrium and their interrelationships.

       86) Explain what the following terms mean as related to vision 20/20, 20/40, 20/15.
87)-Label the following structures on the picture: Pinna, Cochlea, Vestibulocochlear Nerve, Oval Window,
Round Window, Vestibule, Auditory Canal, Tympanic Membrane, Stapes, Malleus, Incus, Eustachian Tube,
Semicircular Canals.

88)-Label the following structures on the left picture: Eyelid, Eyelash, Conjuctiva, Pupil, Cornea, Lens, and
Optic Nerve. Label the following structures on the right picture: Iris, Ciliary Body, Choroid, Sclera, Retina,
Aqueous humor, and Vitreous humor.