# Space Allocation Not An Easy Decision by ars16282

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```									   Space Allocation

Not An Easy Decision

Dr Mike Brumm
Extension Swine Specialist
Is Space Allocation
the next Welfare Criteria?
68 kg   0.74 m2/pig
Pork Board Funding
• Science of Space Allocation

• Economic Impact of Space Allocation
Expressing space allowance
• Conventional methods of area/pig fail to account
for pig size

• Allometric relationship of volume (body weight)
to surface area (floor space) should apply across
wide range of weights

A = k * BW(.667)

Slide courtesy Harold Gonyou
123 kg, 0.58 m2   270 lb, 6.3 ft2
k = 0.024         k = 0.153
123 kg, 0.74 m2   270 lb, 8.0 ft2
k = 0.030        k = 0.191
102 kg 0.76 m2/pig   225 lb 8.2 ft2/pig
k = 0.035             k=0.223
Application of broken line analysis to assess floor space
requirements of nursery and grow/finish pigs
expressed on an allometric basis

H.W. Gonyou                         J.J. McGlone
M.C. Brumm                          M. Meunier-Salaun
E. Bush                             R.B. Morrison
P. Davies                           H. Spoolder
J. Deen                             P.L. Sundberg
S.A. Edwards                        A.K. Johnson
T. Fangman
full slats constant group size
104%

100%

96%

92%

88%

84%
0.020   0.022   0.024   0.026   0.028   0.030   0.032   0.034    0.036   0.038   0.040   0.042   0.044   0.046   0.048   0.050

'k'
full slats constant group size
104%

100%

96%

92%

88%

k = 0.0340
84%
0.020   0.022   0.024   0.026   0.028   0.030   0.032   0.034    0.036   0.038   0.040   0.042   0.044   0.046   0.048   0.050

'k'
Slide courtesy Harold Gonyou
Slide courtesy Harold Gonyou
broken line analysis
Full slat – equal group       0.0340   0.0336
Full slat – variable group*   0.0336   0.0336
Part slat – equal group       0.0327   0.0358
Part slat – variable group*   0.0317   0.0357

Nursery – variable group      0.0333   0.0345

Gonyou et al, 2005
For each 3% change in space,
daily gain and daily feed intake
change 1% for full slats.

There is no predictable impact of
space allocation on feed/gain.
Critical Space at
‘k’=     0.0336            0.2145
kg     m2/pig        lb    ft2/pig

100    0.725         220    7.83

109.1   0.768         240    8.29

120.5   0.821         265    8.89
What is the critical wt?
• Sales wt of all pigs?
– Easiest to obtain

• Average wt when first pig removed?
– Survey suggests 90/10 top/dump barns
Weight Distribution in healthy pig populations

Standard                      Liveweight Percentile
CV    Deviation   10     20    30     40      50        60     70       80       90
12%      21.6     152   162   169    175    180      185     191     198      208
12%      24.0     169   180   187    194    200      206     213     220      231
12%      26.4     186   198   206    213    220      227     234     242      254
12%      28.8     203   216   225    233    240      247     255    264      277
12%      31.2     220   234   244    252    260      268     276     286      300
12%      33.6     237   252   262    271    280      289     298     308      323
Modeling of pig populations                                         Mean wt, top 20% today                    278.8
Mean wt next 40% 2 wks                    271.4
Mean Wt          240 Wt at first pull                               Final wt bottom 40% less 5% 3 wks         253.0
CV                12 %
ADG              1.7 Gain of pigs remaining after first pull        Average Sale wt of all pigs               266.1

No or %        Z     todays wt 2 wk wt 3 wk wt                 %        Z     todays wt 2 wk wt   3 wk wt
1     -2.327     173.0     196.8   208.7               51       0.025     240.7     264.5     276.4
2     -2.055     180.8     204.6   216.5               52        0.05     241.4     265.2     277.1
3      -1.88     185.9     209.7   221.6               53       0.075     242.2     266.0     277.9
4      -1.75     189.6     213.4   225.3               54         0.1     242.9     266.7     278.6
5     -1.645     192.6     216.4   228.3               55       0.115     243.3     267.1     279.0
6     -1.555     195.2     219.0   230.9               56        0.15     244.3     268.1     280.0
7     -1.475     197.5     221.3   233.2               57       0.178     245.1     268.9     280.8
8     -1.405     199.5     223.3   235.2               58       0.202     245.8     269.6     281.5
9      -1.34     201.4     225.2   237.1               59       0.227     246.5     270.3     282.2
10     -1.281     203.1     226.9   238.8               60       0.253     247.3     271.1     283.0
11     -1.224     204.7     228.5   240.4               61       0.258     247.4     271.2     283.1
12     -1.175     206.2     230.0   241.9               62       0.305     248.8     272.6     284.5
13     -1.125     207.6     231.4   243.3               63       0.332     249.6     273.4     285.3
14      -1.08     208.9     232.7   244.6               64       0.358     250.3     274.1     286.0
15     -1.037     210.1     233.9   245.8               65       0.386     251.1     274.9     286.8
16     -0.995     211.3     235.1   247.0               66       0.411     251.8     275.6     287.5
17     -0.953     212.6     236.4   248.3               67        0.44     252.7     276.5     288.4

mbrumm1@unl.edu
What might affect ‘k’?
• Mixing/movement
– Wean-finish vs Nursery moved to finisher

• Group size

• Genetics
Interaction of Space and Sex
6.3      8.0       B        G
Wt In                 11.0     11.0     10.9     11.1
Wt out               269.0a   276.4b   279.1c   266.3d
F/G                   2.56     2.56     2.60     2.52
Backfat               .76      .84      .85      .75
a,bP<.05; c,dP<.01

Final ‘k’            0.0235 0.0300
7% change in space = 1% change in ADG wean-finish
Univ Illinois, 2005 Wean-Finish
Pigs/pen:     22          27           32
Ft2/pig:    8.4         6.9         5.8
M2/pig:       .78        .64          .54
Final ‘k’    0.0317     0.0267       0.0231     Linear
8 wk wt, lb         77.2        76.3        75.5          0.08
24 wk wt, lb       268.0       257.6       248.8      <.001

0-8 wk ADG, lb      1.12        1.11        1.09          0.07

0-24 wk ADG, lb     1.51        1.45        1.40      <.001

4% change in space = 1% change in ADG wean-finish
What doesn’t affect ‘k’?
• Diet
– Lysine
– Energy
– Paylean

• Sex
Economics of Pig Space:
Analysis of Production Systems
And
Marketing Impacts

M. Brumm              B. Buhr
D. Holtkamp           J. Kliebenstein
Current Industry Space Allocations

• Fully slatted finishing
– Survey – 7.2 ft2/pig – US average
– Range – 6.7 to 8.0 ft2/pig
– Sale Wt = 265 lb

• Nursery
– My estimate – 3.0 ft2/pig
– Exit Wt = 55 lb
‘k’=0.2145
50          2.9            2.5
100        4.6             3.9
150        6.1             5.2
200        7.3             6.2
250        8.5             7.2
Financial Impact of Guidelines
• 3 options
– Sell at lighter weight
• Pull to meet ‘k’
– Decrease pig flow
• Sell SEW
• Decrease breeding herd
– Build more finishing space
Base Assumptions
• Tyson Grid
– \$38 base (\$51.35 carcass)
– 1.75 lb/d
• 7.17 ft2/pig at sale of first pig
– 240 lb barn mean wt
• 2600 sows = 17 finishing barns
• 262.4 lb avg sale wt
Change Marketing Method
• Market 1, 2 or 4 pigs/pen at target ‘k’

Base         1            2           4
Wt    262.4        258.4        257.5       255.3

ROE
change             -20.6%       -27.7%      -49.2%
Change number of pigs
• Sell excess wean pigs or reduce breeding
herd
– Space = 8.25 ft2/pig in existing finishing

• Change in ROE
Sell excess               -39.06%
Reduce breeding herd       -91.70%
• Build 3 more finishing barns
Space = 8.25 ft2/pig

• Change in ROE
-9.47%
Input                                A
Number of pens                   40
Pen size (sqft)                 190
Pigs/pen                         25
Space/pig (sqft)                7.6
Total pigs placed/turn         1000

Initial weight, lb                 52
Final weight, lb                  265
Market period, d                   21
Days to clean, d/turn               7
F/G                              2.90
Vet/med, \$/hd                  \$1.50
Death Loss, decimal %          3.00%
Feeder Pig price, \$/hd        \$52.00
Net Market price, \$/cwt       \$45.00
Feed price,\$/t               \$140.00
Contract fee              \$36,000.00

Turns/year                        2.56
Pigs purchased                    2556
Pigs sold                         2479

Income                       \$295,674
Expenses
Pigs                      \$132,919
Feed                      \$106,399
Vet/med                     \$3,834
Contract fee               \$36,000
Total Expenses            \$279,152
Net                         \$16,522

Difference versus A
Managem ent Option

Input                                A               B
Number of pens                   40              40
Pen size (sqft)                 190             190
Pigs/pen                         25              23
Space/pig (sqft)                7.6             8.3
Total pigs placed/turn         1000             920

Initial weight, lb                 52              52
Final weight, lb                  265             265
Market period, d                   21              19
Days to clean, d/turn               7               7
F/G                              2.90            2.90
Vet/med, \$/hd                  \$1.50           \$1.50
Death Loss, decimal %          3.00%           2.75%
Feeder Pig price, \$/hd        \$52.00          \$52.00
Net Market price, \$/cwt       \$45.00          \$44.90
Feed price,\$/t               \$140.00         \$140.00
Contract fee              \$36,000.00      \$36,000.00

Turns/year                        2.56            2.64
Pigs purchased                    2556            2430
Pigs sold                         2479            2363

Income                       \$295,674        \$281,132
Expenses
Pigs                      \$132,919        \$126,337
Feed                      \$106,399        \$101,458
Vet/med                     \$3,834          \$3,644
Contract fee               \$36,000         \$36,000
Total Expenses            \$279,152        \$267,439
Net                         \$16,522          \$13,692

Difference versus A                        (\$2,829)
Managem ent Option

Input                                A               B            C
Number of pens                   40              40           40
Pen size (sqft)                 190             190          190
Pigs/pen                         25              23           27
Space/pig (sqft)                7.6             8.3          7.0
Total pigs placed/turn         1000             920         1080

Initial weight, lb                 52              52           52
Final weight, lb                  265             265          265
Market period, d                   21              19           24
Days to clean, d/turn               7               7            7
F/G                              2.90            2.90         2.90
Vet/med, \$/hd                  \$1.50           \$1.50        \$1.50
Death Loss, decimal %          3.00%           2.75%        3.25%
Feeder Pig price, \$/hd        \$52.00          \$52.00       \$52.00
Net Market price, \$/cwt       \$45.00          \$44.90       \$45.10
Feed price,\$/t               \$140.00         \$140.00       \$140.00
Contract fee              \$36,000.00      \$36,000.00    \$36,000.00

Turns/year                        2.56            2.64         2.46
Pigs purchased                    2556            2430         2662
Pigs sold                         2479            2363         2575

Income                       \$295,674        \$281,132      \$307,795
Expenses
Pigs                      \$132,919        \$126,337      \$138,418
Feed                      \$106,399        \$101,458      \$110,443
Vet/med                     \$3,834          \$3,644       \$3,993
Contract fee               \$36,000         \$36,000       \$36,000
Total Expenses            \$279,152        \$267,439      \$288,854
Net                         \$16,522          \$13,692       \$18,941

Difference versus A                        (\$2,829)       \$2,420
Managem ent Option

Input                                A               B            C           D
Number of pens                   40              40           40           40
Pen size (sqft)                 190             190          190          190
Pigs/pen                         25              23           27           27
Space/pig (sqft)                7.6             8.3          7.0          7.0
Total pigs placed/turn         1000             920         1080         1080

Initial weight, lb                 52              52           52           52
Final weight, lb                  265             265          265          265
Market period, d                   21              19           24           27
Days to clean, d/turn               7               7            7            7
F/G                              2.90            2.90         2.90         2.90
Vet/med, \$/hd                  \$1.50           \$1.50        \$1.50        \$1.72
Death Loss, decimal %          3.00%           2.75%        3.25%        4.00%
Feeder Pig price, \$/hd        \$52.00          \$52.00       \$52.00       \$52.00
Net Market price, \$/cwt       \$45.00          \$44.90       \$45.10       \$45.10
Feed price,\$/t               \$140.00         \$140.00       \$140.00      \$140.00
Contract fee              \$36,000.00      \$36,000.00    \$36,000.00   \$36,000.00

Turns/year                        2.56            2.64         2.46         2.44
Pigs purchased                    2556            2430         2662         2635
Pigs sold                         2479            2363         2575         2530

Income                       \$295,674        \$281,132      \$307,795     \$302,347
Expenses
Pigs                      \$132,919        \$126,337      \$138,418     \$137,030
Feed                      \$106,399        \$101,458      \$110,443     \$108,272
Vet/med                     \$3,834          \$3,644       \$3,993       \$4,533
Contract fee               \$36,000         \$36,000       \$36,000      \$36,000
Total Expenses            \$279,152        \$267,439      \$288,854     \$285,835
Net                         \$16,522          \$13,692       \$18,941      \$16,512

Difference versus A                        (\$2,829)       \$2,420         (\$10)
Success is the ability to go from
failure to failure without losing