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Plant Evolution, Structure and Function 7 days (some time spent on

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					Unit 7: Plant Evolution, Structure and Function

Time: 7 Days (some time spent working over breaks on this topic) and then an exam
     16% of the AP Exam is on this material.
Topics Covered: Reproduction, growth, and development
               Structural, physiological, and behavioral adaptations
               Response to the environment

Chapter 29 Plant Diversity I: Colonization of Land
     Learning Objectives
      An Overview of Land Plant Evolution
      1. Describe four shared derived homologies that link charophyceans and
         land plants.
      3. Describe five characteristics that distinguish land plants from
         charophycean algae. Explain how these features are adaptive for life on
         land.
      4. Define and distinguish among the stages of the alternation of
         generations life cycle
      5. Describe evidence that suggests that plants arose roughly 475 million
         years ago.

             Bryophytes
       6.    How are bryophytes classified? What are they?
       8.    Explain why bryophyte rhizoids are not considered roots.
       9.    Explain why most bryophytes grow close to the ground.
       10.   Diagram the life cycle of a bryophyte. Label the gametophyte and
             sporophyte stages and the locations of gamete production, fertilization,
             and spore production.
       11.   Describe the ecological and economic significance of bryophytes.

             The Origin and Diversity of Vascular Plants
       12.   Describe the five traits that characterize modern vascular plants.
             Explain how these characteristics have contributed to their success on
             land.
       13.   Distinguish between microphylls and megaphylls.
       14.   Distinguish between the homosporous and heterosporous condition.
       15.   Explain why seedless vascular plants are most commonly found in
             damp habitats.
       16.   Name the two clades of living seedless vascular plants.
       17.   Explain how vascular plants differ from bryophytes.
       20.   Describe the production and dispersal of fern spores.
Unit 7: Plant Evolution, Structure and Function


Guided Reading Chapter 29

   1. List and describe the four traits that land plants share with charophyceans.




   2. What resource did plants need to find a way to conserve to move to land?


   3. Why is the text using the definition of embryophytes for inclusion in the plant
      kingdom?


   4. What are the five derived traits that appear in nearly all land plants but are absent in
      the charophyceans?




   5. Thinking back to our chapter on classification – how is the clade terminology using
      primitive and derived traits a clear way of studying the evolution of plants?



   6. What is a cuticle?


   7. What are secondary compounds and how are they an advantage to plants? Give some
      examples.



   8. Use the diagram below to view plant evolution in broad terms.
Unit 7: Plant Evolution, Structure and Function




   9. What general characteristics could you infer about plants that lack vascular tissue?



   10. What general characteristics could you infer about plants that have a vascular system?



   11. What is the alternative to having a seed?


      As you read about plant life cycles consider these questions:
      Is the gametophyte dependent on the sporophyte?
      Is the sporophyte dependent on the gametophyte?
      Doe the organism spend a greater part of the life cycle as haploid or diploid?
      Notice the trends.

   12. What are the three phyla represented by the Bryophytes?
Unit 7: Plant Evolution, Structure and Function

   13. Define the following terms:

          a. Gametophore

          b. Rhizoids

          c. Capsule

          d. Peristome

          e. Stomata

   14. Complete the following diagram representing the life cycle of a moss.




   15. What are some of the ecological and economic benefits of moss? List at least three.




   16. What was the dominant life stage in moss or bryophytes?

   17. What was the dominant life stage in Seedless Vascular Plants?
Unit 7: Plant Evolution, Structure and Function




   18. Define the following terms:
         a. Xylem

          b. Tracheids

          c. Lignin

          d. Phloem

          e. Roots

          f. Leaves

          g. Microphylls

          h. Megaphylls

   19. Complete the diagram below outlining the life cycle of a fern.
Unit 7: Plant Evolution, Structure and Function

   20. Define the following terms:
          a. Sporophylls

          b. Sori

          c. Strobili

          d. Megaspores

          e. Microspores

   21. What is the difference between a plant being homosporous and heterosporous?


   22. What effect did the development of the first forests have on carbon dioxide in the
      atmosphere?




Chapter 30    Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Pants

  Learning Objectives
  Key Terrestrial Adaptations Were Crucial to the
  Success of Seed Plants
  1. Name five terrestrial adaptations that contributed to the success of seed
     plants.
  2. Compare the size and independence of the gametophytes of bryophytes with
     those of seed plants.
  3. Describe the ovule of a seed plant.
  4. Contrast the male gametophytes of bryophytes with those of seed plants.
  5. Explain why pollen grains were an important adaptation for successful
     reproduction on land.
  6. Explain how a seed can be said to include contributions from three distinct
     generations.
  7. Compare spores with seeds as dispersal stages in plant life cycles.
Unit 7: Plant Evolution, Structure and Function



   Gymnosperms
   8. Explain how climatic changes with the formation of the supercontinent
       Pangaea favored the spread of gymnosperms.
   9. List and distinguish among the four phyla of gymnosperms.
   10. Describe the life history of a pine. Indicate which structures are part of the
       gametophyte generation and which are part of the sporophyte generation.

    Angiosperms (Flowering Plants)
   11. Identify the following floral structures and describe a function for each:
        a. sepal                f. anther
        b. petal                g. stigma
        c. stamen               h. style
        d. carpel               i. ovary
        e. filament             j. ovule
   12. Define fruit. Explain how fruits may be adapted to disperse seeds.
   13. Explain why a cereal grain is a fruit rather than a seed.
   14. Diagram the generalized life cycle of an angiosperm. Indicate which
       structures are part of the gametophyte generation and which are part of the
       sporophyte generation.
   15. Describe the role of the generative cell and the tube cell within the
       angiosperm pollen grain.
   16. Explain the process and function of double fertilization.
   17. Distinguish between monocots and eudicots.
   18. Explain how animals may have influenced the evolution of terrestrial plants
       and vice versa.

    and Human Welfare
   19. Name the six angiosperms that are most important in the diet of the human
       species.
   20. Describe the current threat to plant diversity caused by human population
       growth.

Guided Reading Chapter 30

   1. What are some of the advantages to having a reduced gametophyte in plants?
Unit 7: Plant Evolution, Structure and Function

   2. Define the following terms:
         a. Integuments

          b. Ovule

          c. Pollen grains

          d. Pollination

          e. Seed

   3. What are the evolutionary advantages to seed formation?


   4. What does the term Gymnosperm mean?


   5. Are all conifers gymnosperm? Explain.



   6. Complete the diagram below of the life cycle of a pine.




   7. What is the common name of Angiosperms?
Unit 7: Plant Evolution, Structure and Function

   8. Define the following terms:
         a. Flower

           b. Sepals

           c. Petals

           d. Stamen

           e. Filament

           f. Anther

           g. Stigma

           h. Style

           i. Ovary

           j. Receptacle

           k. Pistil

           l. Fruit

           m. Pericarp

           n. Micropyle

           o. Cross-pollination

   9.   What is the alternate term for the gametophyte in angiosperms?


   10. What is double fertilization?

   11. What is a cotyledon?

   12. What function does the endosperm serve?
Unit 7: Plant Evolution, Structure and Function

   13. Complete the diagram below of the life cycle of an angiosperm.




   14. Some gymnosperms also have double fertilization – is this homologous or
      analogous?


   15. Why do we now know that monocot and dicot classification of angiosperms does
      not completely reflect the evolution of these plants? What is the newer
      classification system?




   16. How does the development of angiosperms and animals in the same time frame
      meet the definition of coevolution?
Unit 7: Plant Evolution, Structure and Function

   17. How does human welfare depend on seed plants?




   18. Why should we worry about destroying the tropical rain forest?

				
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