Unit 7: Plant Evolution, Structure and Function Time: 7 Days (some time spent working over breaks on this topic) and then an exam 16% of the AP Exam is on this material. Topics Covered: Reproduction, growth, and development Structural, physiological, and behavioral adaptations Response to the environment Chapter 29 Plant Diversity I: Colonization of Land Learning Objectives An Overview of Land Plant Evolution 1. Describe four shared derived homologies that link charophyceans and land plants. 3. Describe five characteristics that distinguish land plants from charophycean algae. Explain how these features are adaptive for life on land. 4. Define and distinguish among the stages of the alternation of generations life cycle 5. Describe evidence that suggests that plants arose roughly 475 million years ago. Bryophytes 6. How are bryophytes classified? What are they? 8. Explain why bryophyte rhizoids are not considered roots. 9. Explain why most bryophytes grow close to the ground. 10. Diagram the life cycle of a bryophyte. Label the gametophyte and sporophyte stages and the locations of gamete production, fertilization, and spore production. 11. Describe the ecological and economic significance of bryophytes. The Origin and Diversity of Vascular Plants 12. Describe the five traits that characterize modern vascular plants. Explain how these characteristics have contributed to their success on land. 13. Distinguish between microphylls and megaphylls. 14. Distinguish between the homosporous and heterosporous condition. 15. Explain why seedless vascular plants are most commonly found in damp habitats. 16. Name the two clades of living seedless vascular plants. 17. Explain how vascular plants differ from bryophytes. 20. Describe the production and dispersal of fern spores. Unit 7: Plant Evolution, Structure and Function Guided Reading Chapter 29 1. List and describe the four traits that land plants share with charophyceans. 2. What resource did plants need to find a way to conserve to move to land? 3. Why is the text using the definition of embryophytes for inclusion in the plant kingdom? 4. What are the five derived traits that appear in nearly all land plants but are absent in the charophyceans? 5. Thinking back to our chapter on classification – how is the clade terminology using primitive and derived traits a clear way of studying the evolution of plants? 6. What is a cuticle? 7. What are secondary compounds and how are they an advantage to plants? Give some examples. 8. Use the diagram below to view plant evolution in broad terms. Unit 7: Plant Evolution, Structure and Function 9. What general characteristics could you infer about plants that lack vascular tissue? 10. What general characteristics could you infer about plants that have a vascular system? 11. What is the alternative to having a seed? As you read about plant life cycles consider these questions: Is the gametophyte dependent on the sporophyte? Is the sporophyte dependent on the gametophyte? Doe the organism spend a greater part of the life cycle as haploid or diploid? Notice the trends. 12. What are the three phyla represented by the Bryophytes? Unit 7: Plant Evolution, Structure and Function 13. Define the following terms: a. Gametophore b. Rhizoids c. Capsule d. Peristome e. Stomata 14. Complete the following diagram representing the life cycle of a moss. 15. What are some of the ecological and economic benefits of moss? List at least three. 16. What was the dominant life stage in moss or bryophytes? 17. What was the dominant life stage in Seedless Vascular Plants? Unit 7: Plant Evolution, Structure and Function 18. Define the following terms: a. Xylem b. Tracheids c. Lignin d. Phloem e. Roots f. Leaves g. Microphylls h. Megaphylls 19. Complete the diagram below outlining the life cycle of a fern. Unit 7: Plant Evolution, Structure and Function 20. Define the following terms: a. Sporophylls b. Sori c. Strobili d. Megaspores e. Microspores 21. What is the difference between a plant being homosporous and heterosporous? 22. What effect did the development of the first forests have on carbon dioxide in the atmosphere? Chapter 30 Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Pants Learning Objectives Key Terrestrial Adaptations Were Crucial to the Success of Seed Plants 1. Name five terrestrial adaptations that contributed to the success of seed plants. 2. Compare the size and independence of the gametophytes of bryophytes with those of seed plants. 3. Describe the ovule of a seed plant. 4. Contrast the male gametophytes of bryophytes with those of seed plants. 5. Explain why pollen grains were an important adaptation for successful reproduction on land. 6. Explain how a seed can be said to include contributions from three distinct generations. 7. Compare spores with seeds as dispersal stages in plant life cycles. Unit 7: Plant Evolution, Structure and Function Gymnosperms 8. Explain how climatic changes with the formation of the supercontinent Pangaea favored the spread of gymnosperms. 9. List and distinguish among the four phyla of gymnosperms. 10. Describe the life history of a pine. Indicate which structures are part of the gametophyte generation and which are part of the sporophyte generation. Angiosperms (Flowering Plants) 11. Identify the following floral structures and describe a function for each: a. sepal f. anther b. petal g. stigma c. stamen h. style d. carpel i. ovary e. filament j. ovule 12. Define fruit. Explain how fruits may be adapted to disperse seeds. 13. Explain why a cereal grain is a fruit rather than a seed. 14. Diagram the generalized life cycle of an angiosperm. Indicate which structures are part of the gametophyte generation and which are part of the sporophyte generation. 15. Describe the role of the generative cell and the tube cell within the angiosperm pollen grain. 16. Explain the process and function of double fertilization. 17. Distinguish between monocots and eudicots. 18. Explain how animals may have influenced the evolution of terrestrial plants and vice versa. and Human Welfare 19. Name the six angiosperms that are most important in the diet of the human species. 20. Describe the current threat to plant diversity caused by human population growth. Guided Reading Chapter 30 1. What are some of the advantages to having a reduced gametophyte in plants? Unit 7: Plant Evolution, Structure and Function 2. Define the following terms: a. Integuments b. Ovule c. Pollen grains d. Pollination e. Seed 3. What are the evolutionary advantages to seed formation? 4. What does the term Gymnosperm mean? 5. Are all conifers gymnosperm? Explain. 6. Complete the diagram below of the life cycle of a pine. 7. What is the common name of Angiosperms? Unit 7: Plant Evolution, Structure and Function 8. Define the following terms: a. Flower b. Sepals c. Petals d. Stamen e. Filament f. Anther g. Stigma h. Style i. Ovary j. Receptacle k. Pistil l. Fruit m. Pericarp n. Micropyle o. Cross-pollination 9. What is the alternate term for the gametophyte in angiosperms? 10. What is double fertilization? 11. What is a cotyledon? 12. What function does the endosperm serve? Unit 7: Plant Evolution, Structure and Function 13. Complete the diagram below of the life cycle of an angiosperm. 14. Some gymnosperms also have double fertilization – is this homologous or analogous? 15. Why do we now know that monocot and dicot classification of angiosperms does not completely reflect the evolution of these plants? What is the newer classification system? 16. How does the development of angiosperms and animals in the same time frame meet the definition of coevolution? Unit 7: Plant Evolution, Structure and Function 17. How does human welfare depend on seed plants? 18. Why should we worry about destroying the tropical rain forest?