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									                          Notes on Cognitive Developmental Theories

Slide Title   Content                                                        Student Notes

Title Page    Presentation introduction

Cognitive     The ______________ view asserts that a child seeks
Development   certain types of stimulation and avoids others. It assumes
Theories      that the child inherently tries to make sense out of his

              The ________________ view focuses on relationships
              between environmental inputs and behavioral outputs. The
              environment impinges on the child who is a ____________

              The _______________ view asserts that development is
              smooth and children gradually add more of the same types of

              The _________________ view asserts that development
              takes place abruptly in stages.

              The _________________ view asserts that behavior is
              universal and the behavioral sequence is innate or wired-in.

              The __________________ view asserts that behaviors are
              learned as a result of experience with the environment and
              all outside forces the child encounters work to form the

              The __________________ views that most behavior results
              from a combination of inherent predispositions and
              environmentally determined experiences.

              The concept of _____________ refers to the idea that in
              development everyone goes through the same thing in the
              same order.

              The concept of ______________ refers to the idea that
              development is the same for all children no matter where
                 they grow up.

Piaget’s         ______________ is what children know about.
                 ______________is the characteristics of development that
                 are stable and continual throughout; for Piaget these are
                 processes such as ______________ and ______________.
                 ______________ refers to the inferred organizational
                 properties that explain the occurrence of particular
                 behaviors. They are _____________. Their nature
                 determines the nature of thought.
                 Specific structures are called ____________.
                 _________ are continually changing as new knowledge is
                 constructed and as the result of experience.

Piaget’s         Piaget’s cognitive development is a ________________
Constructivism   theory. Children and adults __________ knowledge on the
                 basis of their experiences. The more _______________ on
                 has, the more refined and complex are the knowledge
                 structures (___________) one can construct. These
                 constructions are not accurate copies of ____________,
                 but reflections of the child’s knowledge and understanding
                 as it has been constructed so far. Knowledge is constructed
                 through the cyclical relationship of _________________
                 and ___________________.

                 _______________ occurs in the absence of external
                 stimulus. It is the internal rearrangement of schemes so they
                 fit tightly with one another.
                 ________________ occurs in response to external stimuli.
                 It involves building schemes through direct interaction with
                 the environment. It involves two complimentary processes of
                 _________________ and ___________________.

                 __________________ involves placing an incoming stimulus
                 into an existing scheme and involves a _________________

                 __________________ involves taking an incoming stimulus
                 and either creating a new scheme or changing an existing
                 scheme to fit it into and involves a _________________

                 Assimilation and accommodation ___________ function
                  together and together they constitute _______________.
                  __________________ is a self-regulatory, intrinsically
                  motivated process where there is continuous movement
                  between ______________ and __________________. This
                  process is necessary to ensure efficient interaction with the
                  environment. It is the process of going from
                  ______________ to ________________.

                  _________________ is a comfortable state when all is in
                  _________________ is an uncomfortable state when you
                  realize you do not understand a stimulus.

                  Signs of optimal disequilibrium:

                  Signs of too much disequilibrium:

Piaget’s Stages   Sensorimotor
of Cognitive
                  The major developments are __________ _____________
                  and ________ ____________ _____________. The two
                  mechanisms that drive development are _________ and
                  ______________ ____________. Much knowledge
                  constructed within this stage is _____________ knowledge.

                  The major milestones are the ability to __________ objects
                  and events and ___________ activity. During this stage
                  there is a gradual transition from __________ speech to
                  socialized intercommunicative speech. _______________
                  speech is characterized by collective monologues and
                  nonconversations. Piaget believed language is learned, not
                  innate. Language helps construct _________ knowledge by
              providing a sufficient means of communication.
              Concrete Operations
              In this stage a child’s thinking becomes logical because it is
              ______________. The child is able to perform
              _____________. Logical operations are a means of
              organizing experience (schemata) that are superior to prior
              organization. This stage is the transition period for a child
              who is capable of logical thought but only as it pertains to
              problems, events, and objects that exist.

              Formal Operations
              At this stage the child has fully consolidated logical thought
              and can reason about and solve all classes of problems. The
              cognitive structures reach maturity and no further
              structural improvements occur in the __________ of
              reasoning. Adults and children at this stage reason using the
              same processes.

Piaget and    A teacher’s role is to provide experiences and opportunities
Education     that will throw a child into _______________. Some
              techniques include:

              Critical variables in cognitive development are:

Information   For Case cognitive development results in the more efficient
Processing    use of _________ space.
Views of
              Klahr and Wallace’s model was for ____________
              development and attempted to provide a computer simulation
              of this development.
              Sternberg’s componential analysis likened cognitive
              development to a ________ becoming an _________ and
                emphasized __________ and ____________________
                Carey’s framework theory borrowed from ______ to
                _________ and ________ _________ research.
                Siegler argues that children’s thinking is endlessly
                ______________, ever ____________, and _________ to
                unique features of problem solving situations.

Instructional   The need for automaticity translates to what instructional
Implications    design principle? __________________________

                The need for assessing mental models points to the inclusion
                of what instructional design process? _________________

                Promoting conceptual change of mental models suggests the
                need for instructional techniques such as:

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