In the Shadow by wio18411


									                                                               In the
    In its effort to build a modern 21st-   bat Theory, authors Chang Wanquan               While destroying enemy command-
century fighting force, China has had       and Yu Guohua of the People’s Libera-       and-control elements is certainly not a
its own revolution in military affairs      tion Army Daily provide a summary of        new concept, it is possible that the PRC
that has touched almost every aspect of     the operating doctrine of PLA special       may add a new strategic wrinkle to the
the armed forces. Chinese special-op-       forces. They note, “Special forces war-     scenario in the event of conflict with
erations forces have been no exception.     fare includes detailed battle theories,     Taiwan. The strategy would involve a
    Major transformations in China’s        such as special forces reconnaissance,      pre-emptive strike against the Tai-
elite special forces began taking place     attacks and sabotage, and comprehen-        wanese civilian leadership prior to the
in the late 1980s and early 1990s.1         sive battle theories, such as integrated    outbreak of major hostilities between
The People’s Liberation Army, or PLA,       land-sea-air-space-electronic combat,       the two countries.10 There have been
has concentrated on selecting the           all-dimensional simultaneous attacks,       rumors that the PRC plans to infil-
highest quality individuals within          nonlinear combat, no-contact long-          trate, or has infiltrated, special-forces
the military, providing them with the       range warfare, asymmetrical combat,         units into Taiwan to capture or kill key
most advanced equipment available,          large-scale night combat and ‘surgical’     government leaders. This would enable
and training them in a wide range           strikes.”4                                  the PRC either to force the Taiwanese
of military disciplines. The PLA has            The second development is the           government to negotiate or to replace
placed a high degree of emphasis on         adoption of code names to distinguish       it altogether with a government more
the physical and mental abilities of        units, which is often done by select        supportive of mainland China.
the candidates: The training can be         military organizations.5 The PLA has            This decapitation operation could
grueling, and those who are found to        assigned at least one dedicated special     theoretically be accomplished in a short
be unsuited are cut from the program        forces unit to each military region.6 The   period of time, which could eliminate
immediately. The dropout rate dur-          size of the special-forces unit depends     outside intervention and negate some
ing initial training is said to average     upon the military region. Units have        of the problems associated with a
between 50 and 90 percent.2                 been reported to range from battalion to    force-on-force action.11 It must be em-
    Within the military forces of the       division size.7                             phasized that this type of operation is
People’s Republic of China, or PRC,             While Chinese special forces are de-    dependent upon the PRC being able to
there are many units that could be          signed to perform various operations,       stand up an alternate means of govern-
classified as “special forces.” They        their two main missions are direct          ing the country.
include rapid-reaction forces, airborne     action and special reconnaissance.              Harassment. Harassment activities
divisions, amphibious landing units         Direct action can be broken down into       are designed to inhibit the enemy’s
and marines. While these organiza-          five categories: decapitation, harass-      ability to operate, or as Jiang Jianx-
tions certainly fit the category of         ment, security, terrorist response and      iong, the battalion commander of the
special forces, for the purposes of this    rescue. (These are the author’s catego-     Flying Dragons, phrased it, “To make
article, they will be considered to be      ries, not the PLA’s.)                       the special forces battalion the ‘eyes’
large special-mission units and there-                                                  of our side and a ‘thorn’ in the flesh
fore not included. Instead, the focus       Direct action                               of the other side.”12 These disrup-
here will be on smaller, more elite             Decapitation. The decapitation          tions include sabotage of equipment
units tasked with unconventional or         strategy of Chinese special forces is       and systems, attacks on vital civilian
asymmetrical warfare.3                      to attack key personnel and control         infrastructure, and ambush of military
    Two developments have provided          elements, leaving the enemy leaderless      forces.13 Psychological operations may
excellent methods for separating Chi-       and unable to communicate.8 China’s         also play a part in the overall scheme,
nese special forces from the larger spe-    military has conducted exercises            with special forces carrying out raids
cial-purpose components. The first de-      employing special forces using various      simply to cause fear and confusion
velopment is a sharpening of doctrine       modes of transport, such as helicop-        behind enemy lines.
regarding the special forces’ missions.     ters and powered parachutes, to attack          Security. Security operations in-
In An Analysis of 20th Century Com-         enemy command posts.9                       clude the shielding of air and naval

30   Special Warfare
Chinese Special Forces Build a 21st-Century Fighting Force
                                                                                                    Story by Scott J. Henderson

facilities for follow-on forces after a           Rescue. Rescue operations range          the West; on the contrary, it appears
strike.14 Special forces are also ex-         from securing the release of hostages        to be a source of pride for the Chinese
pected to be able to handle “sudden           to searching for and retrieving downed       to train their troops under hazardous
incidents” that occur within the coun-        pilots. In 1999, the Beijing, Jinan and      conditions.24 The majority of training
try.15 An article written in the People’s     Shenyang military regions carried out a      for PLA special forces takes place in
Liberation Army Daily may provide             consolidated training exercise that in-      one of three categories: infiltration,
a clue as to what sudden incidents            cluded hostage and battlefield rescues.21    mountain training, or wilderness and
entail. In the article, a military training                                                survival training.
department suggests, “The troops, key         Special reconnaissance
units, special forces, and emergency              An article in the Hong Kong Kuang        Infiltration training
special safeguard detachments sta-            Chiao Ching provided a generic de-               The ability to infiltrate undetected
tioned in areas where natural disasters       scription of the special-reconnaissance      behind enemy lines is one of the most
and violent terrorist activities happen       mission of Chinese special forces:           essential skills required for China’s
frequently should conduct training                During wartime, special forces           special forces. While little is known
in a selective manner, install a near-        usually send small teams deep be-            about the actual training methods, Chi-
actual-combat situation, emphasize            hind enemy lines to collect and moni-        nese special forces are said to undergo
training in dealing with an emergency         tor enemy information in regions that        “highly intensive and comprehensive
and effecting an emergency rescue,            are of concern to their headquarters         multi-course training in complex ter-
and improve their capabilities to cope        and provide urgently needed informa-         rain, including in-depth infiltration
with various sudden incidents.”16             tion. In war, special forces can carry       and ‘covered reconnaissance’ behind
    Terrorist response. Terrorist-re-         out strategic, campaign and tactical-        the enemy line.”25 The Chinese use a
sponse activities have been noted             level special-reconnaissance missions,       “three-dimensional” “all-weather” infil-
beginning in 2002. The PLA has in-            and through special reconnaissance,          tration approach, using sea (submarine,
cluded antiterrorism as a part of its         they can obtain relevant data on the         high-speed ferry, open-water swim-
new training program for special-forces       weather, hydrological and geographi-         ming and scuba diving), air (airborne,
units and intends to make it an inte-         cal features of specific regions. Special    powered parachute and helicopter) and
gral part of their future mission.17 On       reconnaissance includes actions such         land (long-distance movement and rock
Jan. 4, 2002, it was reported, “A special     as target search, area evaluation and        climbing).
forces regiment in the Chengdu Military       verifying the effects of a strike. Special       Sea infiltration. Sea training is
Region known as the Hunting Leopards          forces use reconnaissance by combat          known to comprise three elements:
carried out an antiterrorist exercise for     and monitoring techniques similar to         open-sea swimming, sea demolition
the first time.”18 Links between this unit    those used by long-range monitoring          and sea shooting.26 “During sea train-
and the People’s Armed Police, or PAP,        units. However, more often than not,         ing [special forces] are tested to their
cannot be ruled out because, histori-         more advanced technology is used in          physical limit conducting danger-
cally, PAP forces have handled antiter-       special reconnaissance.22                    ous and difficult courses, including
rorist activities. From Aug. 6-12, 2003,          China’s special forces use “triphi-      a 10,000-meter (approximately 6.2
Chinese special forces participated (with     bious” (sea, air and land) means of          miles) swim, a nighttime swim in full
member states of the Shanghai Cooper-         infiltration to conduct short-term and       gear, diving, underwater transport
ation Organization) in Coalition-2003, a      sustained reconnaissance behind en-          and survival drills on islets.”27 Infiltra-
“multinational” joint exercise in antiter-    emy lines, using digitized battleground      tion by submarine is also a common
rorism.19 On July 15, 2004, the People’s      monitors and unmanned reconnais-             method of insertion in which trainees
Liberation Army Daily reported on a           sance aircraft to relay information          may perform various missions, such
“multinational counterterrorism exer-         back to their command units.23               as clearing away underwater mines.28
cise,” consisting of combined-arms and            Training for PLA special forces is           Air infiltration. In parachute train-
special-forces troops, that was carried       exacting and can be quite dangerous.         ing, the PLA has “effected a gradual
out in the Xinjiang Military District.20      Safety is not emphasized as it is in         transition from using multi-type para-
hicle or even a boat. In 2002, Beijing’s     Berets/Heroic Falcons. The Heroic           of armed helicopters and airborne
China Central Television showed mem-         Falcons are trained in special recon-       troops. The unit destroyed the island’s
bers of a special forces reconnaissance      naissance and in triphibious warfare.       airport, oil-storage facilities, command
militia using ultralight trikes (a pow-      The members of the unit work daily          center and ammo dumps. The island
ered parachute with a three-wheeled          on upper-body strength and cardio-          was then secured for follow-on forces
vehicle attached) and an ultralight          vascular endurance. Soldiers must be        by removing the enemy’s biological and
with a small rubber boat, similar to a       able to run 3,300 meters (2.05 miles)       chemical weapons.55
small Zodiac, attached.43                    in 12 minutes to pass, 3,400 meters
    Zhanshen. A four-wheeled vehicle         (2.11 miles) in 12 minutes to receive a     Threat analysis
that is almost identical to the High-        “good,” and 3,500 meters (2.17 miles)           Although it appears that China’s
Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle        in 12 minutes to receive an “outstand-      special forces are still in the early
used by U.S. forces. The vehicle was         ing.” The unit’s soldiers also practice     stages of their development, it would
developed by the Shenyang Aviation           Qigong, a Chinese form of martial arts      be a mistake to dismiss their capabili-
Company and was given the name               and hand-to-hand combat.                    ties. The PLA began by selecting the
zhanshen, or “god of war.”44                     • The Shenyang Military Region’s        most experienced officers and cadre
    Firearms. The Chinese special            Fierce Tigers of the Northeast. This is     from PRC military forces (estimated
forces were the first to be equipped         a marine special-forces unit trained to     to be well in excess of two million).56
with the 5.8 mm KBU88 sniper rifle.45        perform airborne and commando “SEAL-        After establishing the groups, the PLA
                                             type” assault operations on airfields,      supplied them with the most advanced
Special-forces units                         command-and-control sites and radar-        equipment available; vigorously cross-
    • The Beijing Military Region’s          warning sites using powered parachutes      trained them in multiple disciplines;
Recon and Strike Force. This group is        and scuba equipment. Members of the         and pushed them to their mental and
trained to assault airfields and to take     unit undergo extensive survival training    physical limits.
out command-and-control elements             in jungle, desert, prairie, mountain and        Training scenarios provide insight
using assault helicopters, powered           urban conditions.52                         into the intended use of Chinese
parachutes, mortars and flamethrow-              • The Chengdu Military Region’s         special forces. A large portion of the
ers. The unit is known to target com-        Falcons of the Southwest. Established       training focuses on skills necessary for
munications centers, radar systems           in 1992, this group uses high-tech          infiltrating and invading Taiwan. The
and ammunition depots. They are              equipment to carry out special combat       decapitation strategy, as applied to
considered to be endurance swim-             reconnaissance. The unit has received       Taiwanese civilian leadership, whether
mers who are proficient at underwater        numerous awards and was profiled in         or not it is truly a part of PLA strategy,
demolitions and can pilot boats.             a documentary showing air-assault           presents two problems. First, like a
    • The Nanjing Military Region’s          and forward-reconnaissance skills. The      bomb threat, it has to be taken seri-
Flying Dragons. Established in late          group is credited with attaining amaz-      ously. Time and resources have to be
1992, the unit conducts training said        ing results in four disciplines: recon-     allocated, and countermeasures put in
to be unconventional and carried out         naissance, airborne insertion, surprise     place, to deal with the threat. Second,
with “great intensity” under danger-         attacks and emergency evacuations.53        the decapitation threat places psy-
ous conditions.46 In 1997, the unit              • The Chengdu Military Region’s         chological pressure on the Taiwanese
carried out a simulated attack on a          Hunting Leopards. This unit carried         leadership.
concealed enemy airfield in the Zijin        out its first antiterrorism exercise in         If the decapitation strategy is
Mountains of Nanjing. During the ex-         2002 in the Xiling Mountains.54 From        indeed part of a PLA plan, why does
ercise, the group used UAVs to relay         available reporting, it is difficult to     the PLA conclude that it would be
battlefield intelligence back to head-       ascertain whether this unit is strictly     successful? One possible reason is
quarters and assaulted the site using        military or has ties to the PAP.            that it senses a lack of resolve in the
parawings and armed helicopters.47               • The Lanzhou Military Region’s         U.S. commitment to defend Taiwan,
    • The Guangzhou Military Region’s        Tigers of the Night. Information on this    and that a rapidly installed de facto
Sword of Southern China. This group,         unit is vague; reports offer only general   government would be enough to deter
comprising 4,000 soldiers, operates          references to a “certain” special-forces    U.S. interference. It seems unlikely
out of Qixi, in the Guangzhou Military       unit located in the Lanzhou Military Re-    that the U.S. would acknowledge a
Region.48 Established in 1988, it is         gion being involved in various types of     new government’s legitimacy while
said to be one of the earliest groups        activities. “North Education,” an online    Taiwanese forces were still actively en-
formed after China began modernizing         site sponsored by the Tianjin Education     gaged. However, it is possible that the
its military.49 The unit is said to be a     Committee, references a dedicated spe-      PRC envisions that a large portion of
triphibious force capable of all-weather     cial-forces unit in the Lanzhou Military    Taiwan’s military and civilian populace
warfare; of carrying out long-range air-     Region and talks about the unit’s par-      would support the invasion, allowing
borne operations; of underwater cross-       ticipation in Estonia’s “ERNA” special-     the PLA to conclude operations before
ings; and of capturing beachheads.           forces competition. However, the article    the U.S. had time to act militarily or
    Soldiers of the unit cross-train in 60   does not give any background, the           politically.
subject areas (individual subject areas      unit’s mission or the unit’s code name.         Recent world events have raised
are not referenced) of the Chinese navy          • The Daggers (military region un-      other possibilities for employment
and air force. The unit is trained in        known). This amphibious unit, formed        of China’s special forces. Is there a
contingency operations and has carried       in 2001, is described as “one of the        scenario in which China’s special
out joint training in island operations      ace cards” for dealing with Taiwanese       forces might use the decapitation
with other branches of the military.50 It    independence. In 2004, the unit car-        strategy against North Korea? It is not
is said that the unit has 400 personnel      ried out a mock exercise involving the      in China’s long-term interest to have
trained to fly aircraft, perform “stunt      capture of a coastal island in which        an unstable nuclear neighbor. Should
driving” and pilot boats.51                  the unit set up an “electronic interfer-    China decide to take matters into its
    • The Jinan Military Region’s Black      ence system,” followed by the arrival       own hands and resolve the situation,

                                                                                                              July-August 2006   33
        	 Mei	Lin,	“Analysis	of	the	CPC	Armed	Forces’	Develop-          Domestic Service,	10	August	1999,	as	translated	by	FBIS	refer-       Taiwan	Strait,”	Tokyo Foresight,	18	June	2004,	31,	as	translated	
ment	of	New	Methods	of	Operations,”	Taipei Chung Kung                   ence	FTS19990814000037.                                              by	FBIS	reference	JPP20040524000043.
Yen Chiu,	15	November	1997,	50-60,	as	translated	by	FBIS	                      25
                                                                                  	Zhou	Mengwu,	“Uncovering	the	Secrets	of	the	Chinese	            43
                                                                                                                                                      	“Beijing	CCTV-7,”	6	February	2005,	as	transcribed	by	
reference	FTS19980310000807.                                            Special	Forces.”	No	definition	was	given	for	the	term	“covered	      FBIS	reference	CPP20050207000017.
        	 Chen	Qiang,	“Jiang	Jianxiong:	Dauntless	Special	              reconnaissance.”                                                           44
                                                                                                                                                      	Yihong	Chang,	“China	reveals	details	of	cross-country	
Troops	Tempered	This	Way,”	Beijing Zhongguo Qingnian                           26
                                                                                  	“Select	Maritime	Troops	Train	Hard,”	People’s Libera-     vehicle,”	Jane’s Defense Weekly,	14	February	2002.
Bao,	20	July	1999,	1-2,	as	translated	by	FBIS	reference	                tion Army Daily,	19	September	2001,	8,	as	translated	by	FBIS	              45
                                                                                                                                                      	Zhou	Mengwu,	“Uncovering	the	Secrets	of	the	Chinese	
FTS19990806000269;	Zhou	Mengwu,	“Uncovering	the	Secrets	                reference	CPP20010921000116.	The	article	references	eight	           Special	Forces.”
of	the	Chinese	Special	Forces,”	Beijing Junshi Wenzhai	[Mili-           courses	but	lists	only	three	training	topics.                              46
                                                                                                                                                      	Chen	Peng	and	Cao	Zhi,	“Casting	Chinese	‘Flying	
tary	Digest],	No.	10,	5	October	1997,	2-3,	as	translated	by	FBIS	              27
                                                                                  	Yang	Deshan	and	Ni	Minzhi,	“Nanjing	Military	Region’s	    Dragons.’	”
reference	FTS19980206000535.                                            Special	Operations	Battalion	Acquires	Three-Dimensional	                   47
                                                                                                                                                      	Chen	Peng	and	Cao	Zhi,	“Casting	Chinese	‘Flying	
          	“Jane’s	Sentinel	Security	Assessment	-	China	and	            Infiltration	and	Operations	Capability,”	People’s Liberation Army    Dragons.’	”
Northeast	Asia,”	3	August	2004.	                                        Daily	(Internet	Version-WWW),	9	June	2002,	1,	as	translated	by	            48
                                                                                                                                                      	Glenn	Schloss,	“PLA	‘Dragons’	Take	Their	Cue	from	US	
          	U.S.	Secretary	of	Defense,	“FY04	Report	to	Congress	         FBIS	reference	CPP20020610000054.                                    Elite,”	Hong Kong South China Morning Post,	4	March	2002,	
on	PRC	Military	Power,”	19.                                                    28
                                                                                  	Chen	Peng	and	Cao	Zhi,	“Casting	Chinese	‘Flying	          14,	from	FBIS	reference	CPP20020304000117.
          	Chen	Peng	and	Cao	Zhi,	“Casting	Chinese	‘Flying	             Dragons.’	”                                                                49
                                                                                                                                                      	“The	Special	Forces	Units	in	Each	of	China’s	
Dragons’	—	Featuring	Jiang	Jianxiong,	Commander	of	Special	                    29
                                                                                  	Yang	Deshan	and	Ni	Minzhi,	“Nanjing	Military	Region’s	    Military	Regions,	Beifang Jiaoyu	(North	Education)	article	6,”	
Forces	Battalion	Under	Nanjing	Military	Region,”	Beijing                Special	Operations	Battalion	Acquires	Three-Dimensional	             downloaded	on	1	February	2005,	site	of	the	Tianjin	Education	
Xinhua Domestic Service,	10	August	1999,	as	translated	by	              Infiltration	and	Operations	Capability.”	No	definition	was	given	    Committee,	/junshibolan/zhonghuajun-
FBIS	reference	FTS	19990814000037.                                      of	the	term	“armed	parachuting.”                                     wei/show_xiangxi.asp?classid=666666666666666649&inforid
          	Information	for	this	paragraph	collected	from	two	sourc-            30
                                                                                  	Zhou	Mengwu,	“Uncovering	the	Secrets	of	the	Chinese	      =200309181024453734&neirongform=0.
es:	“Jane’s	Amphibious	and	Special	Forces,”	13	November	                Special	Forces.”                                                           50
                                                                                                                                                      	Mao	Zhe,	Wang	Yongqing	and	Zhang	Zhimeng,	
2002;	Ou	Shijin	and	Du	Xianzhou,	“Display	Invincible	Might	                    31
                                                                                  	John	Pike,	“Taiwan	Geography,”	26	July	2004,	Global       “Guangzhou	Military	Region	Establishes	First	Triphibious	
by	Wreaking	Havoc	Behind	‘Enemy’	Lines:	Give	them	more	                 Security,         Special	Operations	Force,”	Guangzhou Nanfang Ribao	(Internet	
than	they	can	see	all	at	once	–	New	operational	modes	such	as	          geo.htm.                                                             Version),	29	July	1999,	as	translated	by	FBIS	reference	
‘blocking	the	ears	and	gouging	out	the	eyes’	and	‘penetrating	                 32
                                                                                  	Andrew	Nien-dzu	Yang,	“The	PLA	and	Taiwan	Strait	         FTS19990729000625.
the	vital	points,’	”	People’s Liberation Army Daily,	25	August	         Campaign,”	Taipei Chien-Tuan K’o-Chi,	1	March	2004,	as	                    51
                                                                                                                                                      	Huang	Rifei	and	Wang	Yongqing,	“Chinese	Special	
1999,	2,	as	translated	by	FBIS	reference	FTS19990928000709.             translated	by	FBIS	reference	CPP20040413000274.                      Forces	Match	the	World	Powers,”	Beijing Renmin	(Guangzhou	
          	“Jane’s	Sentinel	Security	Assessment	-	China	and	                   33
                                                                                  	Chen	Peng	and	Cao	Zhi,	“Casting	Chinese	‘Flying	          South	China	News	Supplement)	in	Ribao,	30	July	1999,	1,	as	
Northeast	Asia,”	3	August	2004.                                         Dragons.’	”                                                          translated	by	FBIS	reference	FTS19990730002144.
          	Su	Yincheng,	Zhuang	Yichun,	and	Jian	Boyou,	“Avia-                  34
                                                                                  	It	is	not	readily	apparent	that	four	hours	would	be	            52
                                                                                                                                                      	“The	Special	Forces	Units	in	Each	of	China’s	Military	
tion	Unit,	Always	on	Alert,”	Beijing Renmin Ribao	(Internet	            considered	a	long-range	raid.	The	PLA	may	use	this	scenario	         Regions,	Beifang Jiaoyu	(North	Education)	article	6.”
Version-WWW),	15	September	2003,	as	translated	by	FBIS	                 to	demonstrate	their	endurance	training	at	extremely	high	                 53
                                                                                                                                                      	“The	Special	Forces	Units	in	Each	of	China’s	Military	
reference	CPP20030915000049.                                            altitudes.                                                           Regions,	Beifang Jiaoyu	(North	Education)	article	6.”
          	Military	Training	Department	of	the	Headquarters	of	the	            35
                                                                                  	Li	Xiangjun	and	Li	Fengming,	“Division	in	Xinjiang	             54
                                                                                                                                                      	“Chinese	Special	Force	Launches	Anti-Terrorism	Ma-
Lanzhou	Military	Region,	“Training	in	Non-War	Operations,”	             tempers	troops	in	Karakorum	and	Kunun	Mountains,”	People’s           neuver,”	Guangzhou Ribao	(Internet	Version-WWW),	4	January	
People’s Liberation Army Daily,	5	November	2002,	6,	as	                 Liberation Army Daily	(Internet	version	WWW.),	LA	Daily	             2002,	as	translated	by	FBIS	reference	CPP20020104000135.
translated	by	FBIS	reference	CPP20021105000086.                         9	August	2004                  55
                                                                                                                                                      	Cheng	Hsin-hua,	“Capturing	Taiwan	Within	Seven	Days	
          	“Chinese	Special	Force	Launches	Anti-Terrorism	Ma-           daily/2004/08/09/20040809001030_ChinaMilitaryNews.html.              —	an	Exposure	of	the	PLA’s	Top-Secret	Strategies,”	Hong Kong
neuver,”	Guangzhou Ribao	(Internet	Version-WWW),	4	Janury	                     36
                                                                                  	Li	Chengfeng,	“Challenging	the	Limits	of	Survival:	       Tung Chou Kan,	No.	71,	5	January	2005,	28-32,	as	translated	
2002,	as	translated	by	FBIS	reference	CPP20020104000135.                Record	of	a	Certain	Beijing	MR	Special	Reconnaissance	Force’s	       by	FBIS	reference	CPP20050110000064.
          	“Chinese	Special	Force	Launches	Anti-Terrorism	              Wilderness	Survival	Training,”	Hong Kong Hsien-Tai Chun-                   56
                                                                                                                                                      	“China’s	National	Defense	in	2004,”	downloaded	3	
Maneuver,”	Guangzhou Ribao.                                             Shih,	No.	260,	11	September	1998,	19-22,	as	translated	by	           January	2005	from
          	“China’s	Frequent	Multilateral	Joint	Military	Exercises,”	   FBIS	reference	FTS19981023000467.                                          57
                                                                                                                                                      	“Planned	Russia-China	military	exercise	not	directed	at	
Hong Kong Hsiang Kang Shang Pao	(Internet	Version-                             37
                                                                                  	Li	Chengfeng,	“Challenging	the	Limits	of	Survival:	       any	third	country:	army	chief,”	People’s Daily Online,	18	March	
WWW),	15	December	2003,	as	translated	by	FBIS	reference	                Record	of	a	Certain	Beijing	MR	Special	Reconnaissance	Force’s	       2005,	FBIS	reference	CPP20050318000033.
CPP20031215000091.                                                      Wilderness	Survival	Training.”                                             58
                                                                                                                                                      	F.W.	Lacroix,	Robert	W.	Button,	John	R.	Wise	and	Stuart	
          	FBIS	summary	of	People’s Liberation Army	                           38
                                                                                  	“Three	Beidou	Satellites	Cover	Peripherals	of	Mainland	   E.	Johnson,	A Concept of Operations for a New Deep-Diving
headlines,                        China.	PLA	Strides	Toward	Precision	Control	And	Guided	              Submarine	(Santa	Monica,	Calif.:	RAND	Publications,	2001),	
ly/2004/07/15/20040715001017.                                           Warfare,”	Hong Kong Hsiang Kang Shang Pao,	22	June	2003,	            appendix	I.
          	Information	for	this	paragraph	was	collected	from	the	       B5,	as	translated	by	FBIS	reference	CPP20030623000047.                     59
                                                                                                                                                      	Ko	Shu-ling,	“Taiwan’s	Premier	Says	China	Wants	a	
following	three	sources:	“Report	on	Training	of	PRC’s	Special	                 39
                                                                                  	Jane’s	Sentinel	Security	Assessment	-	China	and	North-    War	to	Push	US	Out	of	Asia-Pacific,”	Epoch Time	online,	23	
Forces,”	Beijing Zhongguo Xinwen She,	4	September	1999,	as	             east	Asia,	3	August	2004.                                            August	2004,	downloaded	10	February	2005	from	http://eng-
translated	by	FBIS	reference	FTS19990907000248;	Shui	Chih-                     40
                                                                                  	Hsiung	Chien-chun,	“Large-Scale	Exercise	Reflects	the
shan,	“China’s	Special	Forces	Are	World-Class”;	Su	Yincheng,	           Combat	Strength	of	the	People’s	Liberation	Army,”	Hong Kong                60
                                                                                                                                                      	Telephone	conversation	with	Ralph	Howard,	owner	of	
Zhuang	Yichun	and	Jian	Boyou,	“Aviation	Unit,	Always	on	Alert.”         Wen Wei Po,	12	September	1999,	a5,	as	translated	by	FBIS	            Buckeye	Powered	Parachute.	Howard	stated	that	while	it	had	
          	“Underwater	Amphibious	Operations	Centering	on	              reference	FTS19990915000111.                                         not	been	done	to	his	knowledge,	it	is	feasible	that	a	powered	
Submarines,”	Hong Kong Kuang Chiao Ching,	16	Septem-                           41
                                                                                  	Jane’s	Sentinel	Security	Assessment	-	China	and	North-    parachute	could	be	delivered	by	airborne	methods.
ber	2001,	No.	348,	36-39,	as	translated	by	FBIS	reference	              east	Asia,	3	August	2004.                                                  61
                                                                                                                                                      	Chen	Peng	and	Cao	Zhi,	“Casting	Chinese	‘Flying	
CPP20010918000092.                                                             42
                                                                                  	“China’s	‘Stealth	Attack	Ferry’	Casts	Shadow	Over	        Dragons.’	”
          	Information	for	this	paragraph	was	collected	from	two	
sources:	Yang	Deshan	and	Ni	Minzhi,	“Nanjing	Military	Region’s	
                                                                           Scott J. Henderson is an analyst in the Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth,
Special	Operations	Battalion	Acquires	Three-Dimensional	
                                                                           Kan. He retired from the Army after serving 20 years in the intelligence community as a
Infiltration	and	Operations	Capability,”	People’s Liberation Army          Chinese linguist. He holds a bachelor’s degree with an emphasis on Chinese studies and
Daily	(Internet	Version-WWW),	9	June	2002,	1,	as	translated	               is a graduate of the Defense Language Institute in Monterey, Calif. In 1997, he was on
by	FBIS	reference	CPP20020610000054;	and	Zhou	Mengwu,	                     special assignment to the U.S. Embassy in China, and in 1995, he attended the Beijing
“Uncovering	the	Secrets	of	the	Chinese	Special	Forces.”                    Institute of Economic Management Immersion Program.
          	“Special	Forces	Battalion	Commander,”	Xinhuashe

                                                                                                                                                                              July-August 2006            35

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