ECO-Serve Cluster 2 Production and application of blended cements by wio18411

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									                         EUROPEAN CONSTRUCTION
                         IN SERVICE OF SOCIETY



ECO-Serve Cluster 2:
Production and application of blended cements
Overview and results
Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf




ECO-Serve-Network; Status quo 01/2005
Structure of the network

                                          Network Steering Committee

 Environmental
                                                                        Communication &
  baseline &                           Management and co-ordination      Dissemination
   indicators

                                           The ECO-SERVE Network

   Cluster 1                                 Cluster 2     Cluster 3       Cluster 4

   Alternative                                Blended     Aggregate &     Pavements
    fuels and                                 cements       concrete
 raw materials
                                                           production
                                             Research
                                             activities
     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                          2
Objectives of the network

„The main objective of the ECO-SERVE Network
is to identify the needs of the European Construction Industry
in its endeavour towards sustainability of the
industries' products and production processes.“

    • Improve the working environment
    • Reduce the environmental impact
    • Ensure European growth and wealth by increasing
      the productivity, competitiveness and quality




    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                 3
Definition: Blended cements



  Cements with a reduced clinker content


  ( 94 m.-% referring to the sum of the main and
  minor additional constituents)




    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                       4
CO2-Emissions



  Replacing cement clinker by other main constitutents
  is a very effective way of lowering specific fuel energy
  consumption and specific CO2 emissions.




    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                             5
CO2 reduction from the production of blended cements


                                                Clinker substitution   -0.093
  CO2 from fuel
  consumption
                                                Slag drying                                  0.022

  CO2 from                                      Clinker substitution             -0.009
  electricity
  consumption                                   Finer grinding                             0.011

  CO2 from lime-                                Clinker substitution -0.151
  stone decarbonation
  Total                                                   -0.219

                                                         Reduction of CO2 emissions in t CO2/t cement

               Substitution of clinker by granulated slag for a CEM II/B-S 32.5 with 35 % granulated slag

                                                                                          Source: VDZ
      Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                            6
CO2-emissions from the production of blended cements
                   1,0
                       CEM I CEM II/A CEM II/B                             CEM III/A        CEM III/B

                   0,8
  t CO2/t cement




                   0,6


                   0,4
                                   CO2
                   0,2             conditional
                                   raw materials

                        0
                             0                         20             40               60           80           100
                                                                       Amount in %
                                                                                                         Source: VDZ
                   Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                                       7
Cement standard EN 197-1


           CEM I                                            Portland cement

          CEM II                                       Portland-composite cement

         CEM III                                          Blastfurnace cement

         CEM IV                                           Pozzolanic cement

          CEM V                                           Composite cement


    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                   8
Cement standard EN 197-1

Main constituents of cement according to EN 197-1

                                                    Portland cement clinker (K)

 Granulated blast furnace slag                           (S)                       Burnt shale (T)

 Pozzolana                                                      Limestone
 • natural (P)                                                  • low TOC content  0.20 m.-% (LL)
 • natural calcined (Q)                                         • high TOC content  0.50 m.-% (L)

 Fly ash                                                                           Silica fume (D)
 • silicious (V)
 • calcareous (W)



     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                     9
Cement standard EN 197-1

Main constituents of cement according to EN 197-1

                                                    Portland cement clinker (K)

 Granulated blast furnace slag                           (S)                       Burnt shale (T)

 Pozzolana                                                      Limestone
 • natural (P)                                                  • low TOC content  0.20 m.-% (LL)
 • natural calcined (Q)                                         • high TOC content  0.50 m.-% (L)

 Fly ash                                                                           Silica fume (D)
 • silicious (V)
 • calcareous (W)



     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                     10
Main constituents of blended cements

    Portland cement clinker                            Granulated blast furnace slag




                     Limestone                          Fly ash




    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                       11
Main constituents of blended cements (SEM)



                                                    Portland cement clinker (K)

 Granulated blast furnace slag                           (S)

                                                                Limestone
                                                                • low TOC content  0.20 m.-% (LL)
                                                                • high TOC content  0.50 m.-% (L)

 Fly ash                                                                           Silica fume (D)
 • silicious (V)
 • calcareous (W)



     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                     12
Main constituents of blended cements (SEM)
                                   Portland cement clinker




    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                             13
Main constituents of blended cements (SEM)
                           Granulated blast furnace slag




    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                           14
Main constituents of blended cements (SEM)
                                                       Limestone




    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                   15
Main constituents of blended cements (SEM)
                                                       Fly ash




    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                 16
Main constituents of blended cements (SEM)
                                                   Silica fume




    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                 17
Production of blended cements




                                                       Multi-chamber
                                                       mixing tower
    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                       18
Cement standard EN 197-1

  Portland
                           CEM I
  cement
 Portland-                              A                              ( -D, -S, -P, -Q, -V, -W, -T, -L, -LL, -M)
 composite            CEM II
 cement                                 B                              ( -D, -S, -P, -Q, -V, -W, -T, -L, -LL, -M)

                                        A
 Blastfurnace
              CEM III B
 cement
                      C

 Pozzolanic        A
            CEM IV                                                                   ( -D, -P, -Q, -V, -W)
 cement            B
 Composite                              A
                      CEM V                                                                             ( -S, -P, -Q, -V)
 cement                                 B

                                             0          10   20   30    40     50     60     70    80     90        100
                                              Amount of main constituents besides clinker in % by mass

     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                                            19
Cement standard EN 197-1
                                                                                                   The letter M indicates
                                                                                                   CEM II-cements which
  Portland                                                                                         contain at least two further
                           CEM I                                                                   constituents besides clinker.
  cement
 Portland-                              A                              ( -D, -S, -P, -Q, -V, -W, -T, -L, -LL, -M)
 composite            CEM II
 cement                                 B                              ( -D, -S, -P, -Q, -V, -W, -T, -L, -LL, -M)

                                        A
 Blastfurnace
              CEM III B
 cement
                      C

 Pozzolanic        A
            CEM IV                                                                   ( -D, -P, -Q, -V, -W)
 cement            B
 Composite                              A
                      CEM V                                                                             ( -S, -P, -Q, -V)
 cement                                 B

                                             0          10   20   30    40     50     60     70    80     90        100
                                              Amount of main constituents besides clinker in % by mass

     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                                                   20
Cement standard EN 197-1

  Portland
                           CEM I
  cement
 Portland-                              A
 composite            CEM II
 cement                                 B

                                        A                            (18-30) % S
 Blastfurnace                                                     (18-30) % (P, Q, V)
              CEM III B
 cement
                      C
                                                                                         (31-50) % S
 Pozzolanic        A                                                                  (31-50) % (P, Q, V)
            CEM IV
 cement            B
 Composite                              A
                      CEM V
 cement                                 B

                                             0          10   20   30   40   50   60     70   80   90   100
                                              Amount of main constituents besides clinker in % by mass

     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                             21
Performance of blended cements - Example 1
                                 Water demand of the cement                                                                    Consistency of concrete
                       35                                                                                          450
                                                                                                                                           CEM II/A-LL 32,5 R
                                                                                                                   425                     CEM I 32,5 R
Water demand in m.-%




                 2




                                                                                             Flow diameter in mm
                                                                                  0
                       30                                                                                          400
                                                                     10
                                                           20
                                                30                                                                 375
                                                     Limestone content in m.-%
                       25                                                                                          350
                                                                                                                                  c = 340 kg/m3
                                                                                                                   325              w/c = 0.50
                                                                                                                             Air content: 4.8 vol.-%
                       20                                                                                          300
                         0,90             0,95             1,00                1,05   1,10                               0      10    20     30     40     50    60
                                             Slope of the cement                                                   Erwärmung in Kelvin min
                                                                                                                        Time of measurement in
                       Druckfestigkeit in N/mm
                                                                                                                                           Source: Ludwig 2002

                            Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                                                                                      22
Performance of blended cements - Example 2


                                d = 0,6 m (Steel formwork), c = 330 kg/m3, w/c = 0.50, Tb,fr = TU = 20 °C
 Compressive strength in MPa




                               24                                                                                     25




                                                                                        Heat development in Kelvin
         2                              CEM I 32,5 R                                                                               CEM I 32,5 R
                               20                                                                                     20
                               16
                                                                                                                      15
                               12
                                                                                                                      10        CEM III/A 32,5
                               8
                               4                              CEM III/A 32,5
                                                                                                                       5
                               0                                                                                       0
                                    0           12             24             36   48                                Erwärmung in24 36
                                                                                                                                  Kelvin
                                                                                                                        0  12                      48
                       Druckfestigkeit in N/mm
                                              Concrete age in h                                                            Concrete age in h
                                                                                                                                     Source: VDZ
                               Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                                                                        23
Product Standards in CEN/TC 51 „Cement and building limes“
 Examples

                      Cement-Composition
                      specifications and conformity        CEM I
  EN 197-1                                                                             X         2000-06
                      criteria for common cements          CEM II        32,5 N/R
                      (27 cements)                         CEM III       42,5 N/R
                                                           CEM IV        52,5 N/R
                                                           CEM V
                                                                                       LH
 EN 197-1/A1          Low heat common cements                                                    2004-04
                                                                                     270 J/g

                      Low early strength blast furnace    CEM III/A       32,5 L
  EN 197-4            cements                             CEM III/B       42,5 L       X         2004-04
                      (3 cement types)                    CEM III/C       52,5 L
                      Cement – Composition
                                                         VLH III/B + C
                      specifications and conformity                                   VLH
  EN 14216                                               VLH IV/A + B      22,5                  2004-04
                      criteria for very low heat                                     220 J/g
                                                         VLH V/A + B
                      special cements (6 cement types)

                                                                                                under
   Report             Sulphate Resisting Cement              SCR            -          X
                                                                                                preparation



     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                           24
Performance of blended cements - Example 3

                                     2,5

                                             8°C         Wittekindt-Test
                                      2                  (29800 mg SO4/l)
                 Expansion in mm/m

                                             20°C        after 56 days

                                     1,5



                                      1



                                     0,5



                                      0
                                           CEM I NW/HS         CEM III/B NW/HS
                                                                                 Source: VDZ
    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                               25
Performance of blended cements - Example 4
Low alkali cements
   Alkalinity of the pore solution can be reduced by the use
   of pozzolana or slag, due to

                   - lower available alkali content
                   - uptake of alkalis by the reaction products




    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                  26
Questions to be answered in cluster 2
To what extend are there differences concerning

- Composition and used amount of blended cements in Europe,

- Existing national application rules for blended cements,

- Experience with blended cements - examples for applications.

- Kinds and quality of main constituents besides clinker for the production
 of blended cements in Europe.

... and why ?




     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                              27
Expected outcome - 1


Europeanwide exchange of knowledge on

• the properties,

• the capability,

• the availability and

• the application

of blended cements with the objective of a broader application
of blended cements in Europe.



     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                 28
Cluster 2: Partners / members
                                                              Activities
                           Partner / Member
                                                        Network     Research

  Verein Deutscher Zementwerke (VDZ), Germany             X                X
  CTG-Italcementi Group (CTG), Italy                      X                X
   NORCEM A.S (NORCEM), Norway                            X                X

   Titan Cement CO. S. A. (TITAN), Greece                 X                X
   E. Schwenk Zementwerke KG (SCHWENK), Germany           X
   Bundesanstalt für Wasserbau (BAW), Germany             X

   National Building Res. Inst. (INCERC), Romania         X
   LAFARGE ROMCIM SA (LAFARGE), Romania
     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                          X                    29
Expected outcome - 2


Europeanwide exchange of knowledge on

• the properties,

• the capability,

• the availability and

• the application

of blended cements with the objective of a broader application
of blended cements in Europe.



     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                 30
Properties and capability - 1


Establish a comprehensive overview on relevant organisations
working in the field of the production and application
of blended cements (Mapping of activities and stakeholders)

 Tools: Questionnaire, Inquiry of existing data bases, Internet




    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                   31
Mapping of activities and stakeholders - examples




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           beyond the limits of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           with a composition
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Blended cements
                                                       Activity Type


                                                                       Legal Status
   No. Organisation Legal Name




                                                                                                   Application
                                                                                      Production




                                                                                                                                                                                                         CEM II/LL
                                                                                                                                                                        CEM II/W




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           EN 197-1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     CEM II/M
                                                                                                                                                  CEM II/Q
                                                                                                                            CEM II/D
                                                                                                                 CEM II/S



                                                                                                                                       CEM II/P



                                                                                                                                                             CEM II/V



                                                                                                                                                                                   CEM II/T

                                                                                                                                                                                              CEM II/L
                                             Country




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          CEM IV
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                CEM III



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   CEM V
   1      Aalborg Portland A/S              DK         IND             PRC             x            x                        x                                x                                x          x                                                        x
   2      AGET HERACLES                     EL         IND             PRC                          x                                                                                                                 x                   x
   3      BUZZI UNICEM S.p.a                  I        IND             PRC             x            x                                                                                                     x                      x        x                        x
   4      Cementa Research AB               SW         IND             PRC             x            x             x                                                                                       x                      x
   5      CEMENTARA KOSJERIC                SM         IND             PRC                          x             x                                                                                                   x
          CEMENT FACTORY
   6                                     FYROM         IND             PRC                          x                                                                                                                 x
          USJE
          CEMENTIR Cementerie
   7                                          I        IND             PRC             x            x                                                                                                     x                      x        x        x               x
          del Tirreno spa
          DAfStb - German
   8      Committee for Structural           D         OTH             PNP                                                                 see Additional Information on the Institution
          Concrete
          Darmstadt University of
   9                                         D         HES             GOV                          x             x          x                                x          x                     x          x           x          x        x        x               x
          Technology
          Forschungsgemeinschaft
   10                                        D         REC             PNP             x            x             x                                                                                       x           x          x
          Eisenhüttenschlacken e. V
          FMPA Stuttgart- Otto-
   11                                        D         REC             GOV                          x             x                                                                 x                     x
          Graf-Institut
   12     HALYPS CEMENT                     EL         IND             PRC                          x                                   x                                                                             x
   13     HTC                                D         IND             PRC             x            x             x                                                                                       x           x          x




        Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  32
Properties and capability - 2


Establish a comprehensive overview on relevant organisations
working in the field of the production and application
of blended cements (Mapping of activities and stakeholders)

 Tools: Questionnaire, Inquiry of existing data bases, Internet


Establish a reference list on the properties of blended cements

 Tools: Literature review, Questionnaire,
         Inquiry of existing data bases, Internet



    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                   33
Reference list – Examples (1)
 No.    Author(s)                                          Titel etc
                                                           General / Miscellaneous
                                                           Sulfate attack and reinforcement corrosion in plain and blended
 [1]    Al-Amoudi O.S.B.                                   cements exposed to sulfate environments, Building And
                                                           Environment 1998, Vol 33, Iss 1, pp 53-61.
                                                           Strength and pore structure of ternary blended cement mortars
 [2]    Bagel, L.,                                         containing blast furnace slag and silica fume, Cement and
                                                           Concrete Research v 28 n 7 Jul 1998 p 1011-1020 .
                                                           Manufacturing blended cements for better performance, ZKG
 [3]    Bapat, JD
                                                           INTERNATIONAL 51: (12) 702-706 1998.
                                                           CO2 Reduction in the Cement Industry. In: Process Technology
                                                           of Cement Manufacturing / VDZ Congress 2002 / Verein
 [13]   Hoenig, V. ; Schneider, M.
                                                           Deutscher Zementwerke, VDZ (Hrsg.). – Düsseldorf : Verl. Bau
                                                           Technik, 2003. – ISBN 3-7640-450-0; pp. 499-505 (2003)

                                                                       Fly ash
                                                           Effects of grinding on physical and mechanical properties of
        Bouzoubaâ, N.; Zhang, M. H.;
 [32]                                                      high-volume fly ash blended cements, World Cem. 1998, 29
        Malhotra, V. M.
                                                           (11), 96-101 (Chem. Abs. 130:186086p).
                                                           Laboratory-produced high-volume fly ash blended cements:
        Bouzoubaâ, N.; Zhang, M. H. ;                      Physical properties and compressive strength of mortars,
 [33]
        Bilodeau, A.; Malhotra, V. M.                      Cement and Concrete Research, Volume 28, Issue 11,
                                                           November 1998, Pages 1555-1569.
        Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                                             34
Reference list – Examples (2)
                                                                  Limestone
                                                            “Effect of limestone filler on the sulfate resistance of low C3A
 [49]   González, M. A.; Irassar, E. F.                    portland cement”, Cement and Concrete Research, Volume 28,
                                                           Issue 11, November 1998, Pages 1655-1667.
                                                           Microstructural study of sulfate attack on ordinary and limestone
        Irassar, E.F. ; Bonavetti, V.L. ;
 [50]                                                      Portland cement at ambient temperature. In: Cement and
        Gonzalez, M.
                                                           Concrete Research 33 – No. 1, pp. 31-41 (2003)
                                                            “Portland limestone cements”, Concrete (London) v 32 n 5 May
 [51]   Kelham, Steven
                                                           1998 p 30-31.

                                                                     Slag
                                                           “New mill optimization package at the Readymix slag cement
 [59]   Allenberg B, Beckerling H.U.
                                                           works in Dortmund”, ZKG International 51: (7) 366-369 1998.
        Ding, Zhu; Zhang, Decheng;                          “Study on the hydration of cement containing ultra-fine slag”,
 [60]   Shao, Hongjiang; Wu, Keru;                         Jianzhu Cailiao Xuebao/Journal of Building Materials v1 n3
        Zhang, Xiong,                                      1998 p 201-205.
                                                           Slag-containing cements with bimodal particle size distribution.
                                                           In: Process Technology of Cement Manufacturing / VDZ
        Ehrenberg, Andreas; Lang,
 [61]                                                      Congress 2002 / Verein Deutscher Zementwerke, VDZ (Hrsg.).
        Eberhard; Geiseler, Jürgen
                                                           – Düsseldorf : Verl. Bau Technik, 2003. – ISBN 3-7640-450-0;
                                                           pp. 25-32 (2003)



        Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                                               35
Expected outcome - 3


Europeanwide exchange of knowledge on

• the properties,

• the capability,

• the availability and

• the application

of blended cements with the objective of a broader application
of blended cements in Europe.



     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                 36
Cement Types in CEMBUREAU Countries (1999 - 2002)

                100
                              Total                                                                             1999
                                                                           Values refer to all cements in       2000
                  80
                                                                           CEMBUREAU countries                  2001
                                                                                                                2002
  Amount in %




                  60                                               54,4
                                                          51,8


                  40          35,4
                                             28,7


                  20
                                                                                                 9,9
                                                                          5,6     5,0    4,0              3,2     2,0
                     0
                                  CEM I                       CEM II       CEM III        CEM IV            CEM V

                 Source: CEMBUREAU                                                                     2002: without UK


                Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                                          37
Cement Types in CEMBUREAU Countries (1992 / 1999 - 2002)

                100
                              Strength class 32,5                                                             1992
                  80                                                                                          1999
                                                             70,1                                             2000
                                                                       63,9
                                                                                                              2001
  Amount in %




                  60                                                                                          2002

                  40

                                                                                                19,4
                  20              13,8
                                                9,0
                                                                              6,0   5,1   7,0
                                                                                                        3,1     2,7
                     0
                                  CEM I                       CEM II          CEM III     CEM IV        CEM V

                 Source: CEMBUREAU                                                                 2002: without UK


                Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                                      38
Cement Types in CEMBUREAU Countries (2002)

                100
                                             89,0

                                                                                                                       32,5
                  80
                                                                                                    Strength class     42,5
                                                           63,9                                                        52,5
  Amount in %




                  60                                               51,9

                                                                                Values refer to cements per strength class
                                      39,7
                  40

                                                                                                  19,4
                  20
                                9,0                                       7,4
                                                                                  5,1 6,3
                                                                                            0,6          1,4     2,7 0,6 3,1
                    0
                                  CEM I                      CEM II               CEM III          CEM IV            CEM V

                   Source: CEMBUREAU                                                                            without UK


                Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                                               39
CEM II in CEMBUREAU Countries (2002)

                100
                                                                              Values refer to CEM II per strength class
                  80                                               32,5
                             Strength class                        42,5
  Amount in %




                  60                                               52,5                                             55,5
                                                                                                             50,5
                                                                                                         46,7


                  40
                                          30,6

                                                                                    20,9                                   20,9
                             17,3
                  20                                      11,5
                                                                                                                                  14,2
                                                                              9,9
                                    7,5
                                                                    4,8 6,4
                                                                                           0,5 0,5 0,9                                1,4
                    0
                                    S                 D               P/Q       V/W            T            L/LL                  M

                                                                       Cement type CEM II -

                   Source: CEMBUREAU


                Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                                                            40
Development of CEM I production / use
                         100
                         90
                                                                       D
                         80
     Amount CEM I in %



                         70                                                              32,5
                         60
                                                                  D
                                                                                         42,5
                         50
                         40      I                            F
                         30
                         20
                         10                                   I
                          0      F
                          1991       1993              1995   1997      1999      2001     2003

    Source: VDZ/CEMBUREAU                                     Values refer to all cements per strength class

    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                               41
Cement CEM I in CEMBUREAU Countries (2001)

                       120
                                                     100                                                      100
                       100
  Amount CEM I in %




                          80                                                                                           72
                                                                               58
                          60           54
                                                                                                                                   49
                                                                     36
                          40
                                                                                         24
                          20                                                                        12

                            0




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                         2) 2000
                         Source: CEMBUREAU                                          Values refer to all cements per country

                      Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                                                        42
Availability of constituent materials for concrete


  Besides the availablity per country the regional availability
  of blended cements is different.

  Due to the availability of main constituents besides clinker, not every
   cement plant is able to produce any kind of blended cement in a
   cost-effective and ecologically way (transport etc.).

  The same aspects have to be considered concerning the combination
   of cements and concrete additions.




      Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                             43
Expected outcome - 4


Europeanwide exchange of knowledge on

• the properties,

• the capability,

• the availability and

• the application

of blended cements with the objective of a broader application
of blended cements in Europe.



     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                 44
Application of blended cements

 Compilation and comparison of national application rules (NARs)
 to EN 206-1

  - Concrete composition acc. to exposure classes
    (min. cement content, max. water cement ratio etc.)

  - Application rules for blended cements

   Co-operation with cluster 3




    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                   45
EN 206-1: Requirements related to Durability
          (exposure classes)

        Exposure class                                                   Explanation

   X0                       Zero Risk                            No risk of corrosion or attack
                                                                            Freeze/thaw attack with and
   XF                            Frost
                                                       Exposure classes for    without de-icing salts
   XA                 Chemical Attack                         risk of             Chemical attack
                        Mechanical                      concrete corrosion
   XM                                                                          Mechanical abrasion
                         abrasion
   XC                     Carbonation                                                  Carbonation
                                                       Exposure classes for
                                                                                  Chlorides other than
   XD                     De-icing salt                      risk of
                                                                                    from sea water
                                                         steel corrosion
   XS                       Seawater                                            Chlorides from sea water



    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                           46
EN 206-1: Requirements related to exposure classes
          (Durability) - 1
 Due to the lack of experience on how the classification of the environmental
  actions on concrete reflect local differences in the same nominal
  exposure class, the specific values of these requirements for the applicable
  exposure classes are given in the provisions valid in the place of use.

 The requirements for each exposure class shall be specified in terms of:
  – permitted types and classes of constituent materials;
  – maximum water/cement ratio;
  – minimum cement content;
  – minimum concrete compressive strength class (optional);
    and if relevant
  – minimum air-content of the concrete.

                                                         EN 206-1, Chapter 5.3.2
      Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                   47
Environmental actions
                                                       Steel Corrosion

          Carbonation                                                       Chlorides

                                                          Others than sea water
                                                                                          Sea water
                                                           e. g. de-icing salts

                 CO2                    Carbonation                      Controlling influencing variable

                   Cl-              Penetration of Cl-                    Quality of the concrete cover

             H2O / O2                      Corrosion                   Thickness     Penetration resistance
                                                                                                    w/c
                                                                                               Cement type
                                                                                                  Curing

    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                              48
Depth of carbonation – Range for different cements

                             12                                                                                                  12
                                                                                              3
                                                100 % K                        c = 260 kg/m                                                    35 % S




                                                                                                    Depth of carbonation in mm
Depth of carbonation in mm




                             10                                                  w/c = 0,65                                      10

                              8                                                                                                  8

                              6                                                                                                  6

                              4                                                                                                  4

                              2                                                                                                  2

                              0                                                                                                  0
                                   0               50              100               150      200                                     0   50        100         150       200
                                                             Age in d                                                                            Age in d

                                                1 d in the mould, 6 d under water,  7 d 20 °C / 65 % r. H.
                                                                                                                                                            Source: VDZ
                                  Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                                                                                                49
Depth of carbonation – Range for different cements

                             12                                                                                                  12
                                                                                              3
                                                100 % K                        c = 260 kg/m                                               15 % S, 20 % LL




                                                                                                    Depth of carbonation in mm
Depth of carbonation in mm




                             10                                                  w/c = 0,65                                      10
                                                20 % LL
                                                                                                                                          25 % S, 10 % LL
                                                30 % LL
                              8                                                                                                  8        35 % S
                                                35 % LL
                              6                                                                                                  6

                              4                                                                                                  4

                              2                                                                                                  2

                              0                                                                                                  0
                                   0               50              100               150      200                                     0    50         100         150       200
                                                             Age in d                                                                              Age in d

                                                1 d in the mould, 6 d under water,  7 d 20 °C / 65 % r. H.
                                                                                                                                                              Source: VDZ
                                  Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                                                                                                  50
Depth of carbonation – Influence of limestone content

                                25                                                                                                         10,0
                                                                                                                                                         28d




                                                                                                   Depth of carbonation in mm (Concrete)
                                                                    Mortar, w/c = 0.50                                                                                        w/c = 0.65
Total porosity (Hg) in Vol.-%




                                20                                   Water storage                                                                       56d
                                                                                                                                            7,5          90d
                                                                                                                                                         180d
                                15
                                                                                                                                            5,0
                                10
                                                   100 % CEM I
                                                   20 % LL                                                                                  2,5
                                 5
                                                   25 % LL
                                                   35 % LL
                                 0                                                                                                          0,0
                                     0           20           40     60                 80   100                                                  0        2      4       6       8        10
                                                              Age in d                                                                                Porosity > 0,1 m in Vol.-% (Mortar)




                                                                                                                                                                           Source: VDZ
                                     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                                                                                                                51
Depth of carbonation – Range for different cements

                             12                                                                                                  12
                                                                                              3
                                                100 % K                        c = 260 kg/m                                               15 % S, 20 % LL




                                                                                                    Depth of carbonation in mm
Depth of carbonation in mm




                             10                                                  w/c = 0,65                                      10
                                                20 % LL
                                                                                                                                          25 % S, 10 % LL
                                                30 % LL
                              8                                                                                                  8        35 % S
                                                35 % LL
                              6                                                                                                  6

                              4                                                                                                  4

                              2                                                                                                  2

                              0                                                                                                  0
                                   0               50              100               150      200                                     0    50         100         150       200
                                                             Age in d                                                                              Age in d

                                                      Range for CEM I – CEM III/B
                                                                                                                                                              Source: VDZ
                                  Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                                                                                                  52
Application of blended cements - Example
Example: Concrete for exposure class XC4

      Corrosion induced by carbonation


                    Cyclic wet and dry – Concrete surfaces
Moisture conditions
                    subject to water contact = e. g. facades


 Limiting values for composition and properties
 of concrete and application rules for blended
 cements acc. to NARs to EN 206-1



     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                               53
Depth of carbonation and risk of corrosion
     Depth of carbonation and risk of corrosion


                                                                            Depth of carbonation

                                                                            Risk of corrosion




                                                                       External concrete surfaces




       dry                                                             under water
  Exposition                             XC1            XC3   XC4 XC2 XC1
                                                                                Concrete humidity

                                                                                         Source: VDZ
     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                       54
Depth of carbonation – Influence of the environment
                              25              Inside buildings with low air humidity
                                              External concrete sheltered from rain
                                              Concrete surface subject to water contact
                              20
 Depth of carbonation in mm




                              15
                                                                                            Decrease of the CO2-diffusion
                                                                                            with increasing moisture content
                              10


                              5


                              0
                                       1        2     3 4          8                   16
                                                    Storage time in years
                                                                                                     Source: Bakker / Roessink (1991)

                               Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                                                        57
Application of blended cements – XC4 - Germany
Example: Germany (DIN EN 206-1 + DIN 1045-2)


min. c in kg/m3                               280


                                    CEM I, CEM II/A-D, CEM II-S,
                                    CEM II-P/Q, CEM II-V, CEM II-T, CEM II/ALL, CEM II/A-L,
Applicable                          CEM II/A-M (S-D, S-T, S-LL, D-T, D-LL, T-LL, S-P, S-V, D-P, D-V,
cement acc. to                                  P-V, P-T, P-LL, V-T, V-LL),
EN 197-1                            CEM II/B-M (S-D, S-T, D-T, S-P, D-P, P-T, S-V, D-V, P-V, V-T)
                                    CEM III/A, CEM III/B,
                                    CEM IV/B-P, CEM V (S-P)


  max. (w/c)eq                                0.60


     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                       59
Application of blended cements – XC4 - Swiss
Example: Swiss (SN EN 206-1)


min. c in kg/m3                               300




Applicable                                              CEM I,
                                                        CEM II/A-S, CEM II/A-LL, CEM II/A-D
cement acc. to                                          CEM II/A-M (D-LL),
EN 197-1                                                CEM III/A, CEM III/B




  max. (w/c)eq                                0.50


     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                              60
Application of blended cements – XC4 (50 years) - UK
Example: UK (BS 8500-1)

 min. cement or combination content in kg/m3                                                260 - 360

 Applicable                                             CEM I, CEM II/A-D, CEM II-S,
 cement acc. to                                         CEM II-Q, CEM II-V, CEM II/A-LL, CEM II/A-L,
 EN 197-1                                               CEM III/A, CEM III/B
                                         CIIA-V                       80-94 % CEM I + 6-20 % fly ash
                                         CIIB-V                       65-79 % CEM I + 21-35 % fly ash
 Applicable                               CII-S                        65-94 % CEM I + 6-35 % ggbs
 combinations                             CIIIA                        35-64 % CEM I + 36-65 % ggbs
                                          CIIIB                        20-34 % CEM I + 66-80 % ggbs
                                CIIA-LL, CIIA-L                      80-94 % CEM I + 6-20 % limestone

  max. (w/c)eq                    0.45 – 0.65                  depending on the cover of the reinforcement



     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                             61
Application of blended cements - Example
Example: Concrete for exposure class XC4
                                 400
                                               min
                                 350           max
 min. cement content in kg/m 3




                                 300




                                                                              Draft
                                 250

                                 200

                                 150

                                 100

                                 50

                                   0
                                               EU                    A               DK   D   NL   UK   CH




                                  Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                             62
Application of blended cements - Example
Example: Concrete for exposure class XC4
                                  300
                                                                                                         min
                                                                                                         max
 min. clinker content in kg/m 3




                                  250

                                  200

                                  150

                                  100
                                                                               Draft
                                  50

                                    0
                                                EU                    A               DK   D   NL   UK   CH




                                   Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                               63
Effect of slag on chloride penetration
                      40                                                                                   40
                      35                   CEM I 42,5 R                                                    35            w/c = 0.60; c = 300 kg/m3
                                                                                                                         w/z = 0.60; c = 300 kg/m3




                                                                                     DCl,M in 10-12 m2/s
                      30                   CEM III/B 42,5                                                  30            w/c = 0.50; c = 300 kg/m3; AEA
                                                                                                                         w/z = 0.50; c = 330 kg/m3; LP
DCl,M in 10-12 m2/s




                      25        c = 320 kg/m3                                                              25
                                                                                                                    Age: 28 d
                      20                                                                                   20
                      15                                                                                   15
                      10                                                                                   10
                       5                                                                                   5
                       0                                                                                   0
                        0,35                0,45       0,55                   0,65                              0      20    40     60    80    100
                                            Water cement ratio                                                       Slag content in m.-% o. c.



                                        Source: Gehlen 2000                                                              Source: Ludwig 2003


                           Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                                                                          64
Effect of fly ash on chloride penetration
                                      100
                                                                  CEM I 32,5 R
                                                                 w/(c+0.5f) = 0.50
                                       10
                DCl,M in 10-12 m2/s



                                       1


                                                         0% FA
                                      0,1
                                                        20% FA
                                                        40% FA
                                                        60% FA
                                  0,01
                                            0    28      91        365        730
                                                                  Age in days,d     Source: Wiens /
                                                                                             Müller 2000


     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                           65
Pore size distribution measured with Hg-penetraion
                         Porosity in vol.-% (cumulative)
                                    100% (= Total porosity)
                                                             Volume of a
                                                             pore fraction




                                                                   Threshold-
                                                                   radius


                                                                                  r1   r2

                   1000                                100                   10             1
                                                        Pore radius in nm

    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                66
Effect of fly ash and slag on the pore structure and on
                                   chloride penetration
                      100
                                  w/(c+0.5f) = 0.50
                                                                                                FA
                                                                                  Cement
                                                                                               m.-%
DCl,M in 10-12 m2/s




                       10                                                                        0
                                                                                                 20
                                                                                   CEM I
                                                                                                 40
                                                                                                 60
                       1
                                                                                                 0
                                                                                  CEM III/A
                                                                                                 20

                                                                                  CEM III/B       0
                      0,1
                            10                       100                   1000
                                             Threshold radius in nm                   Source: Wiens /
                                                                                              Müller 2000


                        Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                            67
Effect of limestone and slag on chloride penetration
                                     35
                                                               3
                                            c = 320 kg/m
                                     30       w/c = 0.50

                   m /s (Age: 35d)
                                     25
                                                        Range for concretes with CEM I cements
                                     20
                                             17,1
                  2




                                                         15,5
                  -12




                                     15
                   DCl,M in 10




                                                                     12,2
                                                                                 9,7        9,1
                                     10
                                                                                                       5,7
                                      5

                                      0
                     Cement               CEM II/B-LL    CEM I     CEM II/B-LL CEM II/B-M CEM II/B-M CEM II/B-S
                      LL in %                 30           -           30         25         20          -
                        S in %                 -           -           5          10         15          35
                                                                                                                  Source: VDZ
    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                                                68
Application of blended cements - Example
Example: Concrete for exposure class XS3

      Corrosion induced by chlorides from sea water



Moisture conditions                                     Tidal, splash and spray zones


 Limiting values for composition and properties
 of concrete and application rules for blended
 cements acc. to NARs to EN 206-1



     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                        69
Application of blended cements – XS3 - Germany
Example: Germany (DIN EN 206-1 + DIN 1045-2)


min. c in kg/m3                               320


                                    CEM I, CEM II/A-D, CEM II-S,
                                    CEM II-P/Q, CEM II-V, CEM II-T, CEM II/ALL, CEM II/A-L,
Applicable                          CEM II/A-M (S-D, S-T, S-LL, D-T, D-LL, T-LL, S-P, S-V, D-P, D-V,
cement acc. to                                  P-V, P-T, P-LL, V-T, V-LL),
EN 197-1                            CEM II/B-M (S-D, S-T, D-T, S-P, D-P, P-T, S-V, D-V, P-V, V-T)
                                    CEM III/A, CEM III/B,
                                    CEM IV/B-P, CEM V (S-P)


  max. (w/c)eq                                0.45


     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                       70
Application of blended cements – XD3 - Swiss
Example: Swiss (SN EN 206-1)


min. c in kg/m3                               320




Applicable                                              CEM I,
                                                        CEM II/A-S, CEM II/A-LL, CEM II/A-D
cement acc. to                                          CEM II/A-M (D-LL),
EN 197-1                                                CEM III/A, CEM III/B




  max. (w/c)eq                                0.45


     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                              71
Application of blended cements – XS3 (50 years) - UK
Example: UK (BS 8500-1)

 min. cement or combination content in kg/m3                                 320 - 380

                                                        Nominal cover of the            min.
  Applicable cement acc. to EN 197-1                                         max. w/c
                                                        reinforcement in mm           strength
CEM I, CEM II/A-D, CEM II-S, CEM II/A-Q,                     50 + Dc          0.40    C40/50
CEM II/A-V, CEM II/A-LL, CEM II/A-L                          45 + Dc          0.35    C45/55
                                                             50 + Dc          0.50    C28/35
            CEM II/B-V, CEM III/A                            45 + Dc          0.45    C32/40
                                                             40 + Dc          0.40    C35/45
                                                             50 + Dc          0.50    C25/30
          CEM III/B, CEM IV/B (V)                            45 + Dc          0.45    C28/35
                                                             40 + Dc          0.40    C32/40


     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                 72
Application of blended cements - Example
Example: Concrete for exposure class XS3
                                 400
                                                                                     min
                                 350
                                                                                     max
 min. cement content in kg/m 3




                                 300




                                                                              Draft
                                 250

                                 200

                                 150

                                 100

                                 50

                                   0
                                               EU                    A               DK    D   NL   UK   CH




                                  Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                              73
Application of blended cements - Example
Example: Concrete for exposure class XS3
                                  350
                                                                                                         min
                                  300                                                                    max
 min. clinker content in kg/m 3




                                  250

                                  200

                                  150

                                  100
                                                                               Draft
                                  50

                                    0
                                                EU                    A               DK   D   NL   UK   CH




                                   Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                                               74
Review of application rules


 The provisions valid in the NARs to EN 206-1 include
  requirements under the assumption of an intended working life of
  at least 50 years regarding

  - the constituent materials available in the particular region with respect to
    economy and ecology.

  - traditions and good experience with methods of construction
    in the particular region.




      Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                                   75
Expected outcome - 4


Europeanwide exchange of knowledge on

• the properties,

• the capability,

• the availability and

• the application

of blended cements with the objective of a broader application
of blended cements in Europe.



     Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                                 76
Germany: Federal Motorway A
Germany: Federal Motorway A 29 towards Wilhelmshaven




Year of construction:                                  1979
Component:                                             Concrete Road
Cement type:                                           Portland Slag Cement (CEM II/B-S)
Amount:
    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                       Amount: 18.000 m3                77
Germany: Federal
Germany: Federal
Motorway A
Motorway A 60
Kylltal Bridge
Kylltal Bridge




Year of construction:                                  1995 - 1999
Component:                                             Arch and Column
Cement type:                                           Portland Slag Cement
                                                       (CEM II/B-S 42,5 )
Amount:
    Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf   Amount: 30.000 m3      78
Concrete – let`s make the best of it




   Christoph Müller and Eberhard Siebel, Düsseldorf
                                                      79

								
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