Overview of Lesson Sequence for OCR B Syllabus by wio18411

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									                                          Overview of Lesson Sequence for OCR B Syllabus
                                    Understanding our Environment – Ecology in our School Grounds

Syllabus Objectives B2a – For lower, standard and higher ability
    1. Describe how to use collecting/counting methods: pooters, nets, pit-fall traps and quadrats
    2. Describe a method to show that a variety of plants and animals live in a small area such as a 1 m quadrat.
    3. Use simple keys to identify some plants and animals found in two different habitats.
    4. Recall and be able to apply the terms habitat and community.
    5. Identify natural (woodland and lake) and artificial (greenhouse and aquarium/ fish farm) ecosystems .

    1.   Use keys to identify plants and animals such as those found in pond water, lawn or leaf litter.
    2.   Apply knowledge of organisms to explain why they are often restricted to certain habitats.
    3.   Recall that some ecosystems, such as many ocean depths, are still unexplored, with possible undiscovered new species.
    4.   Recall and use the terms ecosystem and population.

    1. Explain the limitations of counting and collecting methods:
    • sample size affects accuracy of estimate;
    • samples may be unrepresentative of population.
    2. Describe and discuss differences between natural and artificial ecosystems (limited to biodiversity and use of weed killers, pesticides
       and fertilisers).


Lesson 1/2/3 (this depends of number of habitats studied and sampling techniques attempted)

a) Study invertebrates and plant species in a range of habitats using differing sampling methods.
b) Evaluate and design a key to identify several species found in a habitat.
c) Research a species in the habitat and how it is adapted to the environment in which it lives.
d) (Higher only) Evaluate the sampling techniques used for accuracy and representation.
e) (Higher only) Compare a natural and artificial ecosystem in terms of biodiversity due to weed killers, pesticides and fertilisers.




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Keywords: Habitat, community, ecosystem and population (definitions needed). Biodiveristy, sampling, quadrats, transects, pitfall traps
Outdoor practical work –
Table showing habitats, species to study and the method of sampling

Habitat                  Species studied      Sampling Method                            Location
Aquatic habitats –       Water                Nets                                       School pond (limted but useful)
ponds/ canals/           invertebrates        Magnifying glasses                         Mile End Ecology ponds
rivers                                        Keys / cards                               Soanes’ Centre pond
                                              Temperature probe
                                              Light probe
Woodland habitat –       Land invertebrates   1. Quadrats – collection of leaf litter    Leaf litter near school pond / in Soanes centre/ Mile End
Leaflitter/ tree life                         2. Tree bashing – use of pooters           park.
                                              3. Pitfall traps                           Tree bashing in local square / Soanes centre/ Mile End
                                              Magnifying glasses                         park.
                                              Keys/ cards                                Set pitfall traps up near school pond.

Lawn habitat –           Common lawn/ grass   Transects and quadrats                     Local square
Grasses                  species              Magnifying glasses                         Soanes centre
                                              Keys                                       Mile End Park

Tree bark habitat        Lichens and mosses   Quadrats                                   Local square and surrounding trees.
                                              Magnifying glasses                         Soanes centre
                                              Keys                                       Mile End Park



Once sampling and identification skills acquired this could be extended into longer investigations for a better understanding of ecological
relationships –

1.   Deadwood left in woodland – invertebrate surveys.




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2. Species response to environmental factors - transects off path into verge (probably sweep netting),micro-habitats around gravestones, tree-
    trunks, cracks in headstones. Comparison study of two different habitats (old/ new)
> Both sites
3. Trampling studies – A study across a path along a transect of species composition & plant morphology
4. A comparison of an undisturbed site and trampled site
>Tower Hamlets cemetery – effect on distribution on morphology of Plantgo lanceolata and P.major – leaf angle (relative to ground) and leaf shape
differences as response to trampling (on Cantrell Field)
> Mile End Park – transect down a slope away from a path of how plants change/ comparison of sports area to untrampled
5. Mowed and unmowed area - Mowing regime – long/short grass comparisons, sweep netting for invertebrates
>Mile End Park – Areas in park are only annually mowed; October)
6. Bugs on bushes– tree beating/ sweep netting - pyramids of numbers
>Tower Hamlets cemetery – can compare long grass with fringing trees; species diversity and composition e.g. Cantrell Field
>Mile End Park – sweep netting in long grasses
7. Shade and unshaded areas-
Study specific plants in shade and unshaded (nettles) – leaf area, leaf pigmentation (simple chromatography / FSC colour charts), internode length,
leaf thickness.
8. Contrasting freshwater habitats.
– What species live where and why?
> Tower Hamlets Cemetery – pond near Soanes’Centre for contrasting habitat could compare with grassland/ woodland areas
> Mile End Park - 3 ponds, and an undeveloped pond (in front of Arts Pavilion)
> School pond




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Syllabus Objectives B2b – For lower, standard and higher ability
    1.   Identify organisms as animals or plants
    2.   Identify animals as vertebrates or invertebrates
    3.   Identify vertebrates as fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds or mammals
    4.   Recall that organisms of the same species have more features in common than they do with organisms of a different species
    5.   Recognise that sometimes organisms of the same species may show great variation

    1. Recall that similar species tend to live in similar types of habitats
    2. Recall that closely related species may have different features if they live in different types of habitats
    3. Recall that similar species are closely related in evolutionary terms
    • share a relatively recent ancestor

    1. Explain why some organisms, such as fungi, are classified as neither animal or plant
    2. Explain that similarities and differences between species need to be explained in terms of both evolutionary relationships and
       ecological relationships


Lesson 4 –
   a)  Observe the binomial scheme, present a report on the work of Carl Linneaus
   b)  Consider the plants and animals that were studied in the previous lessons and similarities and differences that occur between them.
   c)  Explain why these similarities/ differences occur with reference to the habitat they are found (ecological relationships and evolutionary
       relationships).
    d) (higher only) Observe fungi and lichen and decide which kingdom they are best placed in.

Keywords –
Species, Classification, Invertebrate, Vertebrate, variation, evolution, ecology

Outdoor practical work –
This lesson is mainly based within the classroom if a lot of habitats have been visited and animals/ plants in previous lessons have already been
identified and adaptations of these species to where they live have already been discussed.




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Objective (d) – Fungi and Lichen hunting.
The Soanes Centre would lend it self to a fungi and lichen walk were pupils were to hunt out and identify fungi species. They should note down where
they are found and consider why they would be located there (what is their niche?). Fungi/lichen key to be used.

Syllabus Objectives B2c –The Food Factory
Objectives not listed as outdoor work not explicit here. These lessons would cover explaining and testing the photosynthesis equation.

Lesson 5/6/7

Syllabus Objectives B2d – For lower, standard and higher ability
    1. State that animals compete for food, water, shelter and mates in order to survive and breed.
    2. Recall that plants compete for light, water and minerals.
    3. Interpret data on the distribution and population size which shows that animals and plants can be affected by competition for limited
       resources.
    4. Recognise organisms as predators or prey:
       • common/well known organisms;
       • when given details of feeding relationships.
    5. Recognise that some organisms rely on the presence of organisms of a different species
       • cleaner species e.g. oxpecker and buffalo (lichens, root nodules, mutualism, parasites)

    1. Explain how competition may influence the distribution and population size of animals or plants, related to the availability of: food, water,
       shelter, light and minerals.
    2. Describe how species of organisms compete in order to survive and breed.
    3. Explain how the size of a predator population will affect the numbers of prey and vice versa.
    4. Explain how the survival of some organisms may depend on the presence of another species.
       • parasitism where the parasite benefits to the host’s detriment e.g. fleas, tapeworms
       • mutualism where both species benefit e.g. cleaner species




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    1. Explain how similar animals in the same habitat will be in close competition (e.g. different species of ladybirds, grey and red
       squirrel).
    2. Explain how similar organisms will compete for the same ecological niche.
    3. Explain how the populations of predators and their prey regulate one another
    • cyclic fluctuations in numbers.
    4. Explain how the interdependence of organisms determines their distribution and abundance.
    5. Explain why nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the root nodules of leguminous plants are an example of mutualism
       • bacteria gain sugars
       • plants gain nitrates

Lesson 8/9/10 Objectives (Depending on number of habitats studied).
   a) Study the relationship between light/ soil pH and species of plants found under a tree canopy; compare results between two different tree
       species. (lower only)
   b) Study the feeding relationships and population numbers in a specific habitat.
   c) Analysis cyclic predator – prey relationships, and predict population changes in differing circumstances.
   d) Discuss concept of parasites and mutualism between species. Observe lichens.
   e) Discuss nitrogen fixing bacteria in root nodules and observe plantain forming a ring around clumps of Lucerne.

Keywords: Predator, prey, symbiotic, parasitism, mutualism, niche, abundance, interdependence, intra-dependence, leguminous plants, abiotic, biotic


Outdoor practical ideas-

Objective a) –
Question – Does plant species abundance change as light intensity changes?
Shade and unshaded – light meters and pH measurements to be taken along a transect running out from tree base for 5 meters (depending on size of
tree canopy). The distribution of species in quadrats to be noted along transects.

Objective b) and c) –
Question – How does the numbers of individuals differ at each trophic level of the feeding chain?




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Identification of invertebrates in habitat and grouping them into herbivore/ carnivore/ omnivore and primary consumer/ secondary consumer/
tertiary consumer. Top carnivore. Recording the frequency.

Habitats that could be used –
Holly Leaf miner study – Holly leaf miners show basic living food chains. They directly can be used to study pyramid of numbers. Discuss also
incorporated of parasites.
Location – holly bushes

Grassland invertebrates –Sample grass by sweet netting, identifying and counting species caught. A comparison could be made between shorter
grass.
Location – Mile End Park has long grass set-a-side. Tower Hamlets Soanes Centre has 2 meadows not cut (this would need to be checked).

Tree invertebrates – sample trees by bashing with sticks with large white sheets held beneath. Invertebrates caught using pooters and identified
and counted. A comparison could be made between 2 different tree species or two areas of wooded habitats.
Location – Mile End Park has younger less developed trees which could be used. Soanes centre has well established trees.

Aquatic invertebrates – sample a pond by using nets. Identify invertebrates caught, group and count. A comparison could be made between
different open and vegetated water areas, between different pond beds (Mile End Park) or different ponds found in two locations. School pond could
be used (!)

Leaf litter Invertebrates – sample area which contains lots of leaf litter by randomly placing quadrats. Identify species, group and count.
Location -Soanes Centre woods would be ideal for this study.

Objective d)
Observing lichens. These are examples of a symbiotic relationship. Relate back to difficulty in classifying this species.
Location – on gravestones and on pathways in both parks.




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Syllabus objectives B2e – For lower, standard and higher ability. Several other objectives are listed for this module that is not suitable for
outdoor work.
    1. Recognise that animals and plants that are adapted to their habitats are better able to compete for limited resources. (and standard ability)

    a) Explain how the adaptations of animals and plants determine their distribution and abundance.

Lessons 11/12 Objectives –
   a) Study a species that has adapted to its environment.
   b) Measure biotic and abiotic factors and consider how changes would enable species to be better suited.


Outdoor Practical Ideas –
Objective a) and B) –
Question -
Grazing-induced defence mechanisms –
Leaf prickliness vs. leaf height in Holly or Density of stinging hairs in nettles
Location – where a holly bush can be found.

Species response to environmental factors – e.g. sun/shade responses in plants (nettles) – leaf area, leaf pigmentation (simple chromatography / FSC
colour charts), internode length, leaf thickness.
Location – nettles in Soanes Centre

Community level responses to tree canopy effects – species composition in sun / shade, ground cover, plant performance – e.g. flowering and seed
production. Does plant height increase at edge of a patch of dense canopy? Is this caused by nutrient drip and increasing light levels? As previously
discussed.




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Syllabus Objectives B2g- For lower, standard and higher ability.

Recall that pollution can affect the number and type of organisms that can survive in a particular place

Explain that there are indicator species whose presence/absence indicates the level of pollution
• water pollution - blood worm, waterlouse, sludgeworm, rat-tailed maggot
• air pollution . lichen
• (details of particular species and pollution
levels indicated not required)

Interpret data on indicator species

Lesson   13/14 objectives –
   a)    Discuss lichens and look at pictures and field information of where many lichens can be found and compared to local environment.
   b)    Complete a pollution survey and consider where most pollution can be found and compare to secondary data.
   c)    Consider species found in school pond and complete research on aquatic invertebrates that are used as water pollution indicator species.

Keywords: Bio indicators, lichens, pollutants,


Outdoor Practical Activities –
Investigate particulate pollution (sticky tape). Transect from a main road in both open and wooded areas/ transect from busy street to open areas.
>Tower Hamlets cemetery – Nice patterns of blackening on branches of sycamore at Railway Grove (next to Cantrell Road)
>Mile End Park – transect from Roman Road into park

Lichens – Line transect from a busy road to the centre of a park counting the abundance of lichens within a quadrat
> on gravestones
> Mile End Park – difficult as not so well established
And compare with national statistics.




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