WNDI 2007 1 Baudrillard K Baudrillard K Shell (1/2) ....................................................................................................................................... 2 Shell (2/2) ....................................................................................................................................... 3 ALTERNATIVES Alte rnative - Photography............................................................................................................ 4 LINKS Link - Perception........................................................................................................................... 4 Link – Discourse (1/2) ................................................................................................................... 4 Link – Discourse (2/2) ................................................................................................................... 5 IMPLICATIONS Kritik Turns Case ......................................................................................................................... 6 Africa not helpless – Reform happening..................................................................................... 7 Africa not helpless – Reform happening..................................................................................... 8 2NC AT: Impact Turn........................................................................................................................... 9 AT: Frame work........................................................................................................................... 10 AT: Pe rmutation ......................................................................................................................... 10 WNDI 2007 2 Baudrillard K Shell (1/2) The West has an unhealthy addiction to financial sacrifice to poor countries. Our media shows Africans as a suffering race, and our aid is just charitable cannibalism. The affirmative is a television show that s hows these exaggerated images of Africa as an savage nation that always needs help. The economic and sentimental exploitation of those in poverty is worse than oppressive violence. By continuing the extortion of the poor we fuel catastrophe, which will lead to the end of history. Jean Baudrillard, Metaphysicist The Illusion of the End 1994 p.92-3 The end of history, being itself a catastrophe, can only be fueled by catastrophe. Managing the end therefore becomes synonymous with the management of catastrophe. And, quite specifically, of that catastrophe which is the slow extermination of the rest of the world. We have long denounced the capitalistic, economic exp loitation of the poverty of the „other half of the world‟. We must boldly denounce the moral and sentimental exp loitation of that poverty - charity cannibalis m being worse than oppressive violence. The ext raction and humanitarian repercussion of a destitution which has become the equivalent of oil deposits and coal mines. The extort ion of poverty and, at the same time, of our charitable condescension: a worldwide appreciated surplus of fine sentiments and bad conscience. We should, in fact, see this not as the extraction of raw materials, but as a waste-reprocessing enterprise. Their destitution and our bad conscience are, in effect, all part of the waste-products of history - the main thing is to recycle them to produce a new energy source. We have here an escalation in the psychological balance of terror. World capitalist oppression is now merely the vehicle and alib i for this other, much more ferocious, form of mo ral predation. One might almost say, contrary to the Marxist analysis, that material exp loitation is on ly there to ext ract that spiritual raw material that is the misery of peoples, which serves as psychological nourishment fo r the rich countries and med ia nourishment for our daily lives. The 'Fourth World' (we are no longer dealing with a 'developing' Third World) is once again beleaguered, this time as a catastrophe-bearing stratum. The West is whitewashed in the reprocessing of the rest of the world as waste and residue. And the white world repents and seeks absolution - it, too, the waste-product of its own history. The South is a natural producer of raw materials, the latest of which is catastrophe. The North, for its part, specializes in the reprocessing of raw materials and hence also in the reprocessing of catastrophe. Bloodsucking protection, humanitarian interference, Medecins sans frontieres, international solidarity, etc. The last phase of colonialism: the New Sentimental Order is merely the latest form of the New World Order. Other people's destitution becomes our adventure playground. Thus, the humanitarian offensive aimed at the Kurds - a show of repentance on the part of the Western powers after allo wing Saddam Hussein to crush them - is in reality merely the second phase of the war, a phase in wh ich charitable intervention fin ishes off the work of extermination. We are the consumers of the ever delightful spectacle of poverty and catastrophe, and of the moving spectacle of our own efforts to alleviate it (wh ich, in fact, merely function to secure the conditions of reproduction of the catastrophe market); there, at least, in the order of mo ral profits, the Marxist analysis is wholly applicable: we see to it that extreme poverty is reproduced as a symbolic deposit, as a fuel essential to the moral and sentimental equilibriu m of the West. In our defence, it might be said that this extreme poverty was largely of our own making and it is therefore normal that we should profit by it. There can be no finer p roof that the distress of the rest of the world is at the root of Western power and that the spectacle of that distress is its crowning glory than the inauguration, on the roof of the Arche de la Defense, with a sumptuous buffet laid on by the Fondation des Droits de l'ho mme, of an exhib ition of the finest photos of world poverty. Should we be surprised that spaces are set aside in the Arche d' Alliance. for universal suffering hallowed by caviar and champagne? Just as the economic crisis of the West will not be comp lete so long as it can still exp loit the resources of the rest of the world, so the symb olic crisis will be comp lete only when it is no longer able to feed on the other half's human and natural catastrophes (Eastern Europe, the Gu lf, the Kurds, Bangladesh, etc.). We need this drug, which serves us as an aphrodisiac and hallucinogen. And the poor countries are the best suppliers - as, indeed, they are of other drugs. We provide them, through our med ia, with the means to exploit this parado xical resource, just as we give them the means to exhaust their natural resources with our technologies. Our whole culture lives off this catastrophic cannibalis m, relayed in cynical mode by the news media, and carried fo rward in mo ral mode by our humanitarian aid, which is a way of encouraging it and ensuring its continuity, just as economic aid is a strategy for perpetuating under-development. Up to now, the financial sacrifice has been compensated a hundredfold by the moral gain. But when the catastrophe market itself reaches crisis point, in accordance with the imp lacable logic of the market, when distress b ecomes scarce or the marg inal returns on it fall fro m overexp loitation, when we run out of disasters fro m elsewhere or when they can no longer be traded like coffee or other co mmodit ies, the West will be forced to produce its own catastrophe for itself, in o rder to meet its WNDI 2007 3 Baudrillard K Shell (2/2) need for spectacle and that voracious appetite for symbols which characterizes it even more than its voracious appetite for food. It will reach the point where it devours itself. When we have finished sucking out the destiny of others, we shall have to invent one for ourselves. The Great Crash, the symbolic crash, will co me in the end fro m us Westerners, but only when we are no longer able to feed on the hallucinogenic misery which co mes to us from the other half of the world. Yet they do not seem keen to give up their monopoly. The Middle East, Bangladesh, black Africa and Lat in America are really going flat out in the d istress and catastrophe stakes, and thus in providing symbolic nourishment for the rich world. They might be said to be overdoing it: heaping earthquakes, floods, famines and ecological disasters one upon another, and finding the means to massacre each other most of the time. The 'disaster show' goes on without any let-up and our sacrificial debt to them far exceeds their economic debt. The misery with wh ich they generously overwhelm us is something we shall never be able to repay. The sacrifices we offer in return are laughable (a tornado or two, a few tiny holocausts on the roads, the odd financial sacrifice) and, mo reover, by some infernal logic, these work out as much greater gains for us, whereas our kindnesses have merely added to the natural catastrophes another one immeasurably worse: the demographic catastrophe, a veritable epidemic which we deplore each day in p ictures. The Alternative is to be like the masses – indifferent and not objects of oppression or manipulation. The alternative would solve by neutralizing all political and starting a silent, but effective revolution. Jean Baudrillard, Profe ssor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School, 1990, Fatal Strategies The best example of this is the masse s. They are not at all an object of oppression and manipulation. The masse s do not have to be liberated and, in any case, they cannot be. All their (transpolitical) power is in being there as pure object —that is to say, in opposing their silence and their absence of desire against any political wish to make them speak. Everyone tries to seduce, solicit, invest them. Atonal, amorphous, abysmal, they exercise a passive and opaque sovereignty; they say nothing, but subtly, perhaps like animals in their brute indifference (although the masse s are ―essentially‖ rather hormonic or endocrinic — that is, antibodies )‗ they neutralize the whole political scene and discourse. If the se seem today so empty, if no stakes, no project can still mobilize a political scene that remains committed to artificial theatrics and the effects of useless power, this i s due to the massive obscenit y of thi s enormous silent antibody and to the retractility of thi s unnameable ―thing‖ that has the absurd bestial power of suction and absorption of the monsters of science fiction: which in effect feeds inertia on all the accelerating energy of the system with t myriad pieces of information that the system secretes to try exorcize thi s inertia and absence. Nothing can be done about it. The masse s are pure object, that which has vani shed from the horizon of the subject that which has di sappeared from the ho rizon of history — just as silence is the pure object that disappears from the horizon the word, and the secret i s the pure object that di sappears eve day from the horizon of meaning. The stupefying power of the mass-as-object. The masse s incarnate the pure object of the political, that is to say the ideal of an absolute power, a power of death over the social body, they are the incarnation of a terrifying dream of power — and at the same time they are its empty object, its null and void materialization, the radical antibody, inaccessible to a political subjectivity and therefore perfectly useless and dangerous. The political scenario is reversed: it‘s no longer power that pulls the masse s in its wake; it‘s the masse s that drag power down to its fall. Likewi se, political men, in the mood, as it were, for seducing the masse s, would do well to ask their selve s if they are not going to be cannibalized in return and if they won‘t have to pay for their simulacrum of power by being devoured, like the male by the fe male after copulation. Anything that was once constituted as an object by subject represents for the latter a virtual death threat. No more than the slave accepts his servi tude does the object accept it compul sory objectivity. The subject can attain only an imaginary mastery of it, ephemeral at all events, but will not escape this insurrection of the object — a silent revolution, but the only one left now. This revolution will not be symbolic, dazzling, and subjective, but obscure and ironic. It won‘t be dialectical, it will be fatal. Against the seduction of every object stripped of its sense, against the possibility for any object to be an object of seduction and dread, any strategy will be a good one. WNDI 2007 4 Baudrillard K Alternative - Photography A camera is a medium that exaggerates the objectivity of a subject and detaches it from the hyperreality. Julian Haladyn (Artist and Writer, Peterborough, Ont ario, Canada). Baudrillard’s Photography: A Hyperreal Disappearance Into The Object?, July 2006 In fact, Baudrillard‟s conception of photography as a mediu m exaggerates the objective ruse of his theoretical investigations by attributing all of the force of both the taking of an image – through the vehicle of the camera – and the subsequent visual representation – of the image as a physical photograph – to the object, which he views as man ipulating the subject (himself) into capturing its image on film. What the viewer witnesses in Baudrillard‟s photographs is the subjectivity of the object through it objectification of the sub ject (Baudrillard as photographer). In his essay “Objects, Images, and the Possibilit ies of Aesthetic Illusion” Baudrillard states that people do not take pictures for their o wn pleasure, but instead that “it‟s the object that wants to be photographed, an d you‟re only a med iu m in its reproduction, secretly attracted and motivated by this self-pro moting surrounding world”.13 The idea of the photographer being a mediu m for the object – a qualifying attribute that I believe he adopted from the art ist Marcel Duchamp,14 who Baudrillard has written about on many occasions – makes possible the transubstantiation of the subject of the photograph to be materialized in the image form of a the photographic object. In his interview with Zurbrugg, Baudrillard also claims that the photographic act is a form o f objective meditation, as he terms it, in which … an object imposes itself – suddenly, one sees it, because of certain effects of light, of contrasts and things like that, it isolates itself and it creates a sense of emptiness. Everything around it seems to disappear, and nothing exists but this particular thing, wh ich you then capture technologically, objectively. Link - Perception News and the media cross the line into the horizon of the virtual. The affirmative portrays Africa as a poor nation whe re the re is constantly death and catastro phe, which dilutes what people actually perceive as Africa. Jean Baudrillard The Illlusion of the End 1994 p.92-3 All the med ia live off the presumption of catastrophe and of the succulent imminence of death. A photo in Liberation, for example, shows us a convoy of refugees 'which, so me time after this shot was taken, was to be attacked by the Iraqi army'. Anticipation of effects, morb id simulat ion, emotional b lackmail. It was the same on CNN with the arrival of the Scuds. Nothing is news if it does not p ass through that horizon of the virtual, that hysteria of the virtual - not in the psychological sense, but in the sense of a compulsion for what is presented, in all bad faith, as real to be consumed as unreal. In the past, to show something up as a fake, we said: 'It's just play-acting', 'It's all ro mance!', 'It's put on for the cameras!'. Th is time, with Ro mania and the Gulf War, we were able to say, 'It's just TV!' Photographic or cinema images still pass through the negative stage (and that of projecti on), whereas the TV image, the video image, digital and synthetic, are images without a negative, and hence without negativity and without reference. They are virtual and the virtual is what puts an end to all negativity, and thus to all reference to the real or to events. At a stroke, the contagion of images, engendering themselves without reference to a real or an imaginary, itself becomes virtually without limits, and this limitless engendering produce s information as cata strophe. Is an image which refers only to itself still an image? However this may be, that image raises the problem of its indifference to the world, and thus of our indifference to it - which is a political problem. When television becomes the strategic space of the event, it sets itsel f up as a deadly self-reference, it becomes a bachelor machine. The real object is wiped out by news – not merely alienated, but abolished. All that remains of it are traces on a monitoring screen. Link – Discourse (1/2) The Affirmative's discourse just imitates a news show that broadcasts images of African WNDI 2007 5 Baudrillard K suffering and spreads racist stereotypes that make it seem like Africa constantly needs aid. Gbemisola Olujobi, Pulitzer Fellow, Annenberg School for Communication – 12/05/06- The Africa You Need To Know- Online- uscpublicdiplomacy.org/pdfs/The_Africa_You_Need_To_Know.pdf I recently found m yself m aking small talk with an airport official in the United States. ―I hear in Africa, people are very poor and hungry, they don‘t have anything to eat,‖ he said. ―I saw a documentary on Africa a few days ago on CNN, and there were all these hungry people, dying children, w ith flies all over their faces...‖ Yeah, I replied hesitantly, not know ing exactly what a correct response should be. My situation w as not helped by 22 hours of travel, which had considerably dulled m y reflexes. ―But you look well-fed,‖ he queried, scanning my generous proportions. I didn‘t exactly like this attention to my physical details, but I had more patriotic worries. I had to let him know that Africa is not one huge expanse of waste, but 54 countries and two islands, in different stages of development, repair, disrepair, and of course, despair. Famine in Niger does not mean hunger in Nigeria, just as war in Liberia does not mean child soldiers in Lesotho. My short lecture had no effect whatsoever on my ―student.‖ His next question was, ―But, what is the problem with Africa?‖ Clearly, nothing I had said could erase the ―huge expanse of waste‖ picture of Africa from his mind. I don‘t blame him . Neither do I blame another official at a different airport who asked me if Africans keep their cowries in banks. He w as quite taken aback when I showed him a few Nigerian Naira notes. I also don‘t blame some of my American friends when they ask me how I ―picked up such good English.‖ Far from picking up good English, I tell them , I have a background of solid British education. My country, Nigeria, was a British Colony until 1960. No one should blame these Rather than educate and people or anyone else who displays such profound ignorance about Africa. enlighten while disseminating fair, balanced and accurate information, it seems all that the western media is keen on showing the West about Africa is backwardness, disease, hunger, want, deprivation, banditry, brigandage, slaughter fields, child soldiers, gang-raped girls, harassed mothers, wasted children, flies feasting on the living and vultures waiting to devour the near-dead. Goodness! Africans of all leanings, from all walks of life and from every part of the continent usually have only one question each time they are faced with these gory media depictions of Africa - ―Where do they get these im ages from?‖ It is not only Africans who do not recognize their continent from the western media. Michael Ledeen, contributing editor of National Review Online, laments this caricaturing of Africa in an article titled ―Out of Africa: ―What The Western World Doesn‘t Understand about the Continent.‖ ―Those of us who love Africa almost never recognize it He says, in the press or the movies. The racist stereotypes of Africans are so deeply ingrained in the guilt-driven worldview of Western elites that it is almost impossible to get to the truth.‖ Link – Discourse (2/2) The affirmative's use of words like “third world,” “developing,” and “savage” are psychologically troubling and reduce Africa to a bastion of disease, savagery, and pove rty. Gbemisola Olujobi, Pulitzer Fellow, Annenberg School for Communication – 12/05/06- The Africa You Need To Know- Online- uscpublicdiplomacy.org/pdfs/The_Africa_You_Need_To_Know.pdf Rod Chavis in ―Africa in the Western Media‖ says, ―Nouns and adjectives like hut, dark, tribe, King Kong, tribalism, primitive, nomad, animism, jungle, cannibal, savage, underdeveloped, third world, developing, etc., are pervasive when Africa is the story. Images of Africa in the Western Media, many times, are deeply WNDI 2007 6 Baudrillard K troubling psychologically and emotionally, especially to those claiming her as primordial heritage, lineage, and descendancy. They portray a no there there: no culture, no history, no tradition, and no people, an abyss and negative void. ―With the stroke of a journalist's pen,‖ Chavis continues, ―the African, her continent, and her descendants are pejoratively reduced to nothing (but)... a bastion of disease, savagery, animism, pestilence, war, famine, despotism, primitivism, poverty, and ubiquitous images of children, flies in their food and faces, their stomachs distended. T hese "universal" but powerfully subliminal message units, beamed at global television audiences, connote something not good, perennially problematic unworthiness, deplorability, black, foreboding, loathing, sub humanity, etc.‖ Hugh Hamilton in ―Ownership, Diversity & Race: Confronting (Mis) Representations of Africa in the US Media‖ also highlights the same thread. ―The dominant images of Africa in American mainstream media are of a dark and desolate continent, riven by tribal conflict, beleaguered by pestilence, poverty and disease, a place of fear and futility...of despair and depression, of a lost people languishing in a lost land somewhere beyond the edge of modern civilization‖ This dehumanization of Africa has become a matter of concern not only to Africans, at home and in the Diaspora, but apparently also to teeming non-Africans who have suckled at Africa‘s generous breasts. Eleven former African heads of state from all over the continent rose from the African Presidential Roundtable, 2005, sponsored by Boston University‘s African Presidential Archives and Research Center (APARC), with a common conclusion. While agreeing, though with nice words, that most African governments have been despotic, corrupt, capricious, inept and thoroughly useless, ―we acknowledge the need for African leadership to be accountable relative to matters like good governance, peace and stability, and transparency in our economies,‖ they lamented what they described as ―Africa's image in the American media.‖ Kritik Turns Case Kritik turns case – The negative portrayals of Africa that the aff spreads have a bad outcome on level of aid and investment in Africa. Gbemisola Olujobi, Pulitzer Fellow, Annenberg School for Communication – 12/05/06- The Africa You Need To Know- Online- uscpublicdiplomacy.org/pdfs/The_Africa_You_Need_To_Know.pdf How does this negative portrayal affect Africa‘s fortunes? These former heads of state, who should know, because of their former and WNDI 2007 7 Baudrillard K relatively still vantage positions, were unanimous that this negative portrayal ―has profound relevance to everything — including the world considering Africa as a worthy investment venue and viewing Africa as a valuable trading partner...it is reasonable to posit that negative perceptions lead to negative outcomes, namely, lower levels of aid and lower levels of investment.‖ Facts are sacred and the truth must be told. Despite generous human and natural endowments, Africa is home to 32 of the 38 highly indebted countries of the world and remains the only continent where the proportion of the population in extreme poverty is growing. 36. 2 percent of Africans live below a dollar a day. Most African countries are at the bottom of the United Nations‘ overall Human Development Index (HDI), which also measures education, life expectancy, GDP and other indicators of development. The overwhelming majority of African countries are not on target to meet any of the Millennium Development Goals agreed at the United Nations in 2000. Sad, but all true. But those who make a living out of showing Africa‘s soiled behind to the world should also be fair enough to show her fair side. Ignoring one side of the story means readers and viewers are only getting half of the story. And half-truth, as the saying goes, is half- lie. To bring it home, it is like saying all there is to America is Hurricane Katrina, Skid Row, Oklahoma bombing, congressmen and congressional pagers, serial killers, child molesters and snipers. It is like airing only ―American Justice,‖ ―America‘s Most Wanted,‖ ―Dark Heart: Iron Hand,‖ ―Lock-Up,‖ ―Skeleton Stories‖ and ―To Catch A Predator‖ in Africa and implying somehow that ―This is America.‖ Yes, bad things happen everywhere, not only in Africa! Carol Pineau highlights this lopsidedness in the documentary titled ―Africa Open for Business.‖ ―Yes, Africa is a land of wars, poverty and corruption. The situation in places like Darfur, Sudan, desperately cries out for more media attention and international action. But Africa is also a land of stock markets, high rises, internet cafes and a growing middle class. This is the part of Africa that functions. And this Africa also needs media attention, if it is to have any chance of fully joining the global economy.‖ Africa not helpless – Reform happening Africa is not the helpless continent that the affirmative tries to portray it as. It has had many economic reforms, and is transitioning to de mocracy. Gbemisola Olujobi, Pulitzer Fellow, Annenberg School for Communication – 12/05/06- The Africa You Need To Know- Online- uscpublicdiplomacy.org/pdfs/The_Africa_You_Need_To_Know.pdf WNDI 2007 8 Baudrillard K A 2005 study of African coverage by Boston University also revealed nothing about fewer civil wars, economic growth or increased access to education on the continent. The survey studied coverage of Africa between 1994 and 2004 in the New York Times, Washington Post, Wall Street Journal, USA Today, US News and World Report. Disasters in Somalia, Rwanda and West Africa dominated, while transitions to democracy in Nigeria, Ghana, South Africa, Namibia, Mozambique and elsewhere were ignored. Also grievously ignored by the western media is the fact that a good number of African countries have made real progress over the last few years. In 2005 alone, Africa posted an unprecedented growth of 4.5 percent, which prompted Haiko Alfeld, Africa Director at the World Economic Forum, to declare that the African continent has "emphatically and irreversibly turned the corner." In its review of 2005, a year widely acclaimed as ―The Year of Africa,‖ the World Economic Forum reports ―a new resolve (by Africans) to promote the African business and investment climate. Many African countries extended economic reforms and put in place structures to fight corruption.‖ Really? Would someone please tell the whole world that Africans are capable of helping themselves, and that they are not helpless, hapless and hopeless? Africa not helpless – Reform happening The disaster pornography that the affirmative spreads shows little light on the progress that Africa has been making, and simply concentrates on all the problems it has been having. Gbemisola Olujobi, Pulitzer Fellow, Annenberg School for Communication – 12/05/06- The Africa You Need To Know- Online- uscpublicdiplomacy.org/pdfs/The_Africa_You_Need_To_Know.pdf Uganda has reduced HIV from 20% in 1991 to around 6.5% in 2001, showing that with political will, the tide of an epidemic can be turned. In 1973, only three African Heads of State were elected. Today, 40 countries have had multi-party elections. Two years ago major conflicts affected 19 countries in Africa. Today it affects only three countries. The World Bank also reports that countries like Senegal, Mozambique, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Uganda and Ghana are on course to meet the target of halving poverty by 2010 - five years ahead of schedule. Botswana, with soaring literacy rates, has doubled, some say tripled, its school enrolment figures. South Africa boasts of sustained economic growth. Rwanda has the highest number of women in parliament in the whole world. Even war-torn Liberia achieved the distinction of putting the first elected African WNDI 2007 9 Baudrillard K female head of state into the global club of female heads of government. These giant strides are, however, lost in what has been described as ―disaster pornography,‖ a disturbing trend in western media tradition, which tallies with Ezekiel Makunike‘s assertion that ―for American readers or viewers to be interested, news out of Africa must be negative. It must conform to the traditional stereotypes in its spotlight on grotesque and sensational events. It must show misery, corruption, mismanagement, starvation, primitive surroundings and, as in the case of Somalia, chaos and outright anarchy.‖ Rakiya Omaar and Alex de Waal in ―Disaster Pornography from Somalia‖ tell of ―pictures of grotesque human degradation, with foreign angels of mercy ministering to starving children, juxtaposed with images of trigger-happy teen-age looters‖ Putting an indelible question mark on disaster journalism, they say, ―Reduced to nameless extras in the shadows behind Western aid workers or disaster tourists, the grieving, hurting and humiliated human beings are not asked if they want to be portrayed in this degrading way.‖ Has anyone ever considered this? They also reveal that ―Somali doctors and nurses have expressed shock at the conduct of film crews in hospitals. They rush through crowded corridors, leaping over stretchers, dashing to film the agony before it passes. They hold bedside vigils to record the moment of death. When the Italian actress Sophia Loren visited Somalia, the paparazzi trampled on children as they scrambled to film her feeding a little girl - three times. This is disaster pornography.‖ Richard Ngamba, in ―Reporting Africa in Western Media Style‖ also relates an interesting experience while collaborating with some western journalists during the filming of the documentary titled "Darwin Nightmare," in Mwanza City, on the southern shores of Lake Victoria He says, ―... in the documentary, it is claimed that the presence of the fishing industry has caused the outbreak of street children in Mwanza, with most of them eating parking materials used by fish processors to pack their fillets, because they can't afford to buy fish. ―Yes, in this documentary you can see street children gathered at Kamanga ferry area in Mwanza, trying to cook their food with their faces showing sorrow and grief, but this is a fiction which was directed and paid for by the authors of this documentary. AT: Impact Turn The cost of the pseudo-event that the affirmative puts forward is a lack of investment that turns the case advantages and a pe rpetuation of prejudices that exacerbate the proble ms. Gbemisola Olujobi, Pulitzer Fellow, Annenberg School for Co mmunication – 12/ 05/06- The Africa You Need To WNDI 2007 10 Baudrillard K Know- Online- uscpublicdiplo macy.org/pdfs/The_Africa_ You_Need_To_Know.pdf “The facts is that all street children seen in this film cooking food were paid between Tshs 1000/- and Tshs 5000/- by the producers of the film and then directed to do what they are doing, paving the way for my guests to film what they then termed "striking images." Strange and disturbing revelations indeed! Are these “striking images” of disaster actually man- made “pseudo-events,” planned, contrived, concocted and synthesized for believability? Dan iel Boorstin describes pseudo -events as “more vivid, more attract ive, more imp ressive, and more persuasive than reality itself.” So what is the cost of these attractive, impressive, persuasive, enticing and highly believable “pseudo-events” to Africa? Wilson Rutayisire, post-genocide Director of Rwanda Informat ion Services says "the way Africa is covered in the international media is n ot only charged with a partisan view but also responsible, to no small measure, for the perpetuation of prejudices that exacerbate Africa's problems. “Although the media coverage Africa receives is not the principal cause of the problems Africa faces, it provides the superstructure with in wh ich Africa is perceived and foreign policies on Africa are prescribed.” According to Carol Pineau, it ... “comes at a high cost, even ... the cost of lives. Stories about hardship and tragedy aim to tug at our heartstrings, getting us to dig into our pockets or urge Congress to send more aid. But no country or region ever developed thanks to aid alone. Investment, and the job and wealth creat ion it generates is the only road to lasting development. That is how Ch ina, India and the Asian tigers did it. “Yet while A frica, according to the U.S. Govern ment's Overseas Private Investment Corporation, o ffers the highest return in the world on direct foreign investment, it attracts the least. Unless investors see the Africa that is worthy of investment, they won't put their money into it. And that lack of investment translates into job stagnation, continued poverty and limited access to education and health care.” Rwandan President, Pau l Kagame also says, "The constant negative reporting kills the growth of foreign direct investment. There has even been a suggestion that it is meant to keep Africa in the backyard of the global economy.” AT: Framework A. Counter-Interpretation – Debates should be about questioning looking at our language and assumptions as well as the effects of the plan. B. Standards 1. Increases Negative Ground 2. Language – you chose the words you said and you had infinite prep time to prep arguments defending them. There are millions of DAs and CPs so there's no abuse. 3. Topic specific education – We have to make new links every year and tailor our impacts for the topic. It allows us to go deeper into policy arguments. And DAs aren‟t different each year; people always run spending or federalism. 4. Kritiks are key to analyzing impacts, words, and links. Analyzing language is necessary to make sure nasty slurs aren‟t used in the debate round. The affirmative could say extremely offensive things and not lose. 5. Our Kritik is an impact turn to your framework because only a kritikal framework allows us to deconstruct the dangerous representations of Africans and the ways that those representations that we engage in every day are oppressive and problematic. C. Even if we lose evaluate impacts in our framework, and reject argument not the team. AT: Permutation A. They still link: if they include plan, they still link to the kritik because plan links. B. Plan undermines alternative: There's no way to solve for our alternative if the plan is included WNDI 2007 11 Baudrillard K C. It's Severance: you chose the words that you said in 1AC; if you aren‟t defending those words then we can‟t criticize your language and that‟s severance. It kills negative ground because you shift out of any links. It also kills education; no in-depth debates because you sever out of links. Voter on fairness: you made the debate unfair; because if we start to kritik any of your language you can just sever out of it. D. Impossible: there are some things that are mutually exclusive; it‟s impossible.
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