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Why do some feed factories earn profits while others don’t? Why do feed of some factories sell well? The reason behind is technical design and equipment selection.
September | October 2010 Feature title: Technical design and equipment: Key to improving feed quality and nutrition International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2009 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058 The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry F: Equipment F: Equipment adjusted or the materials should be added duction of premix feed after pelleting. 3: In case of change of for- As the core process of feed production, mula, the mixer should batching accuracy has a direct impact on be thoroughly cleaned to feed composition and nutrition absorption avoid cross contamination of the animals. As a result, the feed nutrition 4: Premix should be sepa- can be balanced only with appropriate rated from major mixing batching system. process in order to pre- The batching process has a important vent cross contamination effect on batching accuracy and composi- 5: The transportation distance Technical design and equipment tion. The major technical improvements lie and height of materials in following aspects: after batching should be as Key to improving feed 1: The batching scale must be checked regularly so as to ensure measure- ment accuracy of batching equipment short as possible and no conveying equipment like pneumatic device should be quality and nutrition 2: The formula should be right and the raw materials can be replaced 3: The materials should be fed at proper adopted as it would cause separation of materials speed Impact of pelleting by Shao Jianxin, Engineer, ZCME, China 4: The control system should be correct on feed nutrition 5: The batching equipment must be 1. Pellet quality control: pellet W operated in correct way quality is the precondition of feed nutri- must be unsaturated steam, free from con- hy do some feed facto- With the same level of raw material and after repeated grind would decrease 40 6: The batching equipment should tion which must be strictly manipulated. densed water so as to ensure enough ‘pasting’ ries earn profits while formula, the quality of feed only depends percent. be clean so as to avoid cross The conditioning quality is the primary of starch and prevent machine blockage due others don’t? Why do on process technology and equipment The key point of grain size control contamination control point of pellet quality which to too much moisture. The steam must go feed of some factories performance. technology is to grind each raw material 7: The batching process especially the includes temperature, time, water and through a water trap and a pressure reducing sell well? The reason behind is technical As the digest system of chicken, pig, fish, to the best size suitable for digestion so as use of medicine should be carefully ‘pasting degree’ of starch. A second- valve before entering the conditioner. design and equipment selection. shrimp and pet varies, feed of different size to ensure the batch feed can acquire best recorded ary control and degree of ripeness are demanded. It raising efficiency and economic profit. It is No-error computer control technology point covers Choosing skilled feed engineering con- is one of the important methods for the mandatory to study the best digestion size is adopted to manipulate batching accuracy. powder structors and comprehensive solutions modern feed companies to improve prod- of each raw material for different animals as Micro additives can be premixed and rate, cooling The event that GROWiNG iS providers are also vital for the success of uct quality by upgrading process technology. shown in Table 1. batched and high accurate batching system tempera- a company. The factors affecting feed quality can be Impact of grain size on feed nutrition Generally, grain size should take con- Pulverization and micro-pulverization must be applied for aquatics feed. can be adopted. ture, mois- ture, blade- will energize your BUSINESS beautiful summed up in three aspects, namely: sideration of many factors like feeding Research has shown that carp feed ratio Impact of mixing even degree • The quality of raw material method, process costs, capacity and growing could raise 5-10 percent if the screen of conformity on nutrition and water • The feed formula characteristics of animals. grinder has been reduced from 1.5mm, Conformity is vital for feed quality as it durability • The process technology Its empirical value should be no more 1.2mm to 1.0mm, 0.8mm, 0.6mm. As a will determine whether the animal can get of the feed. than 1/3 of the diameter result, grain size has a markable influence full nutrition from the feed. The air balance To meet VI INTERNATIONAL AQUACULTURE Table 1: International best grinding particle size of pellet. on variation of nutrition. between mixing bin and mixer also has an the above EXHIBITION Appropriate grain size Grain with excessive small or big diam- impact on nutrition. require- Best size can improve digestion eter could break into layers which would Too big finish product bins and pellet ments man- recommended Animal Raise stage (µm) rate of the nutritious affect the digestion rate of feed nutrition. It bins and too long transportation lines will ufacturers element. Research has is only by selecting proper technical design, destroy conformity of feed and reduce the need proper shown that if the even professional company and equipment can conversion rate of the animal. steam supply Ablactation 0~14d 300 size of corn feed for sow good quality feed be made. It is critical to choose the right mixer, and control Pork Ablactation 14~35d 400 is reduced from 1200um mixing period and feeding method in order systems, Grice ≤500�Corn� to 400um, its digestion Impact of batch on to ensure conformity and nutrition. The conditioning, Fattening pig 500~600�Corn� rate could be raised by feed nutrition control of mixing conformity covers mixing pelleting, 14 percent, dry materi- Formula is a major impact factor for feed feed, concentrated feed, additives, premix cooling and October 20th to 23rd Sow 500~600�Corn� als in manure could be nutrition and pellet quality. Formula with feed and liquid feed. screening Puerto Montt - Chile Growing pig 15~30kg 323(batch) www.aqua-sur.cl reduced by 21 percent high content of grain like corn and soybean The technical improvements in batching equipment Dorking 700~900�Corn� and the nitrogen would cannot produce high quality pellet feed due process have the following aspects: with all be lowered by 31 percent. to the lack of natural bond. 1: Proper mixer must be selected to control 900 Over grind could lead Addition of highly cohesive wheat can ensure conformity parameters Last available stands: book now! Beef cattle 1~1.5cm�straw�corn stalk� María Paz / firstname.lastname@example.org / +56-2 756 5402 / +56-9 9547 7589 to more consumption of improve pellet quality. 2: The materials should be added in cor- scientifically FRANCE / 00 33 2 97 40 42 09 2~7cm�corn energy, less capacity and It is necessary to combine each element rect order with big materials added adjusted. stock�hay� Our hydrolysates have a superior concentration of Natural Active Nutrients TM destroy of nutrition of in the formula and keep fat to lowest at first and small ones added later. All The steam SponSorS organizerS Thanks to their biological action on fish and shrimp growth mechanisms, Fish ≤0.5mm�batch� they boost your feed performance and help you substituting fish meal. feed. The research data limit. In case of large proportion of adding materials should be added in proper fed into con- Shrimp 150~175 proves that VA of pellet materials, the condition process should be amount and order especially for pro- 12 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | September-october 2010 ditioning units email@example.com - www.aquativ-diana.com IAF10-05.indd 13 07/09/2010 14:55 32 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | September-october 2010 September-october 2010 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 33 F: Equipment F: Equipment F: Binders Table 2: Anti-nutritional factors of common raw materials of feed Anti- ing of feed with vitamins is as Table 1: Composition of test dietsfor specific material of specific size of security, Results and nutrition of sanitation of anti-nutrition factory and keep vita- following: temperature ≥90°C, animals.Ingredientdenaturation hasDiet PBP feed,UF is necessary h i n g Protein little it Table 2: Leaching rate enzymes uptake of test diets L e a c to equip residue- mins; and water preparation cannot only nutritional Diet WG Diet factors Distribution Inhibit function moisture≥15%, time ≥60 seconds. influence on amino acid but improves free conveyor and bins, apply scientific Sample rate and water Diet effect Diet PBP erase toxicWG of feed but also provide Diet UF As a result, it is necessary to its absorption rate greatly so that of cleaning and technology uptake - Analysis sequencing. a health function. Corn gluten 11 11 12,5 Protease Pea seed, beet Restrain activity of trypsin and pepsin, facilitate secrete of choose formulation with sound protein can be highly utilised. Heat treatment technology should be for leaching rates Getting rid of anti-nutrition factors in thermal stability. A good pellet Fish meal 20 6. The impact of post-cooking: after 20 20 applied which includes cooking atWater uptake materials has 105,13% vital in selec- and water uptake high raw 107,63% become 89,89% inhibitor broomcorn pancreas Rapeseed, cabbage, conditioner, correct air admission 31 conditioning,flour ‘paste’ degree and Wheat the 31 31 were done high-pressure rate of process technology and equipment. temperature, extrusion, at Leaching tion 7,75% 8,29% 6,75% Glucoside Kale, etc Prohibit growth, increase cardiolipin and reduce appetite and mixing methods are also the water durability of pellet should be Pro-Bind Plus - 2 treatment and ultraviolet irradiation, etc. - the labora- Feed quality and nutrition can be only Impair intestinal wall, lose more endogenous protein, inhibit vital factors for pelleting process. improved, however, some thermal With the comprehensive application of ibility as verifiable in Lemos et al. technol- tory of CreveTec. be guaranteed using professional (2009). Wheat gluten 2 - - Lectin Pea seed growth 3. Feed enzymes: pellet proc- alert vitamins are destroyed. As a the above technology, the finish pellet Feed and equipment. With the development Leaching was done during one ogy samples with PPD (Predicted Protein Urea-formaldehyde ess also affects feed enzyme and result, it is better to use- formulations - 0,5 hour satisfactory quality and Digestibility) from 90.7 to of professional feed can obtain in fresh water. of nutrition, technicians 92.0% may be Pea seed and cake, other microbials. Other * 7,5 with sound thermal stability or apply 7,5 7,5 nutrition. As could be expected company of high to better methods to consideredcan work out very high protein Tannin etc Weaken absorption of protein, carbohydrates Enzyme and microbial are bio- improved coating technology so the Crude protein 37,74 38,01 38,05 from previous results, the digestibility anti-nutrition factors and make eliminate diets. injures gastric mucous membrane, destroy metabolization of Gossypol Cottonseed and cake protein and iron logical products, the activity of as to Crude lipid nutrition values 8,66 preserve 8,61 of Impact of technical process 8,63 inclusion of ureumformal- more contribution in improving feed quality which are usually damaged under the feed as much as possible; which dehyde reduces in feed can Growth trial The anti-nutrition factors the water and nutrition. Interfere biological effectiveness of mineral elements, form protein Crude fibers 2,92 2,91 2,94 Phytic acid Pea seed complex the comprehensive function of is mostly used in the production of uptake that cause disease of pigs andinpets and retard turn reduces Experimental system - Shrimp were put Ash content 6,44 6,48 6,47 high temperature, humidity and aquatics feed or special aquatics feed the growth the leaching rate. The values process. As they are closely in 12 nets of 150 liters each. The nets were Saponine Soybean Destroy absorption of nutrition, reduce appetite * Canola, Soybeanexample. oil, Soybean lecithin, pressure. It is reported that the for shrimp for meal, Fish related with for the three diets are within process technology, nutrition- submerged in a bigger tank, which is con- Lignin Pasture Destroy absorption of nutrition, reduce appetite premix More inforMation: activity of phytase drops by 87.5 7. Impact of storage and transportation: standards. ists have developed many methods to elimi- nected to a biofloc reactor. Water quality Alkaloid Pasture Reduce appetite, inhibit growth percent at temperatures of over cross contamination usually takes nate anti-nutrition factors. is maintained through bioflocs and is the ZCME Facilitate pasting of materials inside enteron, weaken absorption 80�. place during storage and transporta- binders or natural binders on the digest- Digestibility Floor all nets. There were four replicates However, the nutrition elements same in 25th, Friendship Building No.159 NSP Grain feed of nutrition Zhao Jia Bang Rd Shanghai So the utilisation rate of N.P. will of the feeds in transportation ibilitytion. Residue growth of shrimp vehi- feed would lose feed were analysed in The three samples of at the same time. for each diet. PC:200032 be affected. The microbe addi- cles, bins, buffer hoppers and process Extrusion digestibility with the pH stat for in vitroand expansion at high tempera- PR China Meanwhile, the flow rate of steam must High temperature conditioner with short tives in the feed is especially reactive Material and Methods contami- equipment could cause cross ture can improve by Lemos et and limit Shrimp21 64188282 method, as described feed quality al (2009). Tel:+86 be matched to the feeding rate. As a result, time (60-160 seconds) can kill bacteria. to high temperature so that its activity Diets - Three different diets were are nation. Harmful microbe and pests for- lost of nutrition; anoxia sterilisation could DH values were used to predict protein Each net 64163299 Fax:+86 21 was stocked with 25 shrimp steam with proper characteristics is a Many conditioners of this type have been will be lost completely if the pellet also source of Feeds were pelleted mulated (see table). cross contamination. on kill bacteria effectively models relating digestibility by separateand keep vitamins; (Litopenaeus vannamei) of 12-13g each. precondition of pellet quality. developed in several countries. The durabil- temperature exceeds 85�. It is better To meet increasingly high demand ingredients or could eliminate vivo digest- a 2mm die. fermentation diet DH to in toxic effect They were acclimatised in the nets during Technical improvements of steam pres- ity of feed at high temperature should also to coat enzyme after pelleting or sure and flow rate covers following aspects be considered during conditioning. to use enzymes with better thermal to ensure high quality of feed: 1: Materials with bad durability under stability. 1: Control the conditioning of meals, high temperature and poor ‘strength’ 4. Impact on anti-nutrition factors: including the adding of steam and oil, should avoid conditioning at high part of anti-nutrition factors and and check the quality of steam and keep a good record of it temperature. Instead, they should be coated later so as to ensure pellet harmful substances will be killed during the conditioning of pellet. fr Contact us bout 2: Control the product from the pellet mill and keep record of it quality. 2. The impact on vitamins: it is vulner- Anoxia sterilisation before pelleting can kill various bacteria effectively o more info apowder Hemoglobin 3: Control the cooling time, moisture able to increase conditioning time and improve feed quality. It has been and temperature of feed in accord- and raise temperature as the vitamins a key research subject for profes- ance with the room temperature and with poor thermal stability would be sional technicians. moisture easily lost during the pelleting process. Animals have different reactions to the 4: Control the fat coated on the surface Vitamins like A, E, C, thiamine hydro- same anti-nutrition factors as its spe- of feed chloride, etc will be killed rapidly cies and age vary. The anti-nutrition 5: Check the hardness of pelleted feed as the temperature and conditioning factors can be divided into positive and keep good records time is raised. inhibitors for carbohydrate, miner- Conditioning process is vital for pellet The critical condition for condition- als and prolease, etc. The pelleting quality. The mixed materials with process adopts conditioning, high content of grain usually stay high temperature extrusion for at least 40-60 seconds in the methods to weaken the anti- conditioner. SO NATURAL nutrition factors as listed in Meanwhile, the temperature Table 2 to maximum limit. inside the conditioner should be 5. Impact of pellet on starch kept between 85-98� to improve and protein: the starch would Natural ingredients for aqua feed • Pro-Bind Plus, a nutritional, gelatin based pellet binder, Whether you’re looking for a natural EU especially for pelleted (shrimp) feed. ‘pasting’ of starch. Materials with become ‘pasted’ and protein and USDA approved pellet binder for your • Blood meal, a ﬁsh meal alternative, especially for high fibers must stay for shorter would be denaturated after production of stable pellets or nature’s best carnivorous ﬁsh species. time in the conditioner. In case of conditioning so that the ani- alternatives for ﬁsh meal, you can contact • Muco-Pro®, high contents of natural proteins, addition of liquids like molasses, mal can digest and aborb the Sonac. Sonac produces valuable and essential amino acids and peptides. the materials should stay longer in starch and protein better. ingredients for the production of aqua feed. • Hemoglobin Powder, high protein content and good conditioner (maximum 30 minutes) However, it is the technical digestibility, for better feed conversion so that it would absorb molasses issue of a professional com- www.sonac.biz fully. pany to determine the raw 10 | | InternatIonal AquAFeed | September-october 2010 34 InternatIonal AquAFeed | September-october 2010 September-october 2010 | | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 35 September-october 2010 InternatIonal AquAFeed | 11 This digital re-print is part of the September | October 2010 edition of International Aquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. LINKS Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. VO L U M E 1 3 I S S U E 5 2 0 1 0 • See the full issue Influence of natural and artificial binders - in feeds for Litopenaeus vannamei • Visit the International Aquafeed website on digestibility & growth Ecobiol Aqua - the effective single strain probiotic • Contact the International Aquafeed Team A general overview aquaculture in the EU Abalone feed development in South Africa • Subscribe to International Aquafeed THE INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINE FOR THE AQUACULTURE FEED INDUSTRY Member of the World Aquaculture Society, European Aquaculture Society, American Feed Industry Association and the International Aquafeed Association IAF10-05.indd 1 07/09/2010 14:54 To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link above. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE www.aquafeed.co.uk
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