ORIGINS OF INDIAN REMOVAL

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					ORIGINS OF INDIAN REMOVAL
IN THE LATE 1780S U.S. OFFICIALS BEGAN TO URGE
THE CHEROKEES TO ABANDON HUNTING AND THEIR
TRADITIONAL WAYS OF LIFE AND TO INSTEAD LEARN
HOW TO LIVE, WORSHIP, AND FARM LIKE CHRISTIAN
AMERICAN YEOMEN.


DESPITE CHEROKEE EFFORTS TO BECOME FARMERS
AND ―CIVILIZED‖ IN THE WHITE SETTLERS’ MINDS,
THEY CONTINUED TO STRUGGLE AGAINST SETTLER
ENCROACHMENT UPON THEIR LANDS.
   GEORGIA COMPACT OF 1802
THOMAS JEFFERSON MADE A COMPACT WITH THE STATE OF
GEORGIA IN 1802 TO ASSIST GEORGIA REMOVE ITS CHEROKEE
INDIANS IF THE STATE AGREED TO EXTINGUISH ITS CLAIMS TO
WESTERN LANDS (PRESENT DAY ALABAMA AND MISSISSIPPI).

TO ASSIST IN BRINGING PRESSURES FOR REMOVAL THE STATE OF
GEORGIA ADOPTED A NUMBER OF REPRESSIVE ACTS DEPRIVING
INDIANS OF PREVIOUSLY RECOGNIZED RIGHTS INCLUDING THE
OPPORTUNITY TO TESTIFY IN COURT AS WELL AS LEGISLATION
PROVIDING FOR A LOTTERY FOR DISTRIBUTION TO WHITES OF
INDIAN LANDS HISTORICALLY OWNED AND PRESENTLY OCCUPIED
BY THE CHEROKEES.
     The Supreme Court Historical
              Society

Read the following article written by Rennard J.
 and William M. Strickland regarding ―The
 Court and the Trail of Tears.‖

 See the following website:
     www.supremecourthistory.org/04_library/
     subs_volumes/04_c15_e.html
       The Cherokee Phoenix
       ―Present Crisis in the Condition
          of the American Indians‖
                   No. XX
Discusses the obligations of the Georgia
Compact of 1802
         http://www.wcu.edu/library/
        CherokeePhoenix/Vol2/no40/
           pg1col5cPg2col4b.htm
         Confederation Era Treaties
   BRITISH PEACE TREATY OF 1783 ABANDONED INDIAN
    ALLIES

   INITIAL AMERICAN POLICY TREATED ALL INDIAN TRIBES,
    EVEN FORMER ALLIES, AS CONQUERED PEOPLES AND
    DICTATED TERMS
     – ABANDONED POLICY DUE TO INDIAN RESISTANCE

   1784 -TREATY OF FORT STANWIX WITH ONEIDA AND
    TUSCARORA
   1785-86 - TREATIES OF HOPEWELL WITH CHEROKEE,
    CHOCTAW, CHICKASAW
   1785-89 - TREATIES WITH SHAWNEE, WYANDOTT,
    DELAWARE, CHIPPEWA, OTTAWA
     EMERGENCE OF INDIAN
         DEPARTMENT
 WAR DEPARTMENT APPOINTED INDIAN
  AGENTS
 OFFICE OF INDIAN TRADE (1806)
 BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS (1824)
 FORMALIZED BY CONGRESS IN WAR
  DEPARTMENT (1832)
 TRANSFERRED TO DEPARTMENT OF THE
  INTERIOR (1849)
        NEW MADRID EARTHQUAKES,
               1811-1812
   In the past three centuries, major earthquakes outside of
    California and Alaska generally occurred in sparsely-settled
    areas, and damage and fatalities were largely minimal. But
    some took place in areas that have since been heavily built
    up.
   Among them are three earthquakes that occurred in 1811
    and 1812 near New Madrid, Missouri. They are among the
    Great Earthquakes of Known History, affecting the
    topography more than any other earthquake on the North
    American continent.
   Judging from their effects, they were of a magnitude of 8.0
    or higher on the Richter Scale. They were felt over the entire
    United States outside of the Pacific coast. Large areas sank
    into the earth, new lakes were formed, the course of the
    Mississippi River was changed, and forests were destroyed
    over an area of 150,000 acres.
    DEVELOPMENTS IN INDIAN
           COUNTRY
 CHEROKEES AND OTHER TRIBES HELD
  RICH AGRICULTURAL LANDS
 CHEROKEE CONSTITUTION ADOPTED IN
  1827
 GOLD DISCOVERED IN CHEROKEE
  COUNTRY IN 1829
 ACTIVE MISSIONARY ACTIVITIES IN
  CHEROKEE COUNTRY THROUGH BOARD
  OF FOREIGN MISSIONARIES
                JAMES VANN

   BORN TO A SCOTS
    TRADER NAMED VANN
    AND A CHEROKEE
    WOMAN, WAHLI, IN
    1768, JAMES VANN
    BECAME AN
    INFLUENTIAL CHEROKEE
    WITH VARIOUS
    BUSINESSES ALONG THE
    FEDERAL ROAD WHICH
    FORKED THROUGH THE
    CHEROKEE NATION IN
    THE EARLY 1800s.
EDUCATION OF THE CHEROKEE
 WHILE THE MORAVIANS, WHO ESTABLISHED
  SPRINGPLACE MORAVIAN MISSION, PRIMARILY
  WANTED TO BRING THE GOSPEL TO THE
  CHEROKEE, JAMES VANN FOCUSED UPON THE
  EDUCATION OF CHEROKEE CHILDREN.
 JAMES VANN CONTRIBUTED TO THE
  EDUCATION OF MEN AND WOMEN WHO LATER
  BECAME LEADERS IN THE CHEROKEE NATION—
  ELIAS BOUDINOT, JOHN BOUDINOT, JOHN
  RIDGE, SARAH RIDGE, STAND WAITIE AND
  JOSEPH VANN.
     JAMES VANN KILLED, 1809
   SHOT BY AN UNIDENTIFIED MURDERER IN
    1809, JAMES VANN WILLED HIS ENTIRE
    ESTATE TO HIS ELEVEN-YEAR-OLD SON,
    JOSEPH.

   THE COUNCIL OF CHIEFS DECLARED THIS
    UNFAIR AND INTERVENED TO GIVE AT LEAST A
    FEW SLAVES AND LIVESTOCK TO THE
    REMAINING VANN CHILDREN AND WIDOWS
    (EIGHT CONSORTS AND NINE CHILDREN).
        ―RICH JOE‖ VANN
 SETTLED IN 1814, JAMES VANN’S ESTATE
  AWARDED JOSEPH VANN THE HOUSE,
  LAND AND ALL OF HIS FATHER’S
  BUSINESSES.
 ―RICH JOE‖ VANN BECAME AN EVEN
  BETTER BUSINESSMAN THAN HIS
  FATHER AND AN INSTRUMENTAL VOICE
  IN THE CHEROKEE LEGISLATURE.
                 GOLD IN GEORGIA
Although gold was found all the way from
Virginia to Alabama, a particularly rich belt
was discovered on Cherokee Indian land in
Georgia, near what was to become
Dahlonega, in 1828, causing a huge influx
of miners.

First the frontier town of Auraria sprang up
around the mines, then nearby Dahlonega
(from the Cherokee language, meaning
"yellow money") edged her out as the
newly-formed Lumpkin County seat.

Thousands of gold seekers flooded into
North Georgia between 1828 to 1847 starting
the nation’s first major gold rush.
No documented evidence for gold in Georgia is found
until August 1, 1829, when a Milledgeville
newspaper, the Georgia Journal, ran the following
notice.

  GOLD.—A gentleman of the first respectability in
  Habersham county, writes us thus under date of 22d
  July: "Two gold mines have just been discovered in
  this county, and preparations are making to bring
  these hidden treasures of the earth to use." So it
  appears that what we long anticipated has come
  to pass at last, namely, that the gold region of
  North and South Carolina, would be found to extend
  into Georgia.
            THE FIRST ―SHINERS‖
   THE FIRST COINS, EIGHTY
    HALF-EAGLES, WERE STRUCK BY
    THE MINT ON APRIL 21, 1838.

   Because of a high silver content,
    these first coins had a slightly
    different color (often described as
    green gold), when compared to
    the ones minted at Philadelphia,
    but were nonetheless of good
    quality. The first Dahlonega coins
    to be assayed in February 1839
    met the legal requirements.
PLACER MINING
          DEPOSIT MINING
                  OR

          PLACER MINING
       Refers to gold that has
       washed down from the
       hillsides and settled
       along mountain
       streams. At first,
       miners found gold easily
       by dredging the rivers
       and looking for gold
       along the riverbanks.
    GEORGIA LAND LOTTERY




This is an engraving of the Georgia land lottery, circa 1830s
CHIEF VANN HOUSE

            Called the "Showplace
            of the Cherokee
            Nation", this two-story
            classic brick mansion
            was built by Chief
            James Vann in 1804.
            Decorated with
            beautiful Cherokee
            hand carvings done in
            natural colors of blue,
            red, green and yellow,
            the home features a
            cantilevered stairway
            and many fine antiques.
       REFERENCE SOURCE

Williams, David. The Georgia Gold
 Rush: Twenty-Niners, Cherokees, and
 Gold Fever (Columbia: University of
 South Carolina Press, 1993).